Emblemata : Volsinnighe uytbeelses / by Gabrielem Rollenhagium uyt andere versamelt/ en vermeerdert met syn eygene sinrijcke vindingen/ Gestelt in Nederduytsche Rijme Door Zacharis Heyns.
Verfasser: Rollenhagen, Gabriel *1583-1619* ; Passe, Crispijn van de (der Ältere) *1564-1637*
Crispijn van de Passe the Elder, or de Passe (c.1564, Arnemuiden - buried 6 March 1637, Utrecht was a Dutch publisher and engraver and founder of a dynasty of engravers….…He started his own engraving and publishing business in Cologne in 1589, but ... was forced to leave in 1611. He set up in business in Utrecht, by about 1612, where he created engravings for the English and other markets, and where he died ...
from wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_de_Passe_family
Huck - You got the wrong Rollenhagen in your de.wikipedia link (its Gabriel- 1583-1619, not Georg - 1542-1609)
Cohen notes a 100 years earlier Temperance with hour glass, which should be this one ...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ambro ... erance.jpg
... by Ambrogio Lorenzetti.
Compare: http://www.shafe.co.uk/art/Ambrogio_Lor ... -_Nove.asp
and: http://www.shafe.co.uk/crystal/images/l ... 1338-9.jpg
Later, as Cohen notes, the hour glass is given to Father Time (with the idea of a finishing death), and the mechanical clock (with th idea of steadiness) becomes a symbol of Temperance.
In matters of the Tarot sequence in the Western order we have, that 14 Temperance follows 13 Death and the Hermit is "before Death) ... maybe the idea, that the steadiness of time overcomes "individual death".
Temperance (Temperantia); an allegorical figure with the attributes of temperance stands in the centre foreground (clock on her head, bit in her mouth, eyeglasses in her hand, and the blade of a windmill below her foot); around her are representatives of the Seven Liberal Arts, over whom she governs. 1560
The Italian idea of representing Temperance with a timepiece was perhaps brought to Northern Europe by one of the Italian artists active in France and Burgundy at the turn of the 15th century. On the other hand, it may have been introduced by the father of the Venetian-born Christine de Pisan. About 1400, at the French court, the latter wrote L'épître d'Othéa, a treatise supposedly sent by the Trojan goddess Othea to a young prince for the formation of his character. Christine tells us that Othea represents the wisdom of woman and remarks in a note explaining the pictures that Temperance should be called a goddess likewise. And because our human body is made up of many parts and should be regulated by reason, it may be represented as a clock in which there are several wheels and measures. And just as the clock is worth nothing unless it is regulated, so our human body does not work unless Temperance orders it. Our two earliest manuscripts of Othéa, both produced shortly after 1400 at the court and presumably with Christine's advice by a Northern artist with Italian proclivities were embellished with pictures of Temperance adjusting a large mechanical clock. Such clocks became standard in illustrated Othéa manuscripts.
Allegory of Temperance
early 1680s, Luca Giordano
Temperance, one of the four Cardinal Virtues, holds a bridle and a clock and stands beside an elephant. Sobriety holds a key and rests her foot on a dolphin. Meekness (?) receives flowers. The figures at the bottom of the composition represent Sloth, Envy and Hunger. In the sky above are Voluptuousness, Youth and Tranquillity.
This painting is one of a group of 10 modelli, or elaborated oil studies, made in preparation for the fresco projects that Giordano created for the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence. This painting is connected with the ceiling of the Galleria.
"Wearing a matron headdress with a throat collar" Michel Colombe’s third guardian, the virtue Temperance, according to Dubuisson-Aubenay's Itinerary in Brittany, written in 1636, “...is dressed in simple clothes, a bridle with bit in one hand and in the other, the pendulum of a clock or the balance wheel of a watch..". In her left hand the statue holds a case decorated with a weight-driven clock, a customary model of the 16th century, seemingly a hieroglyph for time itself, the sole master of wisdom - and, like the hourglass, an emblem of Saturn. According to Fulcanelli however the esoteric scope of Temperance lies entirely in the bridle which she holds in her right hand. “...It is with the bridle that the horse is driven; by means of this bit, the cavalier directs his mount as he pleases. So the bridle can be considered as the essential instrument, the mediator placed between the will of the cavalier and the progress of the horse, toward the proposed objective. This means is designated in hermeticism by the name of cabala. So that the special expression of the bridle, that of restraint and of direction, allow one to identify and recognize, under a single symbolic form, Temperance and the Cabalistic Science...”
It is basically the opposite of Saturn's hourglass, a symbol of control rather than fatality.
... representing (the hourglass as symbol) the decisive time of choice, action and realization, the seizure of a moment that will not pass by again....
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