new early "Tarocco" note

1
New early "Tarocco" note

It appears in Baldus, Liber Sextus, by Merlinus Cocai alias Teofilo Folengo. I don't know, when Liber Sixtus was written, but this might be well before 1520 (but naturally there are a lot of "ifs" ...).
It's clearly written in playing card context. At another place (the "Zanitonella" text) the word "Taroch" is used as part of the glossary.

Both was found in this text version ...
... I don't know how secure this might be
http://www.archive.org/stream/lemaccher ... g33982.txt

**************************************

Baldus, Liber Sextus ... "tarocco"
470 Dicite: per vostramque fidem, mihi dicite verum,
de quantis toto ladris piccantur in orbe,
de quantis linguis, aut occhis, de quot orecchis
beccariae hominum faciuntur iure malorum,
nunquid in ipsorum numero muliercula sola est?
475 Aut si sunt aliquae, naso numerare potestis.
Foemina non, coelum renegans, chiamansque diablum,
noctibus integris stat ludens perdere scudos,
perdere mantellum, camisam, perdere bragam,
sive sbaraino, seu cricca, sive tarocco.
480 Foemina non habitat boscos, non spoiat, amazzat
ladra viandantes, non praticat illa palazzum
peiorem boschis, ut robbet, strazzet, abarret,
scortighet orphanulos nudos, viduasque tapinas.
Foemina non cibat osellazzos carne rapaces,
485 non suppis braccos, non blanco pane levreros;
non quando sentit portam chioccare famatum,
strazzosumque inopem, panisque rogare tochellum:
--Vade--ait,--in pacem, nec voias frangere portam.--
Further I found games here ...

Lib. XXII, l'interrogatorio di Baldo e compagni dinanzi a Culfora
(cfr. lib. XXIV, v. 144 sgg.):
Culphora contremuit corpus tam grande Fracassi.
Interpellat eum: qui sit, quo sanguine natus.
Fracassus secum rodens in corde cathenam
respondit curvans laccam sermone trementi:
--Nomine Sturlonus dicor, sum natus ab uno
nomine Burdacho nato de stirpe gigantum,
qui schazzare Iovem voluerunt de paradiso.--
Culphora plus tremuit talem sentendo parolam.
Postea fatezzas Baldi vultumque galantum
mirabat, latosque humeros, strictumque fiancum.
Cui brancata quasi sub rete Cupidinis inquit:
--Tu quoque qui sensum te prodis habere superbum
da prolem nomenque tuum genus atque tuorum.--
Baldus respondet:--Calicuttus nomine dicor,
natus adulterio monachae fratrisque Stopini.
Me conceperunt gesiae devote sub ara,
postea Plutoni de me fecere sigillum.
Sum devotus ei, donavi corpus et almam.
Ergo meum regem dominumque catare procazzo,
me mare, me tellus, quanto magis astra refudant.
Si non esse dei potero, volo, sumque diabli.--
Has desperati stupuit regina parolas.
Mox qui sint alii semper magis aspra dimandat.
Cingar ait:--Postquam scire optas, o alta Maëstas,
[Maëstas, surripit «i» causa galantariae.]
qui sumus et qualis nostra est generatio, dicam.
Sum scarpacinus, scio repezzare zavattas.
Sed quia disfaciunt dates, tavoleria, cartae,
ac reliqui ludi poveros, mea cuncta zugavi:
martellum, gucchias, lisnam, sparamenta, didalum,
formas et secchiam, spaghi quoque fila, tacones,
post haec ammisi ludendo sponte cerebrum.
Quapropter stygias eo desperatus ad oras.
... and games in the text of the Zanitonella
Dic, Toni, tandem mihi iam rasonem,
ut quid et quare tot in angonais,
215 et tot in rerum straniis bagordis
Mantua saltat?
TO. Mantua est totis melior citadis,
Mantuae gens est bona, liberalis,
Mantuam semper squaquarare sentis,
220 barba Pedrale.
Ista primaios genuit poëtas,
alter in Phoebi beveratur amne,
alterum pleno gregus imbriagat
saepe bigunzo.
225 Hinc cavallorum bona razza nascit,
terra vaccarum nat in amne lactis,
ricca formento, pegoris, olivis,
piscibus, uvis.
Semper in ballis godit et moreschis,
230 hic sonant pivas, cifolos, tiorbas,
hic ve sampognas, pifaros, rubebas,
cagaque cimblos.
Factio non hic gibelina plus quam
ghelfa guardatur, sed amant vicissim,
235 prandeunt, coenant, caciant, osellant,
arma manezant.
Non ibi cartae, tavolerus, atque
non ibi tric trac, crica, sbarainus,
cum quibus giochis iuvenes sedendo
240 corpora guastant.
GA. Ut super montem male barca possat,
utque barozzus male sulcat undas,
hoc facit stessum giovenezza stando
ludere cartis.
245 TO. Mantuae zugant cugolis rodondis,
quas vocat Bressae populus borellas,
quando per cerchi spatium balotta
itque reditque.
Gonfias ballas veluti vesigas
250 solis ad razzos agitant scanellis,
hic batit primus, rebatit secundus,
cazza notatur.
Giostra, bagordus, scrimiaeque ludus
sunt iuventutis godimenta nostrae:
255 vos simelmenter iuvenes de Bressa
statis alegri.
and this is accompanied by the glossary note 238: "238 non ibi taroch, crica"

I found another note about "ludere cartis", which possibly is not very relevant ... in Baldus, Liber Octavus
695 Est Deus his venter, broda Lex, Scriptura botazzus.
Iamque polita nimis sub descum membra cadebant,
nulla est ulterius vaccarum forma Chiarinae,
ossa iacent, quae intacta canes gattaeque relinquunt.
Iamque comenzarant pingues leccare taeros,
700 non aliter fratres sua vasa lavare solebant.
Frigore zelatum lardum pars grafiat ungis,
pars manicis tunicae fregat, nettatque scudellas.
Post epulas tandem consurgunt ludere cartis,
post cartas scrimmant, post scrimmas saepe merendant.
705 Sic ducit vitam gens haec devota beatam.
Bertezant illos, qui celso in pulpite braiant,
qui soterant mortos, ieiunant, seque flagellant,
vadunt excalci, studiant et mille fusaras
scribunt in libris pro Scotto, contraque Scottum.
****************

Macaronea Fun

Further I found this name: Buttadeus Gratarogna ... my researcher instincts said, that this is NOT a real name, and I guess, this opinion might be reliable. I think, that this is Macaronea Fun.
My curiosity was already raised by Grifalcone (Gri-Falcone) in the Triperuno, when I found, that a figure with similar name was used in the Baldo, "Griffarosto" in the role of an innkeeper in hell.
A figure Buttadeus Gratarogna looks then suspicious, who honors an imaginary author Merlinus Cocai, who appears as Magician in his own book ... that's indeed strange.

I think, that all the names in this part might be fun ...
EIUSDEM MAGISTRI ACQUARII LODOLAE AD ILLUSTREM DOMINUM PASARINUM
SCARDUARUM COMITEM, DE VITA ET MORIBUS MERLINI COCAII ET DE INVENTIONE
HUIUS VOLUMINIS.

Dudum, serenissime princeps, adeo meum imbalordasti cervellum, ut tibi
de catatione voluminis huius aliquid ispienare velim, quod de memoriae
cadastris quasi mattus cascarim. Quam ob rem ne tantum mihi amplius
tribuas impazzum, accipe rem, non quam orecchis aut naso audivi,
veruni his manibus pertoccavi. Iam pridem nosti quantum ego sim in
curiosare mundum solicitus, diversasque rerum proprietates; et hoc
herbolattos, dentiumque cavatores, braghirorum conciatores
maximamenter condecet. Accidit nos aliquanti herbolatti Armeniam
versus navigabamus causa retrovandi radices, herbas, lapides,
vermiculos et huiusmodi facendas ad conficiendam tiriacam
bisognatissimas. Erant nobiscum super eandem, medesimamque garavellam,
seu barcam intelligibilius dimandandam, magister Salvanellus
Boccatorta, magister Dimeldeus Zucconus, magister Ioannes Baricocola,
magister Buttadeus Gratarogna, et ego magister Acquarius Lodola. Erant
praeterea quatuor praticatissimi artis physicae giudei: Samuel
videlicet, Nabaioth, Helcana, Ruch. Isti omnes insimul aequoris
schenam traversando schavezzabamus. At pluribus exactis giornis,
ventorum contrariatio tanta surrexit, et pluviarum discrepantibus
ventositatarum fulminibus tanta fluctuatio nos accoiavit quod ad
quandam inhabitatam et inherbosam terram nostra tandem garavella se
nolendo inzappellavit. Ibi ergo nescio quo portu recepti, anxii,
stracchi, affamati, bagnati tandem desmontavimus in sabionigeram
littoris spiazam, et aliquanticulum repossati surreximus ad
investigandam loci proprietatem.
I found the near word "gratarolibus" in the opening of the Baldus
Baldus, LIBER PRIMUS

Non tantum menas, lacus o de Garda, bagordum,
quando cridant venti circum casamenta Catulli.
Sunt ibi costerae freschi, tenerique botiri
in quibus ad nubes fumant caldaria centum,
45 plena casoncellis, macaronibus atque foiadis.
Ipsae habitant Nymphae super alti montis aguzzum,
formaiumque tridant gratarolibus usque foratis.
Sollicitant altrae teneros componere gnoccos,
qui per formaium rigolant infrotta tridatum,
50 seque revoltantes de zuffo montis abassum
deventant veluti grosso ventramine buttae.
... and here, in book 22 (= 22)

Baldus, LIBER VIGESIMUS SECUNDUS
It fretolosa cohors, spronatque trotone serato
420 non miga zanettos, curtaltos, atque frisones,
sed pro, num dicam? quis credat? nempe cavalcant
quadrupedes ligni scannos, tripedesque scanellos,
fornari gramolas, descos, misasque farinae,
concas, telaros, conocchias, guindala, naspos,
425 cadregas, cassas, cophinos, lettiria, scragnas,
barrillos, secchias, gratarolas, mille novellas.
and as a glossary note to the Zanitonella ...
to line 394-96

spadolae, secchiae, gramolae, badili,
rocha cum fuso, gratarola, zappae,
mille pignattae
**********

The internal wordbook of the text gives then these explanations
_gratare_--grattare, star inoperoso

_gratarola, gratula, gratucchia_--grattugia
A "grattugia" is a tool in the kitchen ...

Image


.. but if a gratarola really innocently means grattarugia, I've my doubts.

A version of 1683 presents a Mr. "Buttadeus grata rogna"
http://books.google.de/books?id=iVZEAAA ... us&f=false
A version of 1521 also ...
http://books.google.de/books?id=HvM7AAA ... 22&f=false
but "Grata Rogna" seems to have been used only by Merlinus Cocai.
*************

Perhaps our friends with better Latin could say a little bit about this collection ...
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

2
Ha ... :-) ... after I found this ... a version of 1521
http://books.google.de/books?id=HvM7AAA ... navlinks_s


Image


... I recognized, that Andrea Vitali had already worked about it.
http://www.letarot.it/page.aspx?id=262&lng=ENG

We need better lists of these Tarot, Tarot etc. appearances, otherwise the work is done again and again.

Andrea translated the passage of the "Zanitonella". At least at this place he speaks not of the Baldo.
Tonello speaking:

Mantua is the best of all the cities, people of Mantua are good, liberal, you always feel that Mantua enjoys, uncle Pedrale.
It produces primary poets, spurs to the army the well prepared young people, and it is rich of wheat, sheep, olives, fishes, grapes.
It always enjoys in dances and Moorish, here the bagpipes resound, whistles, the panpipes, or pipes, rebecs, here harpsichords.
Here we don't mind the Ghibelline or Guelph tribe, but they are reciprocally loved, they have lunches, suppers, they practise the hunting and the bird catching, they recite poetries.
Here there are not cards, not game boards, here there are not tarots, cricca or Sbaraglino (5), games with which the young people, standing seated, ruin their bodies;
as a boat leaning badly above a mountain or a wagon that swims on the sea waves, in the same way seem the young people who sit playing cards.
In Mantua they play bowls, that people of Brescia call borelle, when the little ball within into an iron space (6), goes and comes;
under the warm sun they throw some clubs (7) flat balls as galls, the one beats - but the other one marks the hunting (8) -, the one beats.
Carousels, fencing, hunting, gymnastic exercises, are the merits of the youth of Mantua, as well as the one of Brescia, that became Mantua' sister
.

Cocai takes here a negative position against card playing. [Added: For more precision, I should have said, the speaker Tonelli a negative position against card playing.]

As far I see it, there are considerable differences between the 1521 version and the electronic version (from which I don't know, from when it is), which I first visited.
There, where 1521 was a Taroch, there isn't a Taroch in the electronic version.

The electronic version said ...
Factio non hic gibelina plus quam
ghelfa guardatur, sed amant vicissim,
235 prandeunt, coenant, caciant, osellant,
arma manezant.
Non ibi cartae, tavolerus, atque
non ibi tric trac, crica, sbarainus,
cum quibus giochis iuvenes sedendo
240 corpora guastant.
GA. Ut super montem male barca possat,
utque barozzus male sulcat undas,
hoc facit stessum giovenezza stando
ludere cartis.
... and as a glossary note it had: ""238 non ibi taroch, crica"" ... whoever wrote it, it looks like a redaction remark.
Perhaps the opinion about Taroch had changed later? [Added: After 1521?]

Andrea Vitali said to this point:
Zanitonella appeared in four phrasings in as many different times: in 1517 (called Paganini editing), in complete form in 1521 (Toscolanense editing), in 1535 (Cipadense editing) and finally in the 1552 posthumous edition (Vigaso Cocaio editing).
Well, it was my impression, that the text of the Zanitonella 1521 was much longer than the electronic version.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

3
An English prose translation of the line with "tarocco" is on p. 197 of Mullaney's edition, http://books.google.com/books?id=X5ms5s ... &q&f=false, along with the context on both sides. Click on "contents," then "Book V" and scroll down.) She translates it "trumps." At least it works for me (but from one country to the next, you never know,) There may be notes not included in Google Books. I'll go the library and look at the hard copy when I get a chance--and also check out the other references to Baldus, if I can find them.

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

4
mikeh wrote:An English prose translation of the line with "tarocco" is on p. 197 of Mullaney's edition, http://books.google.com/books?id=X5ms5s ... &q&f=false, along with the context on both sides. Click on "contents," then "Book V" and scroll down.) She translates it "trumps." At least it works for me (but from one country to the next, you never know,) There may be notes not included in Google Books. I'll go the library and look at the hard copy when I get a chance--and also check out the other references to Baldus, if I can find them.
Thanks, I add the translation passage:

Image


Image


But I spend a longer time with the text of 1521 and had difficulties to correlate it with the electronic version. I believe, there are greater changes between the both versions (and I didn't find the "Tarocco").
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

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I now have Mullaney's edition of Baldo in front of me. Her introduction is very helpful. I will give some quotes.. For some reason my scanner isn't working, or I'd do it that way. First, from pp. vii, viii, x, and xi.
Early in 1517 a beautiful book, entitled Liber macaronices, appeared in Venice, printed by Allessandro Paganini on broad pages in handsome cursive type similar to that used by Aldus Manutius (1). A prefatory epistle by an excitable herbalist, Aquario Lodala, tells a wild tale...After telling about the text's recovery, Aquario Ladona (the first of many fictive authorial constructs) launches into boundless praise for its author,...And even though the rescued tome has not been polished, examples from it are pitted directly against examples from the ancients. Vergil's "Arma virumque" opening, for instance is compared unfavorably to Merlin's proem, ... "A certain fantastic fantasy has come to me to sing with the fat Muses the tale of Baldo..."

In the 1521 Opus macaronicorum, the Baldus doubled to over 12,000 hexameters in length, and was illustrated by fifty-three handsome full-page woodcut prints. A plethora of peripheral materials was packed into denser pages. Two of these new pieces address language and metrics...However, most of the liminal material in the second edition is concerned not with linguistics or poetics, but rather with distancing the author from his text...
Google lets you read footnote 1. It says where you can see the 1517 edition online, Huck. It's in Gallica, she says.
It might be the second one down at http://gallica.bnf.fr/Search?ArianeWire ... &q=Folengo, but I'm not sure. No word search available. But since you've been rummaging through the 1521, maybe you'll recognize the relevant part.

Now I will summarize the part where Mullaney tells how Folengo distanced himself (on p. xi): this 1521 edition includes a series of letters between him and his editor, in which Folengo makes it appear that he asked Paganini not to go ahead with publication. However the editor is deluged with requests by numerous important people, culminating in a letter from Duke Federico himself. In footnote 9 (which Google lets you read), Mullaney notes that the Duke, then 20 years old, actually went along with the game and wrote such a letter. And well might Folengo be concerned: this new edition adds attacks on the Church that are much like some of Martin Luther'a (just then being being convicted of heresy).

Now I will skip ahead and quote one whole paragraph (p. xiv):
For five years (1525-1530, Teofilo Folengo lived outside the monastic sphere, tutoring in the household of Camillo Orsini (Captain General of the Republic of Venice), who was living near Rome during the sack of 1527. Then Teofilo and his brother Giambattista made peace with the Benedictine order and underwent a three-hear hermitage as prepreation for re-entry. Teofilo turned to sacred literature, beginning with La Umanita del Figliuolo di Dio (1533) in octaves, continuing with various works in Latin, and ending with the unfinished Palermitana in terza rima on biblical themes, written during a sojourn in Sicily (1538-1542). (14) Teofilo returned to Northern Italy and died in the monastery of Campese near Bassano on December 9, 1544, but not before leaving us a third and a fourth version of the Baldus. The posthumous edition of 1552 furnishes the text for this I Tatti Renaissance Library edition.
We are not informed whether Orsini's household was with him near Rome or in Venice.

This posthumous edition removed "all the distracting glosses and intrusive section headings as well as the many long lists and recipes from the earlier versions"-- and the Luther-like attacks on church practices. But
Criticism of the clergy is still scathing. The final version of the epic reflects Folengo's lifelong improvements on many levels: The hexameters are more polished, the descriptions more vivid, the humor more intense and multifaceted...
Mullaney's bibliography lists four early editions: 1517, 1521, 1536 (although undated), and 1552. It then says
Anastatic copies of all four of these editions that appeared during the life of Folengo have been issued by the Associazione Amici di Merlin Cocai, Mantua and Bassano del Grappa, 1991-1999.
"Cocai" means "corked," as in a bottle-stopper, Mullaney says. And yes, I know Folengo died in 1544. She said earlier that the 1552 was "posthumous," so maybe an assistant wrote up the bibliography.

The title of the 1536 (undated) is Macaronicorum poema, Baldus, Zanitonella, Moschaea, Epigrammata, It is known as the Cipadense. The alleged place of publication and publisher for that one are listed as "Cipada: Magister Aequarius Lodola." Cipada is the small village where Folengo was from, a mile or so southeast of Mantua, on the Mincio River, according to the map provided. In the present day, it no longer exists.

Since Mullaney calls Mario Chiesa's edition, Baldo di Teofilo Folengo, the "critical edition" (p. 457), I assume that it is the same as hers. But the digital version you have been using is by Luzio, 1911. She doesn't list that one in her bibliography. I don't know what the differences are.

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

6
In Book One, Mullaney translates the sentence
Ipsae habitant Nymphae super alti montis aguzzum,
formaiumque tridant gratarolibus usque foratis.
as
The Nymphs live on the crest of the high mountain and shred cheese continually with many-holed graters.
Mullaney's version of the text has no punctuation after "aguzzum".

Then in Book XXII,
It fretolosa cohors, spronatque trotone serato
420 non miga zanettos, curtaltos, atque frisones,
sed pro, num dicam? quis credat? nempe cavalcant
quadrupedes ligni scannos, tripedesque scanellos,
fornari gramolas, descos, misasque farinae,
concas, telaros, conocchias, guindala, naspos,
425 cadregas, cassas, cophinos, lettiria, scragnas,
barrillos, secchias, gratarolas, mille novellas.
is
The cohort moves hastily and in a close trot spurs not jennets or curtaldi or Frisians, but...O shall I tell you? Who will believe me? In fact, they are riding four-legged wooden chairs, three-legged stools, bakers' kneaders, tables, breadboards, basinslooms, distaffs, skein winders, reels, armchairs, trunks, coffers, frames, benches, barrels, buckets, graters, a thousand novelties.
Mullanney's text has no punctuation after "scannos".

Who are the "they," you might wonder, who are riding all these things? Well, so do Baldo and his little band. Falchetto hypothesizes,
"I actually think this is a long line of witches. Today is witches' day, and Thursday's cavalcade; they are hurrying to trot to Demogorgon and to their lady. But I am not at all sure. Ask them, Boccolo!"
(You remember Demogorgon, from another thread.) But Boccolo won't ask. And we don't find out right away, because one of them inadvertently bewitched Cingar's nose.

I am puzzled about
Lib. XXII, l'interrogatorio di Baldo e compagni dinanzi a Culfora
(cfr. lib. XXIV, v. 144 sgg.)
, which you get from Luzio's version. I think he says it is a variant found in some early editions. But I don't see anything like it in the main text; so maybe it's something he just cut out altogether. Mullaney does not include it in her edition.

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

7
I think, I had too much fantasy about the "gratarolas". The 1517 edition also used another writing for the mentioned person under suspicion (or is this a title ?), "Magister buttadeus de grattarognis"
I took a research and found "0 results" for "grattarognis" and conclude ... "... that's actually an artificial word, I would say", but at second thought ...

Then I requested "buttadeus" and got "A Jew of medieval legend condemned to wander until the Day of Judgment for having mocked Jesus on the day of the Crucifixion." http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Buttadeus
... well, that's naturally very suspicious.
I researched this earlier ... but I forgot the name Buttadeus.
Der Ewige Jude (auch wandernder Jude) ist eine Figur aus christlichen Legenden, die im 13. Jahrhundert entstanden. Sie erzählten ursprünglich von einem Menschen unbekannter Herkunft, der Jesus Christus auf dessen Weg zur Kreuzigung verspottete und dafür von diesem verflucht wurde, bis zu seiner erwarteten Wiederkunft zum Endgericht unsterblich durch die Welt zu wandern. Das anonyme deutschsprachige Volksbuch vom Ewigen Juden, gedruckt erschienen in Leiden 1602, machte aus dieser Figur einen Juden und gab ihm den Namen Ahasveros (Ahasverus, eine Anspielung auf einen nichtjüdischen König). Diese antijudaistische Variante verbreitete sich in ganz Europa; die Figur des ewig durch die Zeiten wandernden Juden ging unter verschiedenen Namen (Cartaphilus, Buttadeus, Matathias und andere) in die Volkssagen ein.
The wandering Jew was also addressed "Cartaphilus" ... as not all things, which are addressed as "Carta" are playing cards, this might be just "friend of books".
Eine Variante des christlichen Mythos vom legendären „Ewigen Juden“ in der Chronik Flores Historiarum (Blumen der Geschichte) von Roger von Wendover um das Jahr 1228 hat es so[4][5]: Ein armenischer Erzbischof, der um diese Zeit England bereist, wird von den Mönchen der Abtei von St Albans über den gefeierten Josef von Arimathäa, einen reichen Juden, der wahrscheinlich schon Mitglied der judenchristlichen Sekte Jesu war, befragt. Über Josef von Arimathäa hieß es nämlich, daß er mit Jesus gesprochen habe und immer noch am Leben sei. Der Erzbischof antwortet daraufhin, daß er diesen unter dem Namen Cartaphilus in Armenien gesehen habe und daß er ein jüdischer Schuhmacher sei. Cartaphilus habe Jesus geschlagen, als dieser kurz sein getragenes Kreuz abstellte, um zu verschnaufen, und ihm zugerufen: „Geh schnell weiter Jesus! Geh schnell weiter! Warum trödelst du?“ Jesus antwortete „mit ernster Mine“, wie gesagt wird: „Ich werde stehen und ausruhen, aber du sollst bis zum letzten Tag weitergehen.“. Der armenische Erzbischof berichtete, daß der Jude Cartaphilus seitdem zum Christentum übergetreten sei und seine wandernden Tage dem Missionieren widme und als Eremit lebe. In der seit 1602 verbreiteten bekannteren Version wurde er zu einem jüdischen Schuhmacher namens Ahasveros, der an der Via Dolorosa gewohnt habe und Diener des Hohenpriesters gewesen sei.

Im 15. Jahrhundert berichtete der Astrologe Guido Bonatti, der ewige Wanderer sei 1267 zu Forlì in Italien gesehen worden. Der Chronist Tizio zu Siena berichtete dasselbe aus dem 14. Jahrhundert. Er nannte den Wanderer Giovanni Buttadeo („Schlage Gott“), knüpfte also an die Version Wendovers an. In der späteren italienischen Volkssage wurde Buttadeo der „von Gott Verstoßene“ genannt und mit dem Ewigen Juden identifiziert. Er gelangte von dort aus auch in die Bretagne ([b]Boudedeo[/b]).

Diese älteren Versionen wurden nur regional, sonst in Europa aber nicht weiter verbreitet. Erst die Fassung von 1602 sprach ausdrücklich von einem Juden und veränderte die Legende auch sonst in einigen Details. Sie fand in kürzester Frist zahlreiche Nachdrucke in vielen europäischen Ländern. Im 17. Jahrhundert sind bereits 70 deutschsprachige Ausgaben davon bekannt, mehr als 100 weitere aus den Niederlanden, Frankreich, England, Italien, Dänemark-Schweden, Estland, Finnland und Polen.

Man schmückte die Legende vielfach weiter aus und gab Ahasver verschiedene Namen: zum Beispiel: Isaak Laquedem in Holland, Juan Espera-en-Dios („Hoffe auf Gott“) in Spanien. Dort soll er eine schwarze Binde auf der Stirn tragen, die ein flammendes Kreuz bedeckt, das sein Gehirn ebenso schnell, wie es wächst, wieder verzehrt. Dieses Motiv scheint als Assoziation zu Mk 15,19 ergänzt worden zu sein, wo Römer Jesus auf den Kopf schlagen. Es verbindet eine Kopfwunde mit dem Motiv des ständigen nachwachsenden verletzten Organs, das wohl aus der Prometheus-Legende stammt. Dieser wurde ebenfalls einem ewigen Fluch, nicht sterben zu können und leiden zu müssen, unterworfen.

An verschiedenen Orten soll sich der Ewige Jude aufgehalten haben: etwa noch im Jahr 1602 in Bern, wo man seine großen Schuhe aufbewahrt, in Basel und Ulm. Weitere Aufenthalte sind nachträglich überliefert ...
Giovanni Buttadeo ... actually the 1517 passage reads ...

Image


... an there is before a Giovanni baricocola mentioned. A Venetian dictionary tells, that
"baricòcoƚa" means "head" ...
http://win.elgalepin.org/mirror2/result.asp?ID=1969
... so that's "Magister John Head" before the "Magister buttadeus de grattarognis".

Now there's something very special.
Between the many new discoveries, that Andrea Vitali made this year, there is one referring to a Farsa Satyra Morale, written c. 1508-1512. In this a Spanish soldier Spampana, who later developed to a figure in commedia dell'arte as "Spanish captain" Spampana (in good neighborhood to the captain Fracasse, who appeared then as a Tarocchi card in Belgian Tarot) had some talk with the hero of the theater play, who is called "Ahasverus", and the talk (from the side of the Spanish captain) is about games and the captain knows a complex list of them, naturally also card games and between them Taroch and Sminchiate.

http://www.letarot.it/page.aspx?id=255&lng=ENG
Asuero hidden in a corner talks in this way:

Asuero
Help me sacred celestial gods.
I'm afraid this one will eat me alive:
since he has many mean words and proud gestures
I don't have to be fool;
but it is better to show a secure aspect:
a thing that above all makes a bad person to fear.
If he will talk to me, I, with quick words
will answer in a way that
he will not have a motive to get angry.

Spampana
Who's the one who stays there? Good evening.
Good morning, good night.

Asuero
Welcome.

Spampana
For which reason you do welcome me?

Asuero
Because you look very well.

Spampana
What are you talking about? You have to realize
that if you have talked to me to offend me,
you won't be a man anymore.

Asuero
The sky is my judge, I did not offend you
since I answered just to honour you:
and if you want to pass, here you see: the path is clear.

Spampana
You are a lucky man, since I soon get calm.
Come on, what about playing some money?
I am disposed to make friends with you.
Look at thins coins, they are beautiful as parangoni. (1)
Choose what you want: dice or cards.
all the games are good for the winner.

Asuero
Please forgive me, but I'm not expert at this art.

Spampana
t is not your art? I've caught this nonentity.
You'd better look for someone who believes that you do not know it.
Now, let's not put this on ice anymore.
With dice a passa dece, sanza, sozzo,
and give a large and wide hand;
minoretto, sbaraglio, urta gozzo,
trichetrac, and torna galea;
you'll see how I'll fill you with games to force-feed you like a pigeon.
Ah, I see what you want; I did not understand you first:
here they are the gallants to be flipped:
call a card: page; you see, it would have come.
I want to satisfy you;
or you want to play crichetta, or fluxata,
rompha, fluxo, and le due nascoste,
primero, trenta, and condannata;
rauso, cresce el monte; now get ready:
that this day will be mine or will be yours.
We have yet to mention the game of tarocchi,
Which appears about right for you: and yet another
stupid one, sminchiata, that means stuff for fools.

Now choose what you want, because time is running away

Asuero
I don't understand any game but chess.

Spampana
You wouldn't be able neither to play that game.
What do you do to get tired all day long?
Which is your pleasure? I don't see around you
horses, or birds, neither hounds.
I ask you this to warn you:
you don't know any game, you don't have fun:
I even don't think you do love women, and this is even worst.

Asuero
Everyone behaves the way he likes.
I just enjoy talking with deads:
I spend my time with them as I like it.

Spampana
You do comfort me with your words.
Tell me brother, are you a necromancer?
If you do this it is because you must have great powers.
If you give me a little of your power,
I'll make you a gift that will make you
sure and gallant in love,
so now you'll worth more than a precious besant.
My name is Spampana, and I am a man
who scares people just by looking;
but I don't leave the one I love.
There is no better and brave than me: I want to tell you
with no reservations all my actions:
I killed a thousand in just one day.

Asuero
Yes, a thousand flies, etc....


In the play the hero is called "Asuero", but that's "Ahasverus". According the interpretation of the studies about the "wandering Jew" this became a Jew as late as c. 1600, and then he was called "Ahasverus", not before.

I started to become interested to research, when the name Ahasverus became popular, and it led me to the Esther story, indeed rather old, at least 3 centuries before Christ. Esther married Ahasverus, the Persian king. I analyzed the Esther story and detected, that it contained key elements of the 13-months-moon-calendar, installed in Persian time c. 500 BC and then also taken in Greece, then even improved by Alexander the Great.

This was interesting for me, cause I'd made the research about this old German lot book, about which I talked so much in the past. "The Pope and the donkey", perhaps you remember.
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=663&hilit=pope+donkey

Image


From this lot book I observed, that it had been in Germany at least in 1450, but likely before, and it possibly influenced Lorenzo Spirito for his very popular lot book, but itself seems to have become also popular c. 1510-1530 with 3 other versions or "similar productions". So just in this time of Farsa Satyra Morale, odf Baldo and of the Triperuno.

Ahasverus, the hero figure in the "Farsa Satyra Morale", showed interests in history (the "deads"), from which Spampana concluded, that he must be a necromancer. He had no interest in the modern games, only in Chess (which possibly once had been the background for the Trionfi cards). The playing cards scene gets a longer passage. Ahasverus is styled with the Hercules decision between Lust and Virtue in the text, so in the style of a Tarot card.
Now - with the 1517 edition - we have a sort of "Giovanni Buttadeus" (earlier Cartaphilus) game in the Baldo opening, by an author, who clearly gets involved in the 1527 Triperuno text with Tarot. So my researcher instinct seems to haven't gone wrong with wondering about the word "grattarognis" ... about "gratarola" I don't know.

In this Spanish description ...
http://books.google.de/books?id=ABja6mJ ... us&f=false

Image


... I find, that the 4 researchers (between them John had and Buttadeus the suspicious) went to Armenia and found there some important letters (closer details I don't understand).
So Merlino knew, what he did. He knew the wandering Jew tradition, which also started with somebody in Armenia.

************

When Merlinus alias Folengo wrote (1517 and before), had been the time of the Dunkelmännerbriefe in Germany. A converted Jew, Johannes Pfefferkorn, in Cologne with the help of some mighty Cologne Dominicans attempted to attack the Jews in Germany. He attempted also to attack Johannes Reuchlin, who was the leading expert for Hebrew language. This led to a long juristic process, which made life difficult for Reuchlin. In this period some humanists wrote the socalled "Dunkelmänner-Briefe" with strong satyric content (against the Cologne Dominicans - and published these as flying letters and later as books - in anonymous manner.
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunkelm%C3%A4nnerbriefe
http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/buch/4489/1

It was a riddle, who had written them. Reuchlin himself and Hutten were suspected and others. Modern research has as a result the greatest part of the authorship for Crotus Rubianus (or Rubeanus) ...
http://de.wikisource.org/wiki/ADB:Crotus_Rubianus

Image


The devil in the early devil scene in the Baldo of 1521 has the name Rubicanus. Crotus Rubianus is said to have been in Italy from 1517-1520, mainly in Bologna.

**********

One early German source (with wrong details about the period 1517-25 in Folengo's life), told, that Folengo's birthname was Girolamo and NOT Teofilo. Folengo is said to have adapted the Teofilo name in 1507, when he entered the cloister in Brescia. This likely or possibly explains the Hieronimo / Hieronima poems in the Triperuno 1527.
Italian Girolamo = German/Latin Hieronimus.

In the Tarocchi poem scene Nr. 12:
H or che per prova, Amor, t'intesi a pieno
I n fiamme ove giá n'alsi e 'n ghiaccio n'arsi,
E cco mi tieni d'altro dol a freno.
R egnar di se medemo e suo giá farsi
O h chi potrá giammai sotto 'l tuo giovo?
N iun, o se pur gli è, non sa trovarsi.
I o quella via, quest'altra cerco e provo,
M a che mi val? tu mi travolvi e giri
A l'aspro tuo voler, né schermo i' trovo.

D iluntanarmi volsi e placar Tiri
(I ri tant'empie!) di te, fier tiranno,
E nulla feci, ché piú in me t'adiri:
D i maggior pene, onde maggior è 'l danno,
A mor, mi sproni e fai il tuo costume.

H aggia chi piú s'allunga piú d'affanno.
I o piansi giá molt'anni sotto 'l nume
E rrando d'una ninfa, onde, per pace
R ecarmi, mi privai del suo bel lume.
O h qual mi crebbe ardente e cruda face
N el petto allor che gli occhi, anzi due stelle,
I o non piú vidi, e 'l raggio lor mi sface!
M i sface il raggio lor; e pur senz'elle
I' non vivrei giammai, perché non pinse

M ai Zeusi un sí bel volto o 'ntagliò Apelle.
E cco, donna, il martír, ch'al cor s'avvinse:
R itrassimi da voi, ma non lo volle
C olui che 'n me sovente ragion vinse.
A dunque per gir lunge non si tolle
T anta mia passion, ch'ebbi giá inante;
E questo avvien ché 'l mal è in le medolle.
L untan il corpo mi portâr le piante,
L untan il cor non giá, perché vel diede
I n su l'aurata punta il vostro amante.

D iedel a voi, ch'avesse ad esser sede
I mmobile perpetua d'esso, e voi
V i 'l toglieste per cambio, data fede
A l'un e l'altro sempre esser fra doi.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

8
On "Hieronima Dieda," I made that point already, in regard to the story on English tarotpedia that Folengo traveled with a "Hieronima Dieda" living on nothing but his writings (viewtopic.php?f=11&t=759&start=10#p10877, second paragraph). I suspect that "Dieda" probably means something like "Poverty." In Polish, I know that the word "Bieda" means "poverty." So during his time outside the cloister, he was married to poverty. One of Folengo's pseudonyms, I read somewhere in the last few days, was "Girolamo" plus a word meaning "beggar."

Mullaney (p. xii) confirms that Folengo's given name was Girolamo, changed to Teofilo at his ordination.

However the acrostic says HIERONIMA DIEDA IERONIMI MERCATELLI DIVA, Hieronima Dieda goddess of Marcatelli. Mullaney says that Girolamo Marcatelli was a real person, who became canon of Padua in 1535. So perhaps in 1527 Marcatelli, too, was married to poverty (and not his actual wife, as Mullaney tentatively assumes). Or else "Mercatelli" has some other meaning, like "merchant,"--Girolamo the wealthy merchant, i.e. Folengo as he hoped he would be, actually had Poverty as his goddess. (Poverty is mentioned as a goddess in Plato's Symposium, the mother of Love: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symposium_(Plato).)

On the part you posted in Spanish, the author is describing what the pseudonymous doctor said about how the book he is introducing came to be found. Here is what Mullaney says, on p. vii:
...A prefatory epistle by an excitable herbalist, Aquario Lodala, tells a wild tale: While on a sea voyage to gather ingredients for making the antidote treacle, the druggists are blown ashore near Armenia, where heat and curiosity drive the group down into an underground cavern. Here, to their astonishment, they find human heads, arms, and legs alongside rusted smith's tools, and then sepulchers adorned with epitaphs.

A large gilt sign says that these tombs were sculpted by Merlin Cocaio, who wrote the epigramata to honor the great men about whom he had written in the "haeroico...cothurno" (the heroic style). The explorers read the chiseled verses and then hunt for Merlin's pus. They unearth a treasure chest of "libros, librettos, libricolos, librazzos et milles alios schartafacios" (books, small books, little books, big books, and a thousand other scribblings). While they are hauling these tomes back to their ship, the earth quakes, and to their surprise, the island they are on swims away. Alas, only one volume makes it safely back with them: a 6,000-hexameter epic "de gestis magnanimi Baldi" (on the deeds of the of the magnanimous Baldo).
The detail that the group was searching for treacle is also of interest. Mullaney says (p. x):
Treacle, the remedy known to antiquity and elaborated by Galen (who listed some sixty ingredients) and the balm likened to Christ in Chaucer's "Man of Law's Tale," had been recreated by enterprising herbalists to become quite a moneymaker in Venice and elsewhere. The frame story proposes the text as a substitute remedy--a remedy, it would seem, for the feverish escalation of the ancient Greeks and Romans, for their literary creations, for their languages. In the heart of what has come to be called the Renaissance, this medicine proved to be very popular reprints: reprints were quickly issued by two other presses in 1520, and the following year Paganini produced a greatly augmented and thoroughly revised second edition.
Folengo clearly enjoyed frame stories. Not only this tale of buried treasure, but also the more elaborate addition of the exchange of letters, including a real one by Federico, in 1521.

It is perhaps worth noting that the 1552 (but written between 1536 and 1544) passage mentioning "taroccho" does so in a derogatory context, as one of many games for irresponsible fools. It is the same as in the 1508-1512 poem you just quoted that grouped it with sminchiate. Both are games for fools. The other meaning of "taroccho" as "fool" was seemingly alive and well at these times in Italy. Exactly how it got this meaning, so far not attested before c. 1495 (and then perhaps debatably: it at least refers to a person rather than a game), is another question, much discussed on THF and more recently on ATF. I do not mention this to propose another discussion of it here.

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

9
On the names Merlino,Grattarognis, etc, see footnotes 3 and 4 in Mullaney, p. xx at http://books.google.com/books?id=X5ms5s ... &q&f=false.

"Merlin" trades on the famous Arthurian magician; Robert de Boron's Merlin (1220) had been published in an Italian prose translation in 1480. For "Grattarognis": Mullaney says
Grattarogna reminds one of the passage from Dante's Paradiso in which Cacciaguida urges Dante to pursue the truth upon his return to the world, even if the truth is upsetting, and "let people scratch where it itches" (e lascia pur grattar dov'e la rogna; Par. 17:12).
In the same vein, "Baricocola," the name of another of the frame-story companions, "means apricot but is also a term for testes," she says.

Re: new early "Tarocco" note

10
Thanks ...

For the moment I think, it's of interest, what precisely happened at book 13 (Guido's death). This seems to be turning point in the book. And what precisely is meant with Giuberto in the Baldo, cause Giuberto links to the Tarocchi oracle of the Triperuno.

Then we have the condition, that rather obviously Folengo takes two of his major figures of Luigi Pulci's Morgante, just Morgante the giant is replaced by "Fracasso", another giant, while Cingar is seen as a replacement for Morgante's late partner Margutte. Cingar, the tricster, plays the larger role, if I see this correctly. Then Baldo has two twin sons from Berta, "Cingarinus" also called "Grillo", which is an insect called "cricket" in English language. Cingarinus is clearly a "lttle Cingar" and Grillo naturally also associates "small". The other twin is Fanetto, who is "one of Baldo's twin sons, given as a gift by the besotted Charon to Tisiphone." I don't get this scene. Fanetto sounds more like Falchetto (Baldo's 3rd important helper) than as Fracasso, actually one might suspect, that the twins should also mirror Morgante and Margutte.
Pulci wrote the first parts of the Morgante for the Medici, when he likely was engaged to help occasionally in the education of the Medici boys (1460 - 1463), likely mostly, when the family spend their days in the villa Caffaggiolo (Morgante lived in short distance to it in the Mugello). This Morgante actually is "youth literature". Pulci had about 15 chapters in 1463, when Lorenzo reached his 15th year. About this time (so my suspicion) he got a Trionfi deck with 16 trumps, the socalled Charles VI. This had a Fool, but not a Magician. And the Morgante had till chapter 15 also only Morgante, and Margutte wasn't invented. In a later Tarocchi deck in Ferrara (Este deck, Beinecke library) we have a Fool AND a Magician, and both are painted as giants.

Pulci's Morgante reached 23 chapters at the begin of the 1470s, just about the time, when Lorenzo had become 23. Margutte was then part of the story.
Around 1474/75 the relationship Pulci and Lorenzo got troubles. In April 1478 the assassination attempt on the Medici was staged. Lorenzo's brother died, but Lorenzo survived, then 29 years and afew mnths old.
Pulci's and Lorenzo's relationship was repaired about 1479 and Pulci offered a new "finished" version of 28 chapters of the Morgante. It seems, that Lorenzo didn't wish to see a 29th chapter or any more chapter. It seems to express, that "youth was finished".
The Morgante went into printed production at the begin of the 1480's. At around the same time also Boiardo's Orlando text went into its first printed versions.
Pulci died in Padova in his 43rd year, so somehow near to places, where Folengo lived. Lorenzo Medici died April 1492, having reached his 43th year.

Recent researches have made clear, that mass production of Trionfi cards had started (at least) at the beginning of the 1460's, and it seems, they were exported from Florence to Rome.
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=743
http://trionfi.com/n/
About Minchiate we know, that it was mentioned in 1466 in a letter from Pulci to Lorenzo. It's already an older suspicion, that Pulci was involved in the invention of the game himself.
Recently a new argument appeared in close relation to the new ideas about Trionfi exports from Florence to Rome. Franco Pratesi suggested, that the Rosenthal Tarocchi had a 4th "unknown" sheet ...

http://trionfi.com/rosenwald-tarocchi-sheet

... and inside the internal discussions of Trionfi.com appeared the argument, that the Minchiate development had at a specific not clear moment (but it seems possible "begin of the 1460's") only 96 cards, not 97, as expressed inside the Rosenthal Tarocchi fragments. It might be, that the Minchiate had a double-figure, in which usual qualities of the Magician and the Fool were united.

Image


A fool, but with a table, which usually belongs to the magician.

Michal J. Hurst some time ago at ...
http://pre-gebelin.blogspot.com/search? ... results=13
... had published some details from "children of the Moon" pictures, which are given to Baccio Baldini and the years c. 1464 and c. 1465 (according Michael). Michael pointed already to a similarity to the Rosenthat fool.

Image


Image


So there are running various points together:
1458: New pope Pius II, who knew about German printing technologies
1459: Congress in Mantova with much German participation (woodcut technology and playing cards production technique ?)
??? around 1460 arrival of woodcut technology in Florence
1460-1463: first parts of Morgante (without Margutte)
1462: attack on Mainz, which kept book printing mysteries hidden
1463: assumed date for Charles VI production without Magician
1463: Sweynheim and Pannartz from Mainz to Subiaco
1463-1468: known mass exports of Triunfi cards from Florence to Rome
1463: second Florentine Trionfi allowance
1463: Borso stops his rather normal Trionfi card productions in Ferrara (as far we see them) - possibly cause mass-production had arrived in the Trionfi card production
1464-65: assumed date of Baldini pictures - Fools with Magician qualities
1465: assumed date for 6 card addition to PMB in Milan
1466: Minchiate letter from Pulci to Lorenzo
????? Rosenthal-Tarocchi as Minchiate with united Fool-Magician and totally 96 cards
....
begin or mid 1470s: Fool and Magician as giants and as two figures in Ferrara (Este cards with Aragon heraldic)

Well, we don't know for sure if Pulci was really of importance in this process, and we naturally don't know, if Merlinus Cocai alias Teofilus Folengo knew about it. But we shouldn't overlook the possibility.

For the Minchiate we have some relationship to the work of Lorenzo Spirito. This might have gone to print already in 1473, but sure is 1482. He used somehow Minchiate style with a 20-20-20-20-structure in his system ...

viewtopic.php?f=11&t=442&hilit=lorenzo+spirito

Occasionally he used - in an relative harmless manner - mixed animal figures, which around 1480 might be still rare, as woodcuts use in books still was rare.

Image

Grifone

Image

Serena

Image

Gemini with a new idea

Image

The usual centaur as Capricorn

Then Merlinus creates an own mixed figure: dog with man, Fanchetto. Occasionally it is given the name Falco, so, as if it also has wings, like the Grifone.

Image


In the Triperuno we meet then Francesco Grifalco as a mysterious person. Grifone - Grifalco.

****************
Baldus live
[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zagNaFG62Wk[/youtube]
Huck
http://trionfi.com
cron