GirolamoZorli wrote:Whow, Ross ! That's a big one ! I have now to re-think the early tarot development... and re-write a good deal of my conjectures. My firts reaction : back in 1440 tarots were produced in Florence and played in Rimini-Cesena court. In 1440 Florence was a wealthy republic, even if dominated by the commoner newcomer and banker Cosimo de' Medici. Tarots were produced out of the courts already. Giusti made a gift to an important person, so he had to offer something special. Was tarot already produced and played in the inns ? possibly.
.... :-) ... a finding of a 4 1/2 ducats Trionfi game (more than any of the Ferrarese prizes between 1442 and 1463) surely doesn't increase the probability for the existence of cheap decks at the same time.
If I take the ducat as 2.8 lire, then it's totally 12.6 Lire (I think, that this is a Ferrarese evaluation, but a Florentine ducat might have had a higher evaluation). Leonello pays in January 1442 his 20 Lira for 4 decks (so 5 for each, middle class deck in the later evalation) and the boy's deck in July 1442 takes 1/8th of this.
The prize ranges between the fantastic 1500 ducats of Filippo Maria Visconti (before 1425) and 40 ducats of the Gabella deck in Ferrara (1423) and 7 Florins (given as of the value of 14 Lira Bolognini) for "the VIII Imperatori cards" in 1423.
Well, I wrote in the Aeclectic Forum ...
Looks like a great finding ....
The reporting man was born in Anghiari and at Anghiari took place a battle at June 29, 1440, which is 2 1/2 months before the date of 16th September 1440 with the Trionfi cards.
http://www.anghiari.it/new/italiano/bat ... ghiari.asp
The battle became VERY famous and actually one doesn't know, why.
http://www.condottieridiventura.it/tabe ... a/1440.htm
Fiorentinipontifici: 8000 uomini. Durata: 4 ore. Scontro tra le opposte cavallerie pesanti; quella fiorentina, divisa in tre schiere, affronta a turno gli avversari. Dei viscontei sono fatti prigionieri 22 capisquadra, 400 connestabili, 1440 uomini di taglia e 3000 cavalli; i morti sono 70 (60 milanesi) ed i feriti 880 (400 fra i ducali). Sono pure catturati 1200 contadini (aspiranti saccheggiatori) che seguono le truppe di Niccolò Piccinino. I prigionieri sono rilasciati quasi subito, secondo i costumi del tempo.
Not many were killed. Condottieridiventura knows of "70", other voices (ironically) of "3" (who dropped from their horse and had a fatal accident)
A great number of prisoners, who were robbed and set free.
In 1439 had been the council of Ferrara ... it's said, that there were at least 3 great festivities. The Florentines learned to "celebrate" ... and this seems to be the begin of the Trionfi genre, which follwed then in great events during 15th century.
The victory of Anghiari a year later might have given another reason for a "great party". Perhaps the Florentines had learned, that one could win with propaganda about a victory more than with the battle itself. This party was so big, that it was still remembered in the time of Leonardo da Vinci (about 70 years later). The battle of Anghiari became a symbol.
When Alfonso of Aragon made his Trionfo in 1443, and a Florentine delegation participated, then the report of this festivity mentioned, that the Florence people had already much experience with triumphal celebrations (more than others).
Sigismondo Malatesta didn't take part at the battle ... but he changed from Milan side to Florentine side.
http://www.condottieridiventura.it/cond ... rescia.htm
In March 1440 he fought for Milan against Florence. In August 1440 he was engaged for Florence against Milan ... although he isn't in the region of Florence, but in the Romagna ... In September/October (at 16th of September is the Trionfi card action) condottieridiventura reports:
Occupa Bagnacavallo, Massa Lombarda ed altre terre dell’imolese; non può, o non vuole, impedire a Francesco Piccinino l’ingresso in Forlì. Danneggia molti villaggi e tenta di espugnare il capoluogo. Vista l'inanità dell'impresa, si sposta prima a Forlimpopoli con gli altri condottieri. A metà ottobre, i fiorentini prendono la strada di Capodicolle e della val di Savio: il Malatesta si ferma a San Vittore perché trattenuto dai fiumi in piena. Le milizie fiorentine proseguono per la Toscana; egli deve, invece, fermarsi per qualche giorno, in quanto non può trovare riparo a Cesena, dal momento che il fratello milita al soldo del duca di Milano. Rientra a Rimini.
The situation develops into a pause of war. Filippo Maria Visconti sends his daughter to the court of Ferrara in September/October 1440, where Bianca Maria stays till end of March 1441. Bianca Maria gets 14 painted objects at 1.1.1441, likely Trionfi cards, as a present for the guest from the side of Leonello. The painter is the later Trionfi card painter Sagramoro.
Further we have around this time, that a commission is given for illustrations to a Petrarca-Trionfi-edition from the side of Piero di Medici. This is oldest known note of this picture genre, which then was very often used first in Florence (especially for Cassoni) and later also elsewhere.
The commission went to the artist Matteo de Pasti, who in 1441 had been in Venice. The letter exchange 1441 is given as the first sign of Matteo de Pasti ... who had to leave Florence for unknown reason (he begs for an excuse in the letters). In later times Matteo had some relation to Sigismondo Malatesta. He got the commission to paint the Osmanic sultan in the mid 1440s, but was taken prisoner as a spy. Later he worked mainly as an medalist.
Further we have about Parisina's daughter Ginevra:
"8./9. Ginevra [by Parisina] *24.3.1419, twin; married 1433 Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, died (possibly killed by her husband) in October 1440; the news should have reached Ferrara in late October 1440 during Bianca Marias visit and should have influenced the mood of all persons present.
It was the 3rd marriage in short time between the houses of Este and Malatesta and all ended in a catastrophe: Parisina - Niccolo (1418), Margherita - Galeotto Roberto (1427 or little later), Ginevra - Sigismondo (1433).
Some art historians, suggesting a date between (1436 - 1438), believe, that she was painted by Pisanello on the famous picture "unknown Este princess".
The death of Ginevra in late 1440 occurred in a familiary situation, where all marriages of the generation of the Niccolo-children had ended in disaster (early death of one of the partners) - and that all after the familiary drama around Ugo and Parisina. Under these conditions Bianca Maria might have viewed on a possible marriage to Leonello with great scepticism. And she would have been right with it - Isotta's first marriage (1444) ended in the same year by murder, Leonello's marriage (1445) ended after 4 years and Beatrice had her first husband for only one year (1448). Isotta's second marriage was the first marriage which endured a longer distance of ca. 10 years.
It's unclear, if the murder of Ginevra is a true story ... but whatever it was, it happened one month after the Trionfi deck. Malatesta married then Francesco Sforza's daughter Polissena in October 1441 parallel to the marriage Bianca Maria Visconti - Francesco Sforza;the majo interest was then to have a little peace, but this phase didn't endure.
According the later attacks on Malatesta Polissena was also killed by her husband (1449).
Both murder stories might be true or just infamous political propaganda. to get Malatesta controlled.
We have no Trionfi card production note in the years 1443-1449, that's the major phenomenon. We have some dense "Trionfi notes of different character" (cards and others) between 1439-1443, but then at least for the cards a pause with a strong net of productions following after 1450.
We've had had further revolutionary new Trionfi card notes and it's my impression, that, although it was announced, it wasn't registered, and I occasionally ask myself, if things are really perceived, when I write about them.
There's a very dense playing card production after September 1447-1449 of a Puri family in Florence. That's a sensational finding. Between the contributing artists is "Lo Scheggia", an artist, whose works are paid in auctions with 100.000s of Dollars, Pounds and Euro
There's a record of 1453 Trionfi cards from Florence to Rome 1453.
There's a series of Trionfi card productions 1453-1458 involving the artist Filippo di Marco, which is a new important Trionfi card pointer, comparable to Sagramoro in the number of his production.
There's a valuable new position to Minchiate and the Rosenwald Tarocchi
A Tarocchi note at 1630 in Sicily was found.
All this dropped in the last months in the Black Sea of ignorance in current Tarot History Forums and found no reaction.
In reality it will be difficult to take anybody serious, who didn't take up these new information.
All this and some other are found at
Also I remember a new careful dating for Tarot de Paris in 1559.