Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

41
mikeh wrote: 16 Jun 2021, 02:04 Thanks. That was a good post that you linked to.
Yes. It was the start of the idea, that all 6 Petrarca-Trionfi might have been in the oldest Trionfi decks. I repeat the link for future readers ...
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=345&p=17682&hilit=fame#p17682
I am still not sure where Fame fits into the sequence. If it is not Justice, it might not be 8th. It could be next to last, the same as Fame in the Cary-Yale.

So Bagat, Popess, Empress, Emperor, Pope, Love, Chariot, Wheel, Old Man, Hanged Man, Death, Fame, Angel.
There is a line of development, in which Fame has a high rank, the best is Minchiate, where it the highest trump. Another later line of development has Fama solis at trump 14, something. which is seen in the Vievil version around 1650, but earlier already with the Alciato poem (discussion "Fame riddle" viewtopic.php?f=11&t=747&hilit=Alciato ).
In the case of PMB-1 we have a commissioner Sforza, who got his fame as a knight-condottiero in the background of a female Justice (Bianca Maria as a legal heir of the Milanese throne). The year of the work is assumed to have been 1452, the year, in which Habsburg emperor Friedrich III didn't accept Sforza as legal duke of Milan. As a revenge Sforza let the emperor card painted as the earlier Luxembourg emperor Sigismondo, which caused then a special interest of the condottiero Sigismondo Malatesta just in this deck.
The idea of Franco Pratesi was, that , if the name "Trionfi cards" indeed developed from the Trionfi poem of Petrarca, that there should have been a Trionfi deck version, in which all 6 Petrarca trumps were considered. We know, that the later Tarot development did forget about this (assumed) earlier context, but the PMB-1, from which we know, that it was definitely an old version, might have been part of this (assumed) tradition.
We have reason to think, that the Trionfi name for playing cards developed from the Florentine acceptance of Petrarca as a "Florentine poet" (one of 3 crowns, Boccaccio, Dante + Petrarca), at least in 1440. Petrarca was earlier accepted and honored in Padova and Milan, locations, in which Petrarca had really lived and worked in his life.

Filippo Maria Visconti didn't love Florence, and likely he also didn't love, that the Milanese poet Petrarca with all his fame and other goods was redefined to a Florentine poet. Filippo arranged another deck (Cary-Yale), which included all 7 virtues (so much we can assume safely), virtues, which we don't find in the Milanese Sforza deck of PMB-1. Sforza and Cosimo Medici had buried the earlier trouble between Milan and Florence and acted in political agreement since 1450. One of the political measures was possibly the official allowance of the Trionfi game in Florence in December 1450.
Burchiello, the poet, who was thrown out of Florence by the Medici, made a poem, in which the words minchiattar and triumphi appear together. The poem is said to have been produced c1440. It looks like a satire on the new trionfi fashion. Possibly the enlargement of the number of the Trionfi motifs was ironical captured in the negative terminus Minchiate and degraded, and it meant a mockery of the very much motifs at other locations.
I have no idea why you put the Fool as number 11. I know that 11 was considered the number of sin. But that is not enough to put him there.
See ... http://trionfi.com/0/f/11/

Image
Fool-Stupidity 11 (0) .... and ...
note, that 11 (Fool) was changed to 0, and 14 Angel was changed to 20,
probably by Bembo or a contemporary cause he didn't like
1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14,
but prefered, probably cause of practical reasons (easier counting in card playing)
0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10 + 12+13 + 20 = 100
Carneval has the starting day 11th November, 11.11. at 11.11 o'clock A Karnevalsverein in Kleve in the year 1331 had the Karnevals call "ey, lustig, fröhlich", which in short makes "e-l-f"="elf" and elf means "eleven" in English.
Count Adolph III of the Marck in 1380 founded a foolish knight order at November 12 in 1380, likely related to 11.11.1380.
compare ... viewtopic.php?f=12&t=694&p=10218&hilit=cleve#p10218 ... a talk, that we had in the year 2011
Recently we had, that the council elected pope Martin at the Martinsday, which was 11.11.1417

Further we have, that in the Liechtenstein cards fragment (16 cards, earlier given to 1440-1450) there are 5 suits and the Unter of cups is a urinating male fool and the Un ter of batons is a baton-riding nude woman and the Unter had in the John-of-Rheinfelden system the value 11. If the dating 1440-50 would be correct, this Fool would be the oldest, that we have as a playing card.
http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/liechtenstein/

Normal counting is according the row 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10 - etc., not 0-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-etc.. For the Fool in the Sola Busca, which has the first zero on a playing card, we have ...
Image


MATO with ".0."
Image


VENTURIO with ".X.", not with "10"

Image


... and NENBROTO with ".XX.", not with "20"
I also am not sure how "groups" should be defined. In the game, all I can think of is scoring combinations. So we have the Fool, the Bagatello, and the Angel as one group, perhaps the four "papi" as another group. In Bologna they counted as a scoring group.

I suppose the ones in the middle could divide 4-3, or 3-4, as well. Or it could go by columns in a grid, but in that case with 14, the end columns would have 4 and the middle ones 3, or else the Bagat and Fool would be wild cards, as in the Bolognese game. But there is no suggestion in Marziano or the later scoring of any of these last groupings.
In some Tarocchi versions scoring bonus points for card combinations is a feature, but not in all. Such card games are rare in Germany, I know it only from the game Cologne game "Klammern", which actually is a variant of the Dutch game Klaverjas.
The 2-3-4-5-group definitely appears in Karnöffel. 10 (as tens) and 11 (as aces) are very important in the German counting system. In some games 1 (as Ace) is counted one point, not 11 points.
On the other hand, "groups" might be defined as in Marziano, scoring by rows in a grid. There would be four groups, one for each suit, composed of every fourth card, maybe adding the king of the corresponding suit. One group might be Popess, Love, Hanged Man, Cups. The Love group, or the story of Pope Joan or Manfreda. Another, Empress, Pudicitia, Death, Coins. The Pudicitia group, or the story of Laura. Then Emperor, Wheel, Fame, Swords. The Wheel group, or the fall of Princes. Then Pope, Old Man (Time), Angel, Batons. The Angel group, or the story of salvation. Or some such thing. Bagatella and Fool again as wild cards

Do you see your "groups" in terms of scoring combinations, or just as conceptual schemes in building the sequence? Either way, it still seems to me strained and anachronistic to fit Petrarch to Marziano's demigods and two other columns. That schema fits only part of the PMB and part of Marziano, and in two very different ways, in the first as defining part of a sequences, in the second as defining two of the columns, and the demigods. Marziano emphasized whole rows, and columns not at all.
Well, we all recognize, that the columns 1-2-3 contains 4x3=12 Olympian gods and that the last column has no Olympian gods. Did Marziano tell you, that these 12 gods are Olympian gods? No, he didn't. Does this mean, that the game designer didn't know, that these 12 gods are Olympian gods? Just by accident he collected there 12 Olympian gods? Well, this "Martiano didn't tell us" doesn't save this position. It's a fact, that Martiano had for his 16 places a specific figure and likely Martiano had specific ideas, why he offered just this order of the gods and no other order.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

42
mikeh wrote: 16 Jun 2021, 02:04
I am still not sure where Fame fits into the sequence. If it is not Justice, it might not be 8th. It could be next to last, the same as Fame in the Cary-Yale.
+ Huck:
There is a line of development, in which Fame has a high rank, the best is Minchiate, where it the highest trump. Another later line of development has Fama solis at trump 14, something. which is seen in the Vievil version around 1650, but earlier already with the Alciato poem (discussion "Fame riddle" viewtopic.php?f=11&t=747&hilit=Alciato ). In the case of PMB-1 we have a commissioner Sforza, who got his fame as a knight-condottiero in the background of a female Justice (Bianca Maria as a legal heir of the Milanese throne)

I'm not sure why both of you continue to discuss Fama as if it were an individual trump when in the 15th c. hand-painted trumps there is but a single card with one of Fama's attributes, and whose landscape vignette below is quite clearly the attribute that connects it, the CY, with all of those other "World" trumps (PMB, EE, CVI, AS) - which for me, to say it again, is prudence.

Now if you want to discuss Minchiate and its derivatives that is another matter, but that's not what you are doing here - you are mapping Minchiate backwards on to the original trumps, when quite clearly someone took liberties with expanding (in some case modifying) the earliest iconography.

For the only known hand-painted "World" trump with the fama attribute - the oldest known - the allegorical woman holds not just fama's winged trumpet but a symbol of rulership in the other hand (the orb is not a symbol of fama, ergo this is not a simple allegory of fama), clearly is indicting the knight below who is famous for his _[blank]_ rulership....and in that blank I think the obvious answer is prudence. The condottiero below is famous for his prudent rulership, which accords with the vast corpus of humanist panegyrics from the period. The next likely option would be "just ruler", but that's a different trump - and in the PMB a similarly mounted knight is shown along with the virtue of Justice, making the exact same juxtaposition - or linkage - between the ruler and a ruler as we find in the CY "World." The landscape vignette - the "world" - is indicative of the ruler's domain (which in the early 1440s for Sforza would be Cremona, while he held on to the Marche of Ancona as well, which is from where the knight proceeds from).

There are no more attributes of Fame in the subsequent 15th c. hand-painted decks - the meaning of that trump therefore indicates rulership, prudent rulership - prudence suggested by the tondo format of the PMB, EE, CVI and AS decks, the last three of which are clearly derived from the same format (and ultimately deriving from the PMB). The emphasis on rulership is why the card has never had a consensus in identifying it as prudence, as that virtue is being explicitly linked to the ruler, usually also symbolized on the Chariot in all decks after the CY, and thus it is not the generic virtue but a more narrowly defined aspect of the political prudence of the ruler.

In Thomas Aquinas Sum. Question 47, Art. 11, we read of the specific aspect of political prudence:
On the contrary, "Political prudence," which is directed to the common good of the state, "domestic economy" which is of such things as relate to the common good of the household or family, and "monastic economy" which is concerned with things affecting the good of one person, are all distinct sciences. Therefore in like manner there are different kinds of prudence, corresponding to the above differences of matter.
Mike has previously objected that Aquinas discusses a variety of aspects of prudence and even common men have an aspect of political prudence. That is true but irrelevant to the CY card where fama is found - the winged trumper is only coupled with the orb of rulership, not with symbols of the various statuses of non-ruling men.

In 47.Art. 12 Aquinas clarifies this situation:
Objection 1. It would seem that prudence is not in subjects but only in their rulers. For the Philosopher says (Polit. iii, 2) that "prudence alone is the virtue proper to a ruler, while other virtues are common to subjects and rulers, and the prudence of the subject is not a virtue but a true opinion."
....On the contrary, The Philosopher says (Ethic. vi, 8) that there are two kinds of political prudence, one of which is "legislative" and belongs to rulers, while the other "retains the common name political," and is about "individual actions." Now it belongs also to subjects to perform these individual actions. Therefore prudence is not only in rulers but also in subjects.

I answer that, Prudence is in the reason. Now ruling and governing belong properly to the reason; and therefore it is proper to a man to reason and be prudent in so far as he has a share in ruling and governing. But it is evident that the subject as subject, and the slave as slave, are not competent to rule and govern, but rather to be ruled and governed. Therefore prudence is not the virtue of a slave as slave, nor of a subject as subject.

Since, however, every man, for as much as he is rational, has a share in ruling according to the judgment of reason, he is proportionately competent to have prudence. Wherefore it is manifest that prudence is in the ruler "after the manner of a mastercraft" (Ethic. vi, 8), but in the subjects, "after the manner of a handicraft."
If universal prudence were the subject matter of the trump we would have an image that looked like a plenary grouping of the "children of the planets" - each profession indicated below (and why would those engaged in mere handicrafts be famous?). Instead we only have the orb above, the ruler below; ergo, the CY "world" is the fame of a prudent ruler.

Phaeded

Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

43
hm ... what is EE und what is AS ? Well, AS might be Alessandro Sforza.

Phaeded, you think, that only politicans had medieval Prudence? I would think, that poets also would like to have one. And Fame, too, naturally. I think, that virtues were not closed properties with a shield "do not disturb".
If you studied our recent contributions, then you might have noted that we spoke about specific systems, one connected to the Michelino deck and another to the PMB.
In the case of the Michelino deck there is something, which one might associate to Fame (Eolus on the position of the 14th card, cause Eolus is known as figure, which accompanied Fame ... at least in the opinion of Geoffrey Chaucer) and another object, the cardinal virtue Prudentia, which one might relate to the figure of Mercury, cause Mercury is one of 4 figures (Jupiter, Apollo, Mercury, Hercules), which were given by Martiano to the category "virtues".
The other specific object is PMB-1 (Pierpont-Morgan-Bergamo of the first painter), perhaps better addressed as PMB-14 (as the first artist made 14 trumps) and PMB-2 better named as PMB-6, cause the second painter painted 6 trumps. There once the theory developed, that the card, which is commonly identified as Justice in the context of PMB-1 (or PMB-16) meant Fame, cause in this deck arrangement existed other cards, which alco could be identified as Trionfi-objects in the sense of Petrarca's poem "Trionfi", which are ....

LOVE - card Love
CHASTITY - card Chariot with female rider
DEATH - card Death
FAME - card Justice with a knight in the background
TIME - card Hermit with a clock
ETERNITY - card Judgment

This identification of the card Justice with Fame was possible, as there were Petrarca-Trionfi-versions of a Fame with scales ...
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=345&p=17682&hilit=fame#p17682
Image

Image


When PMB-1 (or PMB-14) had no Justice, then it had no virtues at all and it makes no sense to speak of Prudentia instead of Justice.

**********

If you wish to speak of Prudentia, then you should go to the Charles-VI deck, where you find 4 figures with octagonal halo, from which 3 are easy recognizable as cardinal virtues and the 4th (normally called World) should be Prudentia instead.


Image
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

45
Huck wrote: 18 Jun 2021, 06:41 Phaeded, you think, that only politicans had medieval Prudence? I would think, that poets also would like to have one. And Fame, too, naturally. I think, that virtues were not closed properties with a shield "do not disturb".
Sometimes reading comprehension just isn't your thing. Again:
In 47.Art. 12 Aquinas clarifies this situation:
....The Philosopher says (Ethic. vi, 8) that there are two kinds of political prudence, one of which is "legislative" and belongs to rulers, while the other "retains the common name political," and is about "individual actions." Now it belongs also to subjects to perform these individual actions. Therefore prudence is not only in rulers but also in subjects.....Since, however, every man, for as much as he is rational, has a share in ruling according to the judgment of reason, he is proportionately competent to have prudence. Wherefore it is manifest that prudence is in the ruler "after the manner of a mastercraft" (Ethic. vi, 8), but in the subjects, "after the manner of a handicraft."
The common people have a lower 'handicraft' variety of prudence (even poets, who may revel in prudence, are for sale in extoling it in others - rulers), while the ruler has the 'mastercraft' variety, particularly in regard to political prudence. But we are not investigating "the general portrayal of prudence in medieval society" but rather the 'symbolic logic' of the specific CY "World" trump - the only place where fama appears in the hand-painted cards (which are all related to one another) - where it is neatly spelled out for all who can open their eyes: winged-trumpet/fama + orb/rulership = famous for ruling. This humanist conceit would not apply to just any tyrant so there must be an implicit additional virtue at play here, as you agree by pointing out the virtue halo of the "world" trump in the CVI. The subsequent mirror-tondo format for the "world" clearly indicates Prudence, based on the predecessor adaptation of Giotto's prudence virtue in Ferrara (an early adopter of trionfi), which looks very similar to all of the other landscape vignettes found in "world" trumps:
Image
There is no "fame" trump in the hand-painted 15th century decks.

Huck wrote:
The other specific object is PMB-1 (Pierpont-Morgan-Bergamo of the first painter), perhaps better addressed as PMB-14 (as the first artist made 14 trumps) and PMB-2 better named as PMB-6, cause the second painter painted 6 trumps. There once the theory developed, that the card, which is commonly identified as Justice in the context of PMB-1 (or PMB-16) meant Fame, cause in this deck arrangement existed other cards, which alco could be identified as Trionfi-objects in the sense of Petrarca's poem "Trionfi", which are ....

LOVE - card Love
CHASTITY - card Chariot with female rider
DEATH - card Death
FAME - card Justice with a knight in the background
TIME - card Hermit with a clock
ETERNITY - card Judgment
Two obvious objections:
1. Assigning a specific number of trumps to two different painters ("the first artist made 14 trumps... the second painter painted 6 trumps") is ludicrous (especially when you see the 14 as a complete set) when the Tower and Devil trumps are missing so you have no idea of which painter to assign them to; Dummett's plausible theory aside about the two painters, one still has no idea if there wasn't an original set and the second hand's ones are replacement cards.
2. There isn't even a suggestion of fama in the PMB Justice trump itself, nor any other hand-painted 15th century Justice trump. However, there is yet another fama attribute in the PMB "World", precisely where one would once again look to find signs of fama as it was in the preceding fellow Milanese deck of the CY: the stars, which was a commonplace humanist touch, per below:
Satire 5.1 opens with elaborate praise of Filippo as a "great prince, gentle and capable," whom Filelfo asks to show magnanimity as a response to the unjust treatment of the exiles. (61) But the satire then turns to criticize Filippo for the savagery that his forces have recently shown in military engagements with the Genoese, who had revolted against Milanese control of their city in 1436. Furthermore, Filelfo reminds him that though "a thousand men have died" who once "raised you and your name up to the stars," his words will not die and can be detrimental to Filippo's reputation. (Blanchard, W. 'Patrician Sages and the Humanist Cynic: Francesco Filelfo and the Ethics of World Citizenship', Renaissance Quarterly, 60(4), 2007: 1107-1169). https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Patricia ... 0172398203 - no pagination, since this is the on-line version for convenience's sake)
Sforza's most recent claim to fame (not that he hadn't done that numerous times previously for himself and father) was a premature proclamation for the (eventual) restoration of Milan to greatness, conceived here as an idealized New Jerusalem, flanked by spiritelli symbolizing his two children who had then been born at the time of his taking of the city in 1450.

Image

I'll pass on commenting further on your fanciful allegorization of Michelino's deck.

Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

46
Phaeded wrote ...
2. There isn't even a suggestion of fama in the PMB Justice trump itself, nor any other hand-painted 15th century Justice trump.
Other justice trumps don't have a knight in the background and don't have Sforza as commissioner. That Fame could be presented in Trionfi poem manuscripts with attributes of Justice, is proven. PMB-14 didn't contain any other virtue-trump, why should the lady with sword and scales and knight in the background be a cardinal virtue?
If you've some critique to this theme, you might go to the thread, where the arguments once had been given.
This thread is named "From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum" and you might attack statements like "Eolus associates Fame" or "Mercury presents Prudentia" in the Michelino deck.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

48
It was good to hear from you, Phaeded. It's a discussion we've had before, so no sense in me rehashing it, unless one of us has something new.

Huck wrote,
Carneval has the starting day 11th November, 11.11. at 11.11 o'clock A Karnevalsverein in Kleve in the year 1331 had the Karnevals call "ey, lustig, fröhlich", which in short makes "e-l-f"="elf" and elf means "eleven" in English.
Count Adolph III of the Marck in 1380 founded a foolish knight order at November 12 in 1380, likely related to 11.11.1380.
compare ... viewtopic.php?f=12&t=694&p=10218&hilit=cleve#p10218 ... a talk, that we had in the year 2011
Recently we had, that the council elected pope Martin at the Martinsday, which was 11.11.1417

Further we have, that in the Liechtenstein cards fragment (16 cards, earlier given to 1440-1450) there are 5 suits and the Unter of cups is a urinating male fool and the Un ter of batons is a baton-riding nude woman and the Unter had in the John-of-Rheinfelden system the value 11. If the dating 1440-50 would be correct, this Fool would be the oldest, that we have as a playing card.
http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/liechtenstein/
I don't see how German Carnival enters into it. It didn't start then in Lombardy, that I know of. And there is no indication anywhere in Italy that the Fool was ranked as an Unter. Anyway, Francesco has had enough dealings with fools (I mean, the Ambrosian Republicans and the remaining Visconti) not to elevate them too high. Filippo certainly wouldn't have ranked the Fool that high, with his known antagonism to reversing the usual order of things. Ferrara might have, put him fairly high, it's true. But I like to think that being a wild card is already pretty high, and perhaps he also got a lot of points for whoever had him.

Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

49
mikeh wrote: 20 Jun 2021, 12:14 I don't see how German Carnival enters into it. It didn't start then in Lombardy, that I know of. And there is no indication anywhere in Italy that the Fool was ranked as an Unter. Anyway, Francesco has had enough dealings with fools (I mean, the Ambrosian Republicans and the remaining Visconti) not to elevate them too high. Filippo certainly wouldn't have ranked the Fool that high, with his known antagonism to reversing the usual order of things. Ferrara might have, put him fairly high, it's true. But I like to think that being a wild card is already pretty high, and perhaps he also got a lot of points for whoever had him.
German "Fastnacht" termini are reported in German wiki ...
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karneval, ... d_Fasching
Die derzeit älteste bekannte literarische Erwähnung der „fasnaht“ findet sich in einem auf das Jahr 1206 datierten Teil des Parzival des Minnesängers Wolfram von Eschenbach. Dort heißt es, dass „die koufwip zu Tolenstein an der fasnaht nie baz gestriten“ hätten[2][3] Wolfram von Eschenbach beschreibt dort mit blumigen Worten, wie die Frauen rund um die Burg der Grafen von Hirschberg-Dollnstein am Donnerstag vor Aschermittwoch groteske Spiele, Tänze und Verkleidungen vollführten. Die kleine Marktgemeinde Dollnstein im Altmühltal (Bayern) reklamiert deshalb für sich, Wiege des deutschen Karnevals im Allgemeinen und der Weiberfastnacht im Besonderen zu sein.[4]

Eine der frühen Erwähnungen der Fastnacht findet sich in Christoph Lehmanns Speyerer Chronik von 1612, die aus alten Akten berichtet: „Im Jahr 1296 hat man das Unwesen der Fastnacht etwas zeitig angefangen / darinn etliche Burger in einer Schlegerey mit der Clerisey Gesind das ärgst davon getragen / hernach die Sach beschwerlich dem Rhat angebracht / und umb der Frevler Bestrafung gebetten.“[5] (Clerisey Gesind meint die Bediensteten des Bischofs und des Domkapitels, also der Kleriker, in der Domimmunität). Der Rat zwang den Dompropst, das geistliche Gesinde zur Bestrafung herauszugeben. Für das Domkapitel waren diese Übergriffe Anlass für eine Klage gegen Rat und Bürger der Stadt, und die Exkommunikation wurde angedroht. Aufgrund der entschlossenen Reaktion der Stadt verlief die Angelegenheit jedoch im Sande.[6]

Am 5. März 1341 wird das Wort „Fastelovend“ im so genannten Eidbuch der Stadt Köln mit der Bemerkung erwähnt, dass der Rat kein Geld dafür mehr bewilligen dürfe – trotz der früher üblichen Zuschusszahlung an die „Richerzeche“, jener Gruppe der wohlhabenden Bürger, die später Patrizier genannt wurden: „Aber der Rat soll zu Fastnacht keiner Gesellschaft Zuschüsse aus dem städtischen Vermögen gewähren.“[7] Am 26. Oktober 1353 wurde verdeutlicht, dass der Erzbischof Wilhelm von Gennep den Klerikern und Ordensleuten verbot, Bier und Wein zu verkaufen oder auszuschenken; das bewies, dass offensichtlich zu Karneval ein großes Interesse an alkoholischen Getränken bestand. Im Juni 1369 wurde das Verbot im Rahmen eines Kompromisses wieder aufgehoben. Zum 1. Juli 1412 trat ein Verbot des Kölner Rats, Spiele und Tänze an geheimen Orten und in Zunfthäusern ohne Wissen und Willen der Zünfte abzuhalten, in Kraft. 1422 taucht erstmals eine Erwähnung des Kölner Bauern als Schildhalter des Reichs in einem Gedicht auf. 1425 erscheint der Bauer dann auch erstmals in einem Rosenmontagszug. Um 1440 entstanden in einem Fries des Gürzenich Abbildungen des Fastnachtstreibens.
Examples of other funny Unters in the Floetner deck (c1537) ...
http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks02/d00602/d00602.htm
Image
Image
Image
Image


In contrast the Ober figures in the same deck are not funny.
Image


The 4 Fools in the Hofämterspiel are from c1455.
http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks02/d00360/d00360.htm
Image


H.L.Schaeufelein" (Nuremberg, Germany) deck "?" (52 cards), 1535
http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks02/d00605/d00605.htm
Image



Well, the ship of Fools had a German author, Sebastian Brant.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: From Marziano to the Cary-Yale and the Ludus Triumphorum

50
So, let's start this again ....
Image


1st column (Eternity)



1. Three goddesses (Juno, Minerva, Venus) demand from Paris to make a choice, who of them would be the most beautiful. Venus played a trick and promised a beautiful girl (Helena) to Paris, possibly with help of Amor. The whole scene developed to a gigantic Trojan war.
Well, it was so, that all 3 attempted to bribe the judge Paris.

2. First Juno came and promised richness and importance.
3. Then Minerva, who promised wisdom and knowledge.
4. And last Venus, who promised the hand of the most attractive woman on the current earth, Helena.
Image



The story of Paris contains an apple.
Huck
http://trionfi.com
cron