Re: Temperance

[this probably needs to be moved to the Sun card]
Mike H wrote:
That's excellent, about the bead necklace. I never noticed it on the PBM.
It was fresh on my mind – I had recently painted that card onto to a wood board for that bag toss game (aka “cornhole”; the other board was of course a lunar image).

Back to Marco’s point that coral was associated with the infant Christ; cross-check that with a post I made in that heated “Visconti marriage & betrothal commemorations” thread on 07 Feb 2013, 10:22 viewtopic.php?f=11&t=917&p=13644&hilit= ... ead#p13644:
[Kirsch, 1991: 74f, on Giangaleazzo's funeral eulogy in 1402:] “The Duke of Milan and Count of Virtues, whose ensign in life had been the rays of the sun, said Petrus [de Castelletto, Augustinian friar], would in death receive a radiant crown terminating in twelve stars, each representing one of his virtues; the crown, moreover, would be none other than that described in Revelations 12:1 as belonging to the Woman of the Apocalypse.”

Its not too much of a reach to see the PMB Sun card as Giangaleazzo’s post-mortem radiant solar crown (conjoined with a death mask that would rule out one of Sforza's children) held aloft by a putto, but now signifying the apotheosis of Filippo. There are not 12 rays (12 virtues no longer emphasized but rather the standard 7 virtues in the PMB deck) but the cruciform emphasis of the rays on the PMB sun mask suggest a Christ-like resurrection. Filippo’s funeral rites were not properly recognized by the Ambrosian Republic per Filelfo (Ode IV.1.32), belatedly rectified here in the PMB card.


Re: Temperance

Thanks for posting this, Huck. In my view the meaning is that Temperance extinguishes Concupiscence. She was represented with torch and cup as early as the 9th century, in a manuscript that I talked about and you then found a picture of, with the four cardinal virtues depicted. Here is Temperance from that ms.

Katzenellenbogen, talking about this ms., says (Allegories of the virtues and vices in mediaeval art p. 55):
Temperance holds a torch and pours out a jug full of water, for, as Julianus Pomerius says: "Ignem libidinosse voluptatis extinguit". Footnote: De vita contemplativa lib. III, cap. 19 (Migne P. L. 59, 502)
For more on this, including more pictures and my argument, building on Phaeded's earlier, for how, together with the medieval meaning of "stag", it clarifies the Alessandro Sforza Temperance card, see my post on the "Hermit" thread, at viewtopic.php?f=23&t=392&start=30#p14581.

If Temperance relates to any of the spheres of the elements, it seems to me most readily to be that of water. Temperance in tarot was usually not shown with a torch (although an important exception might be the Alessandro Sforza). The Demonio (demon), as it was called in the Western lists, would then be air, where demons lurked, according to Augustine and other ancient sources, and Fuoco, Fire, the sphere of fire. Death might be earth, where the body comes from and returns. This applies to the usual order of the elements, and to the Western order of trumps, as we know it from the 16th century from 1544 (Alciato) on.

I don't know of any explicit assigning of virtues to elements. Even if there is one written down someplace, there is then the question of how well it was known and whether it represents a convention or just someone's opinion. Also, I don't think we can just go by what is "logical", because there are too many possibilities.

Re: Temperance

Kwaw once found this picture:


It shows the sides of grave of the Pope Clement II in the Bamberger Dom. The sides show 4 cardinal virtues and a 5th motif (Aquarius ?), which looks as if connected to Temperantia. Kwaw himself dated the installation to c. 1240 and the German Wiki article confirms this with "mid 13th century". Pope Clement had died 1047, but the Basilica minor burnt twice in 11th and 12th century.

The webpage shows larger pictures.


The front looks this way ...


Re: Temperance

SteveM wrote:Did I?

Oh, yes I did:

Completely forgotten about that, didn't recognize it all -- that's what to many years on the booze does for you I suppose b-(
Yes ...occasionally I meet something of mine and wonder, that I shall have written it once ... luckily we have the search engines. Somehow we act like Temperance ... we pour the water of our activities into another box called computer with web access. Well, and then it's there and the other box looks empty. What's that a crazy world in 2014 and even nobody of our closer ancestors could have imagined that. And even oneself has the problem to keep some overview.

Re: Temperance

I don't know, what the additional 5th figure shall mean, close to Temperantia and also connected to water. ... sfluss.jpg

The title says: "Paradiesfluss" = "river of paradise"

The other 3 virtues:
Justice ... ... stitia.jpg
Fortitudo ... ... titudo.jpg
Prudentia ... ... dentia.jpg


One might interpret, that the virtues Justice and Temperantia have a connection to the paradise river, but not Fortitudo and Prudentia, which are fighting with wild animals (or devils).


Once, 3 years ago, I had explored the Fränkische Losbuch, calling the article "the Pope and the Donkey". The "Bamberger Dom" and the city of Bamberg are uin Franken, btw.

Inside the text was an attribution of 12 Zodiac signs to planets. From the planets were only used Mars, Mercury and Jupiter.

I analysed:
1. Old system: 3-4 seasons, 12 months

Mars = Winter 4 months, Scorpio till Aquarius
Mercury = Spring = 2 months, Pisces + Aries
Jupiter = Summer = 4 months, Taurus till Leo
Mercury = Autumn = 2 months, Virgo + Libra
4 seasons
... but that's a side path version, I would assume

I remembered then, that in my earlier Greek mythology studies I had read of a "3-seasons-model" of the Greek.

Here we would have 3 seasons, each with four months, but one season is parted in a spring/autumn period, taking the last winter month and first spring month and the last summer month and the first autumn month and this is given to mercury, the god with diplomatic function. The rest of the spring/summer months is given to the light and good Jupiter planet, and the rest of the 4 autum/winter months to the darlk and bad Mars planet,somehow a logical division, but different to our system nowadays.

In the web I captured this text ...


Civilization Or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology
Cheikh Anta Diop
Chicago Review Press, Apr 1, 1991 - History - 464 pages ... ce&f=false

Well, that's from Egypt and not from Greece, and the idea is likely about 3 not interrupted seasons as in the model of the Fränkische Losbuch above.

... a collection .. ... 20&f=false
... relates the Horae to the 3 seasons

Wiki article "Horae" gives no details in the question, but mentions the seasons spring-summer-autumn.
German wiki speaks not of specific times.
French wiki says ... "La mythologie grecque ne reconnut donc d'abord que trois Heures ou trois Saisons : le Printemps, l’Été et l'Hiver." So they know Spring, Summer and Winter.
Italian wiki states: "In origine erano tre e simboleggiavano il regolare scorrere del tempo nell'alterna vicenda delle stagioni (primavera, estate e autunno fusi insieme, inverno)", so there are spring, summer and autumn fused together and winter.

Apparently there are contradictions.


Re: Temperance


That's the Temperance from the Vievil Tarot. It has the Fama Sol inscription, the typical water containers, a crown on its head and a stick with wings at the end. Has anybody an idea, what the stick with wings is good for?

The following card is in the same Flemish tradition, but more than 100 years younger. The stick has changed, the wings look like those of butterflies.


Re: Temperance

Thank you.

Likely nobody in Europe and 1650 knew the word Kundalini, but caduceus (a symbol of peacemaking Herolds and diplomats) is a good idea, especially since 1648 peace had returned for many persons (Westfälischer Friede).
At least it has wings.
In my opinion it isn't impossible, that Vievil was a protestant. Adam C. de Hautot was the second cardmaker after Vievil, who produced this type of deck (1723-1748). About the cardmaker family Hautot Kaplan II p. 320 reports, that a member of the family "was evidently forced to emigrate from Rouen due to fluctuating and oppressive tax laws, and he is recorded as working in England in 1648." Dohoto Hautot returned to Rouen in 1648 (the year of peace in Münster and Osnabrück), cause Rouen was exempted of the French tax rules in this year and the family worked there as cardmakera till 1791.