surgite ad judicium

On the Visconti di Modrone / Cary-Yale Judgment trump, the inscription “Surgite ad Judicium” (“arise to be judged”) appears.

I tried without success to trace the origin of this sentence. It derives from a longer passage: “Surgite mortui, venite ad judicium” (arise ye dead and come to judgment) that has been attributed to St. Jerome, for instance in an apocalyptic text by Jacobus de Benevento (De praeambuli ad judicium). But I could not find this sentence in Jerome's works.

The sentence occurs in St. Thomas Aquinas' Commentary on St. Paul's first letter to the Thessalonians:
Et in voce eius corporali, vel spirituali erit resurrectio. Io. V, 28: audient vocem filii Dei, scilicet: surgite, mortui, et venite ad iudicium, et illi voci corporali obedient.
And the resurrection shall be through Christ’s voice, corporeal or spiritual. “(They) shall hear the voice of the son of God” (Jn. 5:28); in other words, the dead shall rise and come to judgment, and they shall obey the bodily voice.

A while ago, Ross posted a great XVIII century engraving with the same caption.

I also found this beautiful engraving at the Bodleyan Library, which includes Death, the Devil, Angels with the trumpets of Judgement and the World (under the feet of Christ). Apparently, it was an illustration for “The book of life and death” (“Liber mortis and vite”). I have been unable to find any information about this text.
bod2.jpg bod2.jpg Viewed 10513 times 142.69 KiB

Re: surgite ad judicium

Thank you very much, Ross!

I see that Bernardino's passage is similar to a passage by Aldobrandino Cavalcanti (1217-1279). Both authors attribute the sentence to Jerome, but indeed only Bernardino orders the words in the way we read on the trump!
Aldobrandino wrote:Hieronymus: sive comedam sive bibam, illa vox in auribus meis semper videtur sonare: surgite mortui, venite ad judicium.
Jerome: Whether I eat or drink, that voice always seems to sound in my hears: arise ye dead and come to judgment.

Bernardino wrote:O quam prope aestimabat tempus iudicii Hieronym. Cum dicebat, sive bibam aut comedam, aut aliquid faciam: semper mihi in auribus sonare videtur ista vox. O vos mortui surgite ad iudicium, et occurrite ad iudicium salvatori.
How rightly Jerome considered the time of judgment. When he said, whether I drink or eat, or anything I do, this voice always seems to sound in my hears: o you dead arise to judgment, and come to the judgment of the savior.

Re: surgite ad judicium

Thank you Marco and Ross - nice research.

Any idea as to why Bernardino, aside from being the latest in time, would have been quoted in a medium he preached against? I've seen references to his presence at the Council of Florence and if the original deck was created there then perhaps it was just a pre-emptive attempt to placate him and his followers (especially if in additon to the Judgement card the theological virtues were present in the deck as well).

Speaking of text on CY cards, I thought the Hope card's old man's robe, lying on the ground beneath Hope, bears the words Juda traditor, (Judas the traitor)? But zooming in all the way on Yale's webpage shows no signs of text - is it considered rubbed off now or am I thinking of a different card? Link to the Hope card on Yale's webpage:
CY Hope's "traitor" Hope CY - noose about king.jpg CY Hope's "traitor" Viewed 10483 times 28.05 KiB
Thanks for any help or redirection here,

Edit: found this: "Parravicino, in Burlington Magazine (1903) [actually have this article somewhere - will have to dredge it up] claimed to have seen the legend Juda Traditor on the purple garment of the figure at the bottom of the Hope Card in the Cary-Yale deck. However, the inscription on the Hope card is now illegible. From his observation, Parravicion concluded that the Hope card probably 'corresponds with the twelfth tarot of the man hanged.' "

Re: surgite ad judicium

Re: Jerome - the Regula Monachorum (Monk's Rule) PL:30.417 (pseudo-Jerome) ? "Surgite, mortui, et venite ad judicium."

CAPUT XXX. De consideratione extremi diei iudicii.

(PL 30 0416D) CAPUT XXX. De consideratione extremi diei iudicii.

Itaque, charissimae dominae, cum Apostolo arbitremini vos in hoc saeculo stercora, et mundi purgamenta: ut sponso vestro placere possitis. (0417A) Nihil ad vos de pompis saeculi attinet: quae abrenuntiavistis in baptismate mundo, diabolo, et pompis eorum: quod et postmodum confirmastis sub pollicitatione iuramenti, in vestrae religionis ingressu. Nullus umquam inter vos sermo habeatur de nobilitatibus generis, de prosapia carnis. Sit aequalis in Dei obsequio, filia regis, sive rustici. Omnes simul nobilitatem, et dignitatem unam habetis ex sponso. Exeatis continue extra castra cum Christo: ut cum Christo crucifigamini mundo et vitiis, portantes cum ipso improperia: et amore eius, officiorum domus labor dulcis appareat.

Non disputetur de maioritate officiorum, sed de devotione et affectu implorandorum. Numquam murmur, numquam verborum turpium, numquam litium sonitus, inter mortuas saeculi sonent. (0417B) Sepulta cadavera numquam inter se iurgia peragunt in sepulcris, numquam blasphemant, numquam contendunt: sic et vos, charissimae, sopitae somno quietis et pacis exspectetis sponsum et iudicem vestrum: exspectetis magnum et terribilem diem iudicii, diem videlicet irae, diem calamitatis: ubi coelum simul cum terra pavebit, coelorum omnes movebuntur virtutes, trementes erunt angeli simul cum sanctis omnibus: tunc singulorum vitae discutientur discrimina, et merita apparebunt. Semper tuba illa terribilis vestris perstrepat auribus: Surgite, mortui, venite ad iudicium. Ecce rex in manu potenti venit: a cunctis vult exigere rationem, certe de cogitationibus minimis, certe de levibus et otiosis verbis. (0417C) Si reddere de singulis rationem paratae non eritis, proiiciemini in carcerem exteriorem: audietis a iudice: Ite, maledictae, in ignem aeternum paratum diabolo et angelis eius.

Hieronymus Stridonensis Incertus, Regula monachorum, p1, CAPUT XXX 417

According to various sources the phrase was commonly quoted in popular literature and sermons, in Latin or the vernacular, of the 14th/15th centuries.

For example, in The Prick of Conscience by Richard Rolle:

Bot we suld mak us redy alle,
Als þe day of dome to morn suld falle,
And thynk ay on þat drede-ful dome,
Als þe haly man dyd, Saynt Ierome. 4668
Þat ay þar-on thoght, bathe nyght and days,
And þarfor þus in a boke he says:
Sine comedam, sine bibam, sine aliquid
aliud faciam, semper michi videtur illa 4672
tuba resonare in auribus meis, 'sur|
gite mortui, venite ad iudicium.'
He says "whether I ette or I drynk,
Or oght elles do, ay me thynk 4676
Þat þe beme þat blaw sal on domsday,
Sounes in myn eres, þat þus says ay:
'Ryse yhe þat er dede, and come
Un-to þe grete dredful dome'." 4680

Or as Chaucer has it (The Parson's Tale):
For as seint Ierome seith: 'at every tyme that me remembreth of the day of dome, I quake; / for whan I ete or drinke, or what-so that I do, evere semeth me that the trompe sowneth in myn ere: /160 riseth up, ye that been dede, and cometh to the Iugement.'
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: surgite ad judicium

Phaeded wrote: Speaking of text on CY cards, I thought the Hope card's old man's robe, lying on the ground beneath Hope, bears the words Juda traditor, (Judas the traitor)? But zooming in all the way on Yale's webpage shows no signs of text - is it considered rubbed off now or am I thinking of a different card? Link to the Hope card on Yale's webpage:
Hope CY - noose about king.jpg
I believe it was Cicognara (Memorie spettanti alla storia della calcografia, p. 155) who in 1831 first published an account of these cards, and observed the words "Juda Traditor" on the figure's robe -

With some contrast adjustments, from the same source you posted -

I can surely see where he got the "Juda" from, but "Traditor" is harder to convince myself of.

Re: surgite ad judicium

Phaeded wrote: Any idea as to why Bernardino, aside from being the latest in time, would have been quoted in a medium he preached against?
I don't imagine Bernardino is being quoted, I think a better explanation is that "Surgite ad judicium" was probably a common shortening of the phrase, and fits better on the card.

Re: surgite ad judicium

Thanks for both replies.

Can't believe you found the traces of text in gray of 'Juda' but there are definitely additional gray marks extending to the right, all the way across the back outline of the man - but it may as well be hebrew its so illegible (maybe six more letters - but not sure if there is room there for the required 8 for 'traditor').

Thanks again,

Re: surgite ad judicium

The sentence "surgite mortui et venite ad juditium" also appears in the Golden Legend or History of the Lombards (Legenda Aurea vulgo historia Lombardica dicta) by Jacobus de Varagine. (p.85 here).

At the beginning of that book (De Adventu Domini, About the Coming of the Lord, p.6) the XV Signs Before Final Judgment are listed. The same signs illustrated in the Bodley Library manuscript pointed out by Huck a while ago.