Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs


.... of course, but we are interested in 1477, which had a reigning Bentivoglio system.

Nathaniel ....
you seem to say, that "tarot seems to have spread to Piedmont from Bologna somewhere around the mid-15th century" didn't present a typo, but your interest doesn't go so far, that you can tell us, where you presented the evidence for it.

Here is an older post of you, where you again repeat your strange argument ...
My hypothesis is that tarot arrived in Piedmont in the mid-15th century, directly from Bologna, brought by Bolognese merchants plying their trade on the route to France.

Which leaves plenty of time for tarot (the game and the deck) to spread onward into France in a Bolognese/Piedmontese form...

...and plenty of time for the French to then become greatly influenced by the Lombard tradition later, supplanting almost-but-not-quite all features of the earlier Bolognese-style game and deck...

...and then for the French cardmakers to gain such dominance over the Piedmontese market that we find Piscina using an essentially French, largely Lombard-style deck (probably a lot like Viéville's) by 1565.

There is substantial historical evidence to indicate that every one of these three steps occurred.
Here you mix also 1565 and c. 1450 (well, there is no better mid of 15th century) and you have Tarot spread as an avalanche from Bologna to Piedmont and we poor researchers are happy enough to have a first "Trionfi" card note in 1440 and few others between 1440 and 1450 ....and as far I remember, there is one note from Bologna and none of Piedmont.
The state of Trionfi card production between 1450-1465 is much better, but for the production in Bologna we have only one in 1459 and for Piedmont I remember nothing.
For the Tarot card production we have, that Tarot cards didn't exist under this name in mid of 15th century.

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs


We've to gather a few dates around the date of the Bolognese document, which was 21st of June 1477.


Italian politic in 15th century was generally difficult to understand.

The relations Ferrara-Milan seem to have been more or less friendly, as long Francesco Sforza lived. When Francesco Sforza died (March 1466), a war occurred ... ... fought on July 25, 1467
On the one side were 14,000 infantry and cavalry led by Bartolomeo Colleoni in theory fighting for Venice (but Colleoni had his personal agenda), in coalition with Borso d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara (represented by his half-brother Ercole I d'Este) and the Lords of Pesaro, Forlì, and some renegade families of Florence.
On the other side was an army of 13,000 soldiers in the service of Florence, allied with Galeazzo Maria Sforza (ruler of the Duchy of Milan), King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Giovanni II Bentivoglio (ruler of Bologna). The army was led by a Federico da Montefeltro.
see also: ... 68&f=false
Peace was arranged by Pope Paul in February / April 1468
But actually there was not really peace.

Life of Ercole d'Este automatic translation
https://condottieridiventura-it.transla ... r_pto=wapp
July 1469:
Piero dei Medici and Giovanni Ludovico Pio, with the connivance of the Duke of Milan and the King of Naples, weave a conspiracy to make him (Ercole) Duke of Ferrara in place of his brother Borso. He is also promised the staff of captain general of the league, a commission of 50,000 florins, the lordship of Ravenna, Forlì and Faenza. Ercole d'Este pretends to join the plot and informs his brother Borso; having had the proofs of the treaty, he arrested seven brothers of the Pio house, Andrea da Varegnana and the chancellor of the Duke of Milan Giovanni Antonio da Figino. He is released for reasons of expediency; the other prisoners are escorted to Bondeno.
August 1469
The conspirators are beheaded in the square of Ferrara. At the same time Ercole d'Este joins Galeotto della Mirandola and captures Giovanni Marco Pio , who was also taken to Ferrara on the charge of wanting to hand over Carpi to the Sforza; other members of that family are hanged in Carpaneto and Sassuolo. Ercole d'Este leaves Modena, goes to Molinella, Bondeno and Ravenna in command of the Venetian broken lances.
September 1469. Ercole fighting for Venice and Rimini
Ercole was sent by the Venetians with 8 squads of horses and 2000 infantrymen to help the popes defeated in Mulazzano by Roberto Malatesta and Federico da Montefeltro . The shipment is unsuccessful. Despite this, his conduct is renewed.
Borso becomes sick in July 1471. Borso d'Este dies at 20th August 1471.
August1471: Ercole becomes Duke of Ferrara without finding any resistance: there are only movements of troops in the various neighboring states. The soul of the brothers is ingratiated with, through the confirmation of the lieutenancy of Reggio Emilia in Sigismondo and the gift of the Schifanoia palace (with 17,000 Marquis lire of income in Polesine and the estates of Montesanto, Casaglia and Sassuolo) to the other brother Alberto . Conversely, many partisans of Niccolò d'Este were killed by his troops in the streets of Ferrara; the rival is considered rebellious.
November 1471
He has Giovanni Francesco da Mantova, chamberlain of Niccolò d'Este beheaded and hanged, and Giovanni Costabili who attempted to enter Stellata. He removes Francesco d'Este, Leonello's other son, from Ferrara and tries to get rid of his rival by bribing a cook in Mantua who has the task of poisoning him.
Ercole d'Este married and got 3 children
Alfonso d'Este was born as first son of Ercole d'Este at 21st of July 1476 with 3 elder sisters: Lucrezia d'Este as a half-sister c. 1470, Isabello d'Este 1474 and Beatrice d'Este 1475.
Niccolo d'Este, son of Lionello d'Este, attempts to cause a rebellion in Ferrara against the duke Ercole. He is executed at 5th of September1476 and also a lot of his followers.

September 1476
Niccolò d'Este, with the help of the Marquis of Mantua, sends 700 infantrymen to the orders of the Paduan Francesco and Brunoro da Grompo. They sail on the Po on boats covered with mats, hay and straw and reach as far as Ferrara; they manage to penetrate Castel Tedaldo through a hole in the walls that the masons are putting in place. Niccolò d'Este, with part of the armed men, throws himself into the via di San Donato, arrives at the square and calls the people to revolt. The captain Gaspare da Rubiera locks himself up in the cathedral with the few infantrymen he has at his disposal. Even Sigismondo and Alberto d'Este, not knowing what to do, shut themselves up in the ducal palace; Ercole d'Este, which on that day is in Belriguardo, focuses on Argenta and strengthens itself in Lugo. He returns to Ferrara, when he is in possession of more detailed information on the number of insurgents; with his brother Rinaldo he throws himself against them. Niccolò d'Este manages to escape initially; finally, he is captured by some peasants in the countryside near Bondeno; the two are taken prisoner by Grompo and 200 men. The executions begin: the first are the two Paduans, hanged at the corners of the Palazzo della Ragione; another 18 men are hanged from the window columns of the same building and five from the battlements of Castelvecchio. Niccolò d'Este is beheaded at night in the same castle and the same fate has Azzo d'Este. A priest is deprived of his dignity by the bishops of Ferrara and Comacchio and then hanged: the total number of those executed is 70 units. Another 280 men, who protest that they have joined the expedition without knowing the destination, are sentenced tocutting of a hand, the loss of an eye or other similar punishment: at the end they are delivered to various courtiers so that they can draw a ransom. Ercole d'Este suspects his brother Alberto of connivance with his opponents, strips him of the goods he previously gave him and confines him to Naples.
Galeazzo Maria Sforza was killed at 26th of December 1476 in Milan.
Charles the Bold of Burgundy died 5th of January 1477 in Nancy 10 days later in a battle. ... ?block=114
Charter: 1477-05-20__Modena
Abstract: Abmachung über eine geplante Heirat zwischen Anna Sforza und Alfonso d‘Este.
Abstract: Agreement on a proposed marriage between Anna Sforza and Alfonso d'Este.
Charter: 1478-04-10_Modena
Abstract: Bona und Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Herzöge von Mailand, schenken Castelnuovo und Tortona an Ercole I. d’Este.
Abstract: Bona and Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Dukes of Milan, donate Castelnuovo and Tortona to Ercole I d'Este.
Charter: 1478-09-12_Modena
Abstract: Bona und Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza erwählen Ercole d’Este zum Capitano der militärischen Streitkräfte.
Abstract: Bona and Gian Galeazzo Maria Sforza elect Ercole d'Este as captain of the military forces.

Translation from ... XV_secolo)
Lucrezia d'Este
She was the illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Ferrara Ercole I d'Este, born from his relationship with Ludovica Condolmieri [1], a young woman from a noble family who fell into low fortune, [2] daughter of Giorgio Condolmieri. [3]
Despite her illegitimate birth, Lucrezia grew up in the Este ducal court like the legitimate children of her father; she was much loved by the latter and even by the Duchess Eleonora his wife.
Medals of the Este brothers in comparison: Isabella, Alfonso, Ferrante, Ippolito and Sigismondo had inherited the typical Este nose of her father; Beatrice the slightly upward one of her mother. Moreover, all were dark, except Ferrante, Sigismondo, Lorenzo and Lucrezia, who had recovered, as it seems, the traditional blond of the Este.
The year of her birth remains uncertain, however, to be placed between 1470 and 1472 for the following reasons:
In 1472 Ercole d'Este sent his betrothed Eleonora as a gift of his own portrait with her illegitimate daughter Lucrezia, who therefore must have already been born and old enough to be portrayed with her father.
In March 1478 Giovanni II Bentivoglio asked Lucrezia to marry her eldest son Annibale, Ercole accepted his proposal and fixed the wedding between the two young people within six years, "because the husband and wife are Zovenites. six years to this then they are more open to copularse et darse in le carne ". Since the legal age for consummating the marriage was at the time fourteen or at most thirteen years, Lucrezia in 1478 must have been about seven or eight years old.
The Genealogy of the Principi d'Este, illuminated around 1474-1479, shows a Lucrezia as a child.
The birth of Lucrezia is not mentioned in any of the various Ferrara citizen chronicles, almost all of which do not recount events prior to 1471, the year of Ercole d'Este's ducal appointment. Not even the most detailed chronicler, Ugo Caleffini, mentions her birth, as she did in 1478 for that of her stepbrother Giulio, another illegitimate son of Duke Ercole.
Already in December 1478 the very young Annibale Bentivoglio, who was ten years old, went to Ferrara to meet his future bride. Both children were described as beautiful by chroniclers.
Annibale Bentivoglio (the young man on the right) portrayed with his father Giovanni (on the left) in Lorenzo Costa's Triumph of Fame, Bentivoglio Chapel.
The wedding, however, was postponed for another two years, to January 28, 1487. The groom went again to Ferrara with numerous boats to pick up the bride, who was then joined in Bologna by her father for the celebrations, during which a memorable banquet was held. and a joust in which famous leaders such as Gaspare Sanseverino and Francesco Gonzaga also participated.
Lucretia and Annibale got very much children.

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

Robert da San Severino .... automatic translation
https://condottieridiventura-it.transla ... r_pto=wapp
January 1476 200 men-at-arms
He is a creditor for previous wages towards the Duke of Milan for the sum of 10,000 ducats.
June 1476
Due to conflicts with the Duke of Milan, he moved permanently to Bologna. He is in Modena for the celebrations given in honor of Ercole d'Este . In the same days his companies are mobilized in Romagna due to a principle of revolt in Genoa.
July 1476
He meets in Pavia with Galeazzo Maria Sforza. His men receive their wages.
September/October 1476 Milan Burgundy with 228 men-at-arms Piedmont
He moves towards Piedmont at the head of 10 teams of horses, plus one of crossbowmen on horseback . In the march he raises two banners, his own and that of the Florentines; a third is given to him by the Duke of Milan representing a lion. He fights the troops of the regent of the duchy of Savoy commanded by Filippo di Bresse and those of the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold. He crosses the Sesia with 3000 horses, advances as far as Asigliano Vercellese; sack Santhià and, with Giovanni Conti , besieges Michele di Piemonte in San Germano Vercellese , who is locked up there with two sons and 900 infantrymen. On the occasion, he has 228 men-at-arms. After five days of intense artillery fire two vigorous assaults are repelled; San Severino asks for surrender and when he refuses, the bombing is renewed. The inhabitants surrender to pacts. Michele di Piemonte is captured with his children. He is joined at the field by Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Then he leaves Santhià, touches Moncrivello and, always connected with Giovanni Conti moves against Filippo di Bresse. He plunders the territory of Vercelli.
November 1476 Piedmont
He is signposted near Turin. He assists with the Duke of Milan at the review of the men-at-arms of his companies.
December 1476 Lombardy
With the killing in Milan in the church of Santo Stefano di Galeazzo, Sforza Maria quickly returned to Lombardy. He is called to be part of the ducal council. With Giovanni Bentivoglio he presides over the citadel of Pavia and the park of Mirabello.

January 1477 Escaped Genoa Liguria and Lombardy
He was sent to Genoa with the companies of Giovanni Bentivoglio and Girolamo Riario on hearing the news of the rebellion of the exiles led by Giovanni Battista Guarco and Paolo Fregoso. In the meantime, he makes his requests for him to the regents of the duchy. He asks Chancellor Cicco Simonetta for conduct and a salary equal to those enjoyed by Federico da Montefeltro . With the negative answer he favors the brothers of the deceased duke, Sforza Maria and Ludovico against the Duchess Bona of Savoy and Simonetta himself.
February 1477 Lombardy and Emilia
At the beginning of the month with the two Sforza brothers he instructs the assassin Ettore Vimercati to kill Cicco Simonetta in the latter's rooms located in the Castello Sforzesco. The chancellor escapes the attack following the warning of his own spies. In the plan of the conspirators, revealed under torture by Vimercati, the castle of Sartirana Lomellina, a fief of Simonetta himself, should have gone to Sforza Secondo Sforza. In the same days Roberto da San Severino with Giovanni Pallavicini supported the party opposing the Rossi in Parma. At the end of the month, the leader attends the ceremony in Milan in which the brothers of the deceased duke are awarded an annual commission of 12,000 ducats each, a conduct of 100 men-at-arms and the keys to afortress .
March 1477 Milan Fieschi Fregoso Captain g.le Piedmont and Liguria
Genoa rebels at the hands of the Fieschis and the Fregosos following the release of Prospero Adorno from prison by Cicco Simonetta. The San Severino moves against the city at the head of 10,000 men (8000 commissioners, 1000 Langhe crossbowmen, 100 German and 200 Lombard gunmen, 500 horses). He reaches Serravalle Scrivia while Obietto Fieschi in Genoa continues to besiege the ducal governor Il Castelletto.
April 1477 Liguria
He sent Prospero Adorno with 30 spears and Gian Giacomo da Trivulzio with 2500 infantrymen in the vanguard to push the partisans of the Adorno and Spinola to unite with the Sforza. Reached in this way by other 2000 men in Busalla, he assaults his opponents. He crosses a stream and attacks the outposts of his opponents at dawn: the Milanese are repelled by a sortie of the Genoese. The San Severino makes the men-at-arms get off their mounts and orders that the Genoese shelters be demolished with axes and ronche; at the same time the latter are attacked from behind by the defenders of the Castelletto under the orders of Carlo Adorno. With the occupation of the city Prospero Adorno was elected governor; San Severino also enters with the brothers Ludovico and Ottaviano Sforza. Soon the fortresses of Savignone and Montage, which belong to the Fieschi, also surrendered; Obietto Fieschi gathers 5000 peasants to which the inhabitants of Val Polcevera are added, led by Giovanni Battista Guarco. The San Severino holds the Guarco with false negotiations for which it has time to disperse the militias of Fieschi. Obietto Fieschi thus had to retire to the nearby mountains with some losses: peace between the parties followed shortly after.

May/July 1477 Lombardy Piedmont France
After this success, he joined forces with Ludovico and Ottaviano Sforza to change the government of Milan: within the overall framework of the alliances, the division envisages the lordship of Genoa for Obietto Fieschi and that of Parma for Roberto da San Severino. Chancellor Cicco Simonetta is informed of the plot and has Donato del Conte arrestedone of the main protagonists of the conspiracy. At the news Roberto da San Severino leaves his palace; he rides on horseback with Sforza maria Sforza, Duke of Bari, and Ludovico Sforza. He tries to induce Giovanni Borromeo and Pietro Pusterla to take up arms too: they do not follow him. he had his partisans armed, while the Duke of Bari took over Porta Tosa. He calls the people to revolt in vain. Ludovico Sforza opposes the plan to unleash the inhabitants to plunder the treasury and the public granary. Eventually the Duchess Bona di Savoia manages to divide the conspirators: as a result each one doubts the loyalty of the other conspirators and all are forced to flee. Ottaviano Sforza drowns in the Adda while he tries to escape; Sforza Maria and Ludovico Sforza instead go into exile. Roberto from San Severino, chased by the ducals, he comes out with 200 of his veterans from Porta Vercellina. He crosses the Ticino at Boffalora ecuts the bridge behind him. It connects with Obietto Fieschi. Most of the men escorting him are captured. In July he takes refuge in the lands of Giovanni Francesco di Cocconato, whom he makes believe he has the task of chasing Borella da Caravaggio, who, on the contrary, is hunting him down on the orders of the Duchess of Milan. The latter has no ducal mandate with him so his words are not believed by Cocconato. The San Severino thus has the opportunity to take refuge with Scarampo Scarampi in Asti, where he is given a safe conduct for four months and twenty days. In vain the Duchess of Milan asked for his extradition. In the same month he continued his journey to France with the escort of 25 Savoy archers who were provided to him by the Duke of Orleans. In Milan, meanwhile, he was sentenced to be beheaded in absentia and his assets were confiscated in favor of the Marquis Ercole d'Este (Castelnuovo Scrivia and his Milanese palace). Lorenzo dei Medici also warns him not to attempt a header.

Sforza Maria, a brother of Galeazzo Maria Sforza .... automatic translation
https://it-m-wikipedia-org.translate.go ... r_pto=wapp
In the autumn of 1476, together with his brother Ludovico known as il Moro, to whom he was very attached, Sforza Maria left for France, either by his own will (as some sources assert, including official declarations) or having both been exiled by the duke Galeazzo Maria, who allegedly suspected some conspiracy against himself. A few months later, on December 26, 1476 , Galeazzo Maria died murdered at the doors of a church at the hands of some conspirators. Upon receiving the news of his death, the two brothers hurried back to Milan.
Galeazzo was succeeded by his infant son, Gian Galeazzo , under the regency of his widow Bona di Savoia . Thus began a struggle for power that saw Sforza Maria and her brothers on the one hand and Bona and the powerful secretary Cicco Simonetta on the other. The Sforza brothers organized themselves militarily relying on the condottiere Roberto di San Severino , nephew of Francesco Sforza, but the sister-in-law Bona and her son had the support of the people on their side.
Defeated, all Sforza brothers (except Filippo who had not taken part in the struggle), were sentenced to exile. Only the younger Ottaviano Maria Sforza attempted an escape but he drowned in the waters of the Adda , in that danger in flood. After taking the road to exile, the three brothers stopped for a few days in Ferrara, guests of Duke Ercole I d'Este in Palazzo Schifanoia. Noting this brief visit, with these few words the chronicler from Ferrara Girolamo Ferrarini described Sforza Maria: "the first is the Duke of Bari, who is homo groso et very graso", in stark contrast to the other brother Ludovico, who was instead "of aspecto signorille et bello, licet is brown in the face".
Cicco Simonetta
In 1476, Galeazzo was assassinated and was succeeded by his 7-year-old son Gian Galeazzo. His tutor was his mother, Bona of Savoy. In this period of unrest, Simonetta's diplomatic activity was intense. He maneuvered to maintain stability in the Milanese state during the endemic conflicts between Guelphs, Ghibellines and the various wars and interstate alliances.
The next year he became ducal secretary, with the powers of a prime minister. Simonetta's power provoked the hatred of Ludovico il Moro (1452–1508), one of the younger brothers of Galeazzo, who plotted to seize the duchy. The main obstacle to his project was the presence of Simonetta in the city government. After many personal vicissitudes, Ludovico managed to gain the confidence of the duchess and convinced her to arrest Simonetta.
He was accused falsely of treason, imprisoned, and tortured in Pavia. His house and assets were pillaged, and he was beheaded in the tower of the castle. His body was buried in the cloister of Sant’Apollinare, outside the Milan city walls, to mark the end of his influence in the Milanese politics.
Bona of Savoy
Bona's husband was assassinated, on 26 December 1476 at the age of 32 by three young noblemen on the porch of the cathedral church of San Stefano in Milan. Galeazzo was succeeded after his 10-year reign by his 7-year-old son Gian Galeazzo Sforza (1469–1494). Bona relied on the enlightened competence of the ducal secretary Cicco Simonetta and was proclaimed regent on 9 January 1477 in the name of her son. Her position, which was strengthened by the able Simonetta, was however contested by her brothers-in-law, eager to control the will of the young duke.
These (among whom the ambitious Sforza Maria stood out) tried in May 1477 to oust Bona and Simonetta from the tutelage of Gian Galeazzo Maria, but Simonetta managed to precede and exile them (25 May). The revenge of the brothers-in-law, however, was not long in coming: helped by the leader Roberto Sanseverino, the young Sforza set up an army that invaded the Duchy, conquering Genoa and Tortona between 1478 and 1479. To facilitate their exploits was also the progressive fall from grace of Simonetta before the eyes of Bona. The latter, meanwhile, had embarked on a romantic relationship with one of her waiters from Ferrara, Antonio Tassino. It is not clear when the man became her lover, but after the death of Galeazzo Maria quickly acquired great power and enormous influence over Bona, thus becoming a personal enemy of Cicco.[1]
After the death of Sforza Maria, perhaps poisoned by Bona herself and Simonetta, Antonio Tassino persuaded his lover to grant his other brother-in-law, Ludovico, the return to Milan, in the hope that this would be enough to free him from the uncomfortable presence of Cicco.
Bona accepted his request and on September 8 reconciled with his brother-in-law, effectively condemning the faithful Cicco Simonetta to the death penalty.