Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#51
A couple of posts back, Huck wrote,
Actually it's said, that Berlinghieri made the map for the Osmanic sultan - what looks rather curios. Generally later maps were regarded as "secret" ... perhaps there was an early idea of similar intention to fill the Osmanic mind with wrong data about the nature of the world. No Groenland, and the Northern cities (possible objects to the hungry expansive interest of the Osmans) seem to have greater distances between them as they actually had - so they looked more difficult to approach and attack.
I think the Turks would have known about planar projections and the distortions they introduced. All they had to do, to correct the distortions and assess the desirability of adding Greenland to the Turkish domains,was to buy a copy of the 1482 Ulm. They could also have bought manuscript copies of individual maps, the same sources de Laurentii used, on the open market. As it happened, Berlinghieri ended up dedicating the 1482 Florence atlas to the Duke of Urbino. It turned out that the Duke was on record as saying he "would be ashamed to own a printed book." So Berlinghieri had to make a special manuscript copy for him. Some of the coordinates for the contemporary maps were improved (perhaps using the 1482 Ulm, Skelton speculates), but they had the same planar projections. Somehow I don't think the Duke would have been fooled any more than the Sultan.

Huck wrote
if I don't count the trees as landscapes, then we have 4 planets, 2 artes liberales + 9 Muses as landscape pitctures from totally 50 images (15/50) and 14 of these we find again in Lazzarelli additionally a further art liberalis (Musica) and 3 of the gods, so 18/27. This seems to say, that the landscapes come from Lazzarelli ... well, it's not impossible that it had been the other way around.
Yes, it could go either way. Without further information, the probability is no less one way than the other, considering that the engravings went in two stages, as we have seen with the four virtue cards: main figures first, then the accoutrements. (That's my new word for what was added to the engravings from their state in 1468 to their state in 1469, on my theory, or 1475, on yours. It's more than "landscapes" because it includes background trees; and more than "background" because it includes foregrounds; and more than either, because the added animals are neither foreground nor background. So I say main figures--mostly in a 1450 Ferrarese style, which Galasso would have extended to Bologna--and accoutrements, in a style that started out as Florentine. I'm not sure what style the animals are in, or the lettering.)

In pursuit of the Truth, I have been reading Early Italian Engravings from the National Gallery of Art, 1973, by Levenson, Oberhuber, and Sheehan. I extract the following relevant bits.

They have a footnote about Lazarelli's picking up the cards in Venice {p. 83):
According to Lamberto Donati, "Le fonti iconographische di alcuni manuscritti urbaniti della Bibliteca Vaticana...." La Bibliofilia, 60, 1958, p. 50) Lazzarelli's nephew described the author as having obtained in a Venetian bookstore a collection of figues of the antique gods and also the Liberal Arts, which led him to compose his poem: "Ivi [Venezia] ritrovo in una Bottega di Librajo una raccolta di bellissime figure di Deiti de' Gentili, con molte immagini rappresentati le Arti liberali, la quale servigli di motivo per comporre un operetta distinta in tre libri, intitolandola de Imaginibus Deorum Gentilum."
The "raccolta di figure" was presumably the Tarocchi prints. It is particularly interesting, from our point of view, that Lazarelli found them in a bookstore.
Presumably the reason the mention of the bookstore is significant is that the authors are surmising that the prints were already considered a book when Lazarelli bought them, similar to the volumes in which many of the extant copies are still found.

Later they cite Donati again. After mentioning the four additional gods, whose images they reproduce, the authors add (p. 84):
It is quite possible that these additional illuminations are of Lazarelli's invention. On the other hand, it is conceivable, as Lamberto Donati has suggested, that Lazarelli had access to a more extensive series of images, perhaps a set of miniatures, on which the Tarocchi engravings are themselves based. (Footnote: We cannot, however, agree with many of the details of Donati's complex and highly speculative theory (pp. 66-125 regarding the hypothetical prototype of the Tarocchi.)
It would appear that Trionfi's "Lazarelli hypothesis" was originated by Donati, as described by Levenson et al, who also supplied the pictures of the four gods that Trionfi uses. I wonder if there are more pictures in Donati's text itself, since it is so long. I looked on WorldCat, but so far I can't find it. I guess I need the help of a librarian.

Levenson et al also have interesting things to say about the individual cards. They notice the similarity between the Servant and the PMB Pages of Coins. Iliaco is also similar to the Page of Coins, and there is some similarity betwen Cosmico and the PMB World card. The Artisan is similar a scene in Baldini's Planet Mercury, which I show below. Oddly enough, the standing figure at the right is rather similar to the Servant.

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For the Gentleman, they note a comparable hunting scene in Baldini's Jupiter. The King is similar to the Kings of Coins and Staves in the PMB. The Emperor is somewhat similar to the PMB Emperor, and similarly for the Pope.

On the Muses, they note that the globes derive from Capella (the musical instruments do, too).

For the planets, they note that the specific imagery of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn comes from the Libellus de maginibus deorum, an anonymous work of c. 1400 deriving from classical sources. However Jupiter, unlike in the Libellus, is not seated on an ivory throne, but rather on a rainbow, an image which comes from 14th century illustrations of Ovid.

As far as these classical texts, I don't know how we would tell whether they were accessible to one rather than another of Sweynheim's circle in Rome, the humanists of Bologna , or those of Ferrara or Florence. The PMB, however, probably wouldn't have gotten to the circle in Rome, and would most likely have been in Bologna, as a gift to Ginevra Sforza. There could also have been one in Ferrara, a gift from Galeazzo. The similarities to Baldini suggest an engraver from that workshop in Florence-- and Florentine engraver/goldsmiths were more likely to be working in Bologna than Ferrara.

The authors of the National Gallery book also give us an engraving with very similar trees to those of the three cosmic powers in the "Mantegna," leading them to say that the engraver was the same (p. 88). It is housed in the Albertina, Vienna:

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These trees were one of the features that led Hind to identify the "Mantegna's" engraver with that of the 1478 Ptolemy. But who is he? The National Gallery authors reproduce a drawing that is like the engraving but without the trees (p. 88, not posted here; it is in the Gabinatto Nazionale delle Stampe, Rome). They mention but do not reproduce another engraving which they say is by the same engraver, a Death of Orpheus. They say it is in Hind; I will try to post a copy tomorrow. But they do show us another engraving (p. 158) that seems also to have copied the putti we have just seen. They call this engraving "Ferrarese," but for no stated reason, other than that its putti resemble those in the first engraving, which resembles the "Mantegna" in its trees. This engraving is initialed "F.B." They suspect that it is a niello made from a plate that was not originally intended to produce prints.

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Another place that has similar trees, but not as similar as the ones with the putti, is in Baldini's "Planets," 1460-1465. Examples are in his "Sol."

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So who might be the engraver of the "cupids with trees" (which I will call it to distinguish it from the others)? Well, they are rather odd: middle-aged faces on children's bodies. Looking in several books of early Italian engravings, I have found only one engraving with similar putti: Plate 35 of Donati's 1944 Incisioni Fiorentine del Quattrocento. It is another on the same theme, cupids and grapes, this one housed in the Ufizzi. Donati called it Florentine, c. 1470.

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In painting, I find no similar putti except in miniatures. The National Gallery authors, as much as Hind, see the Ferrarese miniaturists as possible candidates for engraver of the "Mantegna." In The Painted Page, I found only three miniaturists with similarly odd-looking putti.

One (p. 85) is Leonardo Bellini, Venice 1462. According to Giordiana Mariani Canova, author of the commentary on this miniature. the borders of this work for the newly elected Doge (of the Moro family whose coat of arms we see) resemble those of a Virgil illuminated in 1458 by the Ferrarese miniaturist Georgio d'Alemagna (another German for you to track down, Huck?). The Virgil had been done for a Venetian diplomat for whom Leonardo is known to have done a Lactantius in 1457. The animals around the putti supposedly represent virtues or vices. I have not found any reproductions from the Virgil.

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The other two miniaturists whose putti have middle-aged faces are the two main collaborators on the Borso d'Este Bible (Ferrara 1455-1461), Taddeo Crivelli and Franco de' Russi. Crivelli has one such putto in the detail from the Borso Bible that I posted earlier, viewtopic.php?f=12&t=463&start=30#p6144; it also has the similar trees. He also has similar putti elsewhere in the Borso Bible, most strikingly in his depiction of Cain.

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Some putti in the margins are similar as well (below left), and also some in a book of hours, late 1460's (below right), as documented in The Gualenghi-d'Este Hours, by Kurt Barstow (where I also get the black and white Borso Bible illuminations). It is known that Crivelli was in Bologna in the 1470's and may have learned engraving.

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De' Russi's odd, middle-aged putti are from his time in Padua, where he moved in the 1460's, doing illuminations of manuscripts (pp. 83, 218) according to Canova (Painted Page p. 218). The putti below are from 1463 (only the left one, of course) and 1465-1470. The first is for an Oratio Gratulatorio composed by Bernardo Bembo, then a student at Padua and later to become a great humanist and politician. Yhe occasion was the election of Cristoforo Moro as Doge of Venice. His coat of arms, which we saw in the Bellini, is on the page below the inscription, of which I reproduce only a part. The other illumination, Canova tells us, was probably for an academic at the same University, whom we see sitting in the chariot being pulled by Minerva's owls.

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De' Russi's trees, like Crivelli's, are similar to those of the "Mantegna." I posted an example earlier (viewtopic.php?f=12&t=463&start=30#p6149), from illuminations he did for a book printed in 1470 Venice by Vindelinus de Spira. His putti in that work don't look so odd, as you can see in that post.

According to Painted Page, illuminators in Northern Italy, unlike those of Florence, frequently changed cities. I have found no evidence that any besides Crivelli did engraving. But considering that Crivelli probably did, perhaps de' Russi did, too. The skills are somewhat transferable, as both media use pens.

I conclude that for the "Mantegna"'s engraver, this evidence weakly favors the part of Italy from Bologna north and east, 1465-1470, in a Florentine style. For the trees, we can also say that the designer might have been an illuminator who was part of the Borso Bible project that finished in 1461.

Well, I will be in Los Angeles for 10 days starting March 2. I won't have much time for posting, but I hope to fit in libraries and museums, which are a lot better there than here in Oregon. The Getty has Crivelli's book of hours. I don't need to see it, but that they have it suggests they might have more from that time and place.

P.S. I found a whole monograph on the printing industry in Bologna in the 15th centuryThe University and the Press in Fifteenth-Century Boplogna[/i}. bu Curt F. Buehler, 1958. It confirms what could already be guessed: that printers mainly served the university. The first presses were the result of a contract drawn up on 25 October 1470 between Francesco dal Pozzo, Baldassarre Azzoguidi, and Annibale Malpigli. Dal Pozzo was the tutor of the children of Giovanni II Bentivoglio; Azzoguido "belonged to a family prominent both in the city and in university circles." Malpigli was on the university faculty teaching logic and moral philosophy; it was he who was in charge of the press--work. For me the only surprise is that Germans aren't mentioned until 1482. Perhaps in 1470 Bologna they just did the work.

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#52
P.S. I found a whole monograph on the printing industry in Bologna in the 15th centuryThe University and the Press in Fifteenth-Century Boplogna[/i}. bu Curt F. Buehler, 1958. It confirms what could already be guessed: that printers mainly served the university. The first presses were the result of a contract drawn up on 25 October 1470 between Francesco dal Pozzo, Baldassarre Azzoguidi, and Annibale Malpigli. Dal Pozzo was the tutor of the children of Giovanni II Bentivoglio; Azzoguido "belonged to a family prominent both in the city and in university circles." Malpigli was on the university faculty teaching logic and moral philosophy; it was he who was in charge of the press--work. For me the only surprise is that Germans aren't mentioned until 1482. Perhaps in 1470 Bologna they just did the work.


Baldassarre Azzoguidi, 34 printings, starting 1471

http://www.gesamtkatalogderwiegendrucke ... ultsize=50

Annibale Malpigli, connected to 1 printing (perhaps)
http://www.gesamtkatalogderwiegendrucke ... ultsize=50

Francesco dal Pozzo was NOT a printer

Azzoguidi was in this case the printer, the other both had probably other functions. Malpigli might be well the printing press owner, that is, he gave the money.

I made a very rough check only:
Generally printer with names, where you directly see, that they are Germans, are relatively rare in Bologna and they seem to be not especially active. The most noted name is Heinrich von Köln, mentioned in 36 cases for Bologna (totally 99 prints under his name). Johann Valbeck 18 printings, Johann Schriber 17. German printers might have had 10-15%, possibly even 20% of the market, not more. ... :-) it seems, that Bolognese printers guarded their market better than other cities.
The most mentioned Bolognese printer is Ugo Rugerius (116 printings), this might be around 20% of all Bolognese works.

Would be nice to see, where Azzoguidi learned from.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#53
mikeh wrote: I think the Turks would have known about planar projections and the distortions they introduced. All they had to do, to correct the distortions and assess the desirability of adding Greenland to the Turkish domains,was to buy a copy of the 1482 Ulm. They could also have bought manuscript copies of individual maps, the same sources de Laurentii used, on the open market. As it happened, Berlinghieri ended up dedicating the 1482 Florence atlas to the Duke of Urbino. It turned out that the Duke was on record as saying he "would be ashamed to own a printed book." So Berlinghieri had to make a special manuscript copy for him. Some of the coordinates for the contemporary maps were improved (perhaps using the 1482 Ulm, Skelton speculates), but they had the same planar projections. Somehow I don't think the Duke would have been fooled any more than the Sultan.
I've read, that the Osmans indeed had an edition of the Berlinghieri atlas. I can't judge, how good the spying system of the Osmans worked and if they would naturally noted the European Ptolemy development. Also there might have been language problems - as there were language problems with Arabic/Osmanic texts on the European side. It's not naturally so, that Berlinghieri would have used the same dedication in all his printings.

Huck wrote
if I don't count the trees as landscapes, then we have 4 planets, 2 artes liberales + 9 Muses as landscape pitctures from totally 50 images (15/50) and 14 of these we find again in Lazzarelli additionally a further art liberalis (Musica) and 3 of the gods, so 18/27. This seems to say, that the landscapes come from Lazzarelli ... well, it's not impossible that it had been the other way around.
Yes, it could go either way. Without further information, the probability is no less one way than the other, considering that the engravings went in two stages, as we have seen with the four virtue cards: main figures first, then the accoutrements. (That's my new word for what was added to the engravings from their state in 1468 to their state in 1469, on my theory, or 1475, on yours. It's more than "landscapes" because it includes background trees; and more than "background" because it includes foregrounds; and more than either, because the added animals are neither foreground nor background. So I say main figures--mostly in a 1450 Ferrarese style, which Galasso would have extended to Bologna--and accoutrements, in a style that started out as Florentine. I'm not sure what style the animals are in, or the lettering.)
Using only parts of an engraving or composing from different copperplates should have been a standard procedure.
For your error observation with Gallia and Hispania in the Berlinghieri atlas: I think, that an engraver occasionally made an error and this was troublesome especially with big copper plates. So the procedure should have been, that in the careful printing process wrong parts simply weren't filled with color ... and the parts of the wrong Gallia wouldn't have appeared. But - as usual - the printer isn't always careful. But if you find a "wrong Gallica" in one edition, it doesn't mean, that you necessarily find the same mistake in all others. Also it might well have been, that they sorted "good examples" and "bad examples with errors" of engravings. As paper was expensive, bad printings not naturally were thrown away ... but it seems likely, that there were editions with much errors and edition with less errors.
"Landscape backgrounds" are simply more work than "no landscape backgrounds". I don't know, if the probability "is no less one way than the other". For Lazzarelli (66%) the landscapes were a basic element and they are somehow logical distributed (2 of 2 artes liberales have landscape background), 9 of 9 Muses, 4 of 4 gods on chariots have element-background. For the Mantegna Tarocchi series (30%) the distribution looks less logical (2 of 7 artes liberales have landscapes). The original script is usually logical, the later variations are usually "less logical". This is not "with guarantee", but it points in the direction, that Lazzarelli's version had existed before the Mantegna Tarocchi.
The three tree pictures have no landscape or the trees are the landscape.
Presumably the reason the mention of the bookstore is significant is that the authors are surmising that the prints were already considered a book when Lazarelli bought them, similar to the volumes in which many of the extant copies are still found.
Book stores could sell also graphics. And it's also possible, that the book store was a trader, who dealt with material used for printing. Probably book stores (like Bistecci in Florence) connected the work of scribes and the public commissioners or buyers. If you wanted a book with graphic and design (illuminations), you probably could order it. As book printing was very young, when Lazzarelli bought the pictures, the store probably operated in the way, as it was custom in the time when book printing didn't exist.
Later they cite Donati again. After mentioning the four additional gods, whose images they reproduce, the authors add (p. 84):
It is quite possible that these additional illuminations are of Lazarelli's invention. On the other hand, it is conceivable, as Lamberto Donati has suggested, that Lazarelli had access to a more extensive series of images, perhaps a set of miniatures, on which the Tarocchi engravings are themselves based. (Footnote: We cannot, however, agree with many of the details of Donati's complex and highly speculative theory (pp. 66-125 regarding the hypothetical prototype of the Tarocchi.)
It would appear that Trionfi's "Lazarelli hypothesis" was originated by Donati, as described by Levenson et al, who also supplied the pictures of the four gods that Trionfi uses. I wonder if there are more pictures in Donati's text itself, since it is so long. I looked on WorldCat, but so far I can't find it. I guess I need the help of a librarian.
We haven't read Donati (though we quote him in another context ...
http://trionfi.com/0/m/20/
... ), so our Lazzarelli hypothesis surely was not originated by Donati, though it might well be, that Donati also followed the simple logical hypothesis, that there are two possibilities, not only one, to interpret the 1467/68 documents. Surely it would be nice, if you could find the text.
On the Muses, they note that the globes derive from Capella (the musical instruments do, too).
Interesting, do you have a quote, where they refer to? Generally we found, that the Muses row was made according Fulgentius, and the Gaffurio arrangement followed Capella.

http://trionfi.com/0/m/11
http://trionfi.com/0/m/12/

Image


For the planets, they note that the specific imagery of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn comes from the Libellus de maginibus deorum, an anonymous work of c. 1400 deriving from classical sources. However Jupiter, unlike in the Libellus, is not seated on an ivory throne, but rather on a rainbow, an image which comes from 14th century illustrations of Ovid.
The similarities aren't so strong ... or they've another edition?
http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/book-echecs-2/
.. links in the second column from the left, you've to search a little bit
The PMB, however, probably wouldn't have gotten to the circle in Rome, and would most likely have been in Bologna, as a gift to Ginevra Sforza.
I don't see there a problem, the PMB motifs of the small arcana might have been well distributed. Well, we don't know, where the Sforza took them from ... actually there were decks without Trionfi cards.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#54
Hi Huck. On the Libellus:. I will type out a couple of quotes from Levenson et al now, the rest when I get back from Los Angeles (leaving tomorrow, back March 10). I have been focusing on finding titles relevant to this thread and the "triumphs" one that are in the Getty Institute Library, so I don't waste time when I get there. Well, now I'm just accumulating bibliographies, to look things up when I'm there. But here is the one on Venus:
Venus was depicted as a very lovely girl, nude and bathing in the sea. In her right hand she holds a sea shell..,.she is accompanied by doves flying around her...and in her presence stand three nude young girls, who are called the three Graces. Two of them have their faces turned towards us, but the third, on the contrary, turns her back. And here stands Cupid, her son, winged and blind, who shot Apollo with the bow and arrow he holds.
The source is Hans Liebeschutz, Fulgentius Metaforalis (Studien der Bibliothek Warburg 4), Leipzig & Berlin, 1926, p. 118. So it is probably Fulgentius once or twice removed. And did the artist not know that it was the center Grace who has her back turned, and their arms were intertwined? Or is this a legitimate variant on the standard?

And on Mercury, we read, among other things
...In his presence there was also a cock, specially consecrated to him; on his other side was Argus, whose head and face were full of eyes, who lay decapitated by him...
The "Mantegna" image also borrows from "an archaistic relief of Hermes that Cyriacus of Ancona copied on his trip to Greece," according to Fritz Saxl, "Riniscimento dell'Antichita," Repertorium fur Kunstgeschichte 43, 1922, pp. 252ff, and Seznec, Survival of the Pagan Gods, 1953, p 200f.

The Morgan Library has the monograph by Donati. I will email them to see what they will do as far as copying pages for me. I'm not sure how scholarly I will sound if I tell them I just want to look at the pictures.

I was not trying to imply that people at Trionfi had read the Donati essay: it is in a relatively obscure source, in an obscure language. (You'd think people speculating about the Italian Renaissance would have the decency to do so in English, or at least German!) But I did wonder whether Trionfi researchers had read the summary of Donati in Levenson et al; that source is all over the place. Of the post-1950 references in English, their treatment of the "Mantegna" probably comes up the most in scholarly articles. Every point in their summary is also in Trionfi's theory, in similar language. Maybe somebody read it and forget that they had. The literature on the "Mantegna" is vast, it's easy to forget things. I for example do not remember where I read that the Muses' musical instruments come from Capella. It isn't original with me, and I could track it down with time. Here is Levenson et al, p. 100
The most curious details in this group of images are the blank discs which appear with all the Muses except Thalia. According to Jean Seznec, they are meant to represent the celestial spheres of the Ptolemaic universe. Martianus Capella had assigned a sphere to each of the Muses, but since there were nine Muses and only eight suitable celestial spheres (the planets, the sun and moon, and the fixed stars), he placed Thalia on earth, so that the number would coincide (Seznec, p. 141).
The basis in Capella helps the Lazarelli hypothesis, since the other manuscript, the one with the Liberal Arts in it, was Capella.

I have been trying to track down the lettering style. It is different from the type-sets and engraved lettering used in Venice, and closer to the engraved lettering in Florence as practiced by Benedetto Strozzi 1469-70 (Painted Page p. 146, 150). Also the practice of Roman-style letters inscribed closely together, which appears in Florence c. 1431, may have originated with the Cosmati family in Subiaco and Rome in the late 1300's, according to a book on the history of printing by Morison in 1972, p. 273. My source, a pamphlet, is not very clear. Hopefully I will track down Morison, and another reference, to Meiss 1960, p. 99, by the time I am back from LA. (I also have the email address of the person who put together the pamphlet, one of those people who make a living these days creating new fonts based on old designs.) The illuminated frontispiece of a 1469 Sweynheim book in The Painted Page also has this same compacted lettering at the top. I need to see more Sweynheim, and more lettering.

While looking for Donati in WorldCat (I found it once I realized Levenson et al's misspelling of the title: it's "iconografische," not "iconographische"), I came across a recent article arguing, against Skelton and Campbell, that Rosselli engraved the 1482 Berlinghieri maps. Well, I think I commented already that their argument against him didn't look that strong. I forwarded a pdf version, off an academic database you might not have, to Trionfi.com with instructions to forward it to you, Huck. It has a note with it not to send out multiple emails of the article. It's from the journal Imago Mundi, 2004, pp. 152-169, author Suzanne Boorsch, a curator of prints etc. at the Yale Art Gallery. I haven't read it yet.

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#55
In case it might help, here is a quote from Donati, posted by John Meador to LTarot in 2005 -
"Gli Urbinati Lat. 716 e 717 contengono un poemetto di Lodovico Lazzarelli da Sanseverino nelle Marche, nato net 1450 e morto net 1500 << Vedi GIAN FRANCESCO LANCILOTTI, Ludovici Lazzarelli septempedani
poetae laureati Bombyx, Aesii, Bonelli, 1765.>>, "De imaginibus gentilium Deorum". I due codici sono l'uno all'altro similissimi ne sono gli unici perche, oltre alla notizia datane dal Lancillotti, p.13-14, "Duo exempla huius Libri extant in Bibliotheca Vaticana inter Codices Urbinatenses n. 716. et 717", nella vita di Gian Francesco Lazzarelli di Sebastiano Ranghiasci leggiamo: " Dalla stessa Famiglia Lazzarelli discese it famoso Lodovico Lazzarelli di S. Severino Poeta Latino, laureato da Ferdinando Re di Aragona, di cui io tengo un prezioso Codice De Immaginibus Deorum, che forse un giorno pubblichero colle Stampe" <<SEBASTIANO RANGHIASCI, La vita di Gio. Francesco
Lazzarelli, Perugia, Riginaldi, 1779, p. 7, n. a.>>. Donde il Lazzarelli traesse ispirazione per il suo poemetto e detto nella Biblioteca Volante di Giovanni Cinelli Calvoli da una vita inedita scritta dal nipote Fabbrizio: "Ivi (Venezia) ritrovo in una Bottega di Librajo una raccolta di bellissime figure di Deita de' Gentili, con molte immagini rappresentanti le Arti liberali, la quale servigli di motivo per comporre un operetta distinta in tre libri; intitolandola de Imaginibus Deorum Gentilium; la quale restituito alla Patria inviolla a Federigo Duca di Urbino, da cui ricevette in dono cinquanta Ducati d'oro, ed un mantello" <<Della biblioteca volante di Gio.Cinelli Calvoli... Scanzia XXII. Rovereto, Berno, 1736, p. 129-130.>>. Questa raccolta non e altro che i "Tarocchi del Mantegna""
-Lamberto Donati: "Le fonti iconografiche di alcuni manoscritti urbinati della Biblioteca Vaticana"; in Bibliofilia,Vol. 60, 1958
So Lazzarelli's nephew Fabbrizio is the source, from his unpublished biography ("vita") of his uncle Lodovico.

Samten de Wet also posted on the subject there, in 2007 -
Just to add another fragment on the story of the bookstore in Venice:

Note 10. According to Lamberto Donati ("Le fonti iconographiche di alcuni manoscritti urbinati della Biblioteca Vaticana... ," La Bibliofilia, 60,1958, p. 50) Lazzarelli's nephew described the author as having obtained in a Venetian bookstore a collection of figures of the antique gods and also the Liberal Arts, which led him to compose his poem: "Ivi [Venezia] ritrovò in una Bottega di Librajo una raccolta di bellissime figure di Deità de' Gentili, con molte immagini rappresentanti le Arti liberali, la quale servigli di motivo per comporre un operetta distinta in tre libri, intirolandola de imaginibus Deorum Gentilium." The "raccolta di figure" was presumably the Tarocchi prints. It is particularly interesting, from our point of view, that Lazzarelli found them in a bookstore.

From:
Jay A. Levenson, Early Italian Engravings from the National Gallery of Art,
Washington, pp. 81 ff. [1973]
Image

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#56
As far Lazzarelli is concerned ....
Wouter J. Hanegraaff & Ruud M. Bouthoorn, Lodovico Lazzarelli (1447-1500): The Hermetic Writings and Related Documents, Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Tempe 2005.

A recent research and a good one, though naturally not focusing on the Mantegna Tarocchi. And it's in English.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#57
OK, I'm back. Thanks for the quote about Lazarelli, Ross, from LTarot. I didn't imagine that I was the first on the Internet to notice this reference! But somehow I have the feeling that there is more in the Donati monograph than just these quotes, which don't say more about the poem than what I already quoted from Levenson. He says there is also a long, speculative argument, which he is ignoring. Perhaps there are even pictures beyond the ones we have already from Kaplan and Levenson; that is what I'd really like to see.

Also, there is nothing in these quotes about the date that Zavarelli saw these engravings. Where do you get your dating of the purchase from, Huck? (1468-69, I think it was.) Is it simply an inference from the fact that he finished his manuscript before Borso's death in August of 1471?

Now I want to get back to Levenson's comments on the "Mantegna." Huck asked for quotes from the c. 1400 Libellus showing a correlation to the "Mantegna" planetary images. I had time to copy out two of them, Venus and Mercury. Here are the rest.

Of Saturn, it says:
He was depicted as an old man, gray-haired, with a long beard, stoooped, melancholy, and pallid, his head covered...he holds a sickle, and in the same hand he carries the image of a serpent which bites its own tail with its teeth. With the other, that is, the left, he brings a very small child to his mouth, and appears to devour him. Near him he has his children, that is, Jove, Juno, Neptune, and Pluto, of whom Jupiter castrated him.
The one for Mars is as follows:
It is said that Mars is the third of the gods, and he is third in the order of the planets....his figure was of a man raging, seated in a chariot, clad in mail and armed with other offensive and defensive weapons; he had a helmet on his head...and was girded with a sword....Before him a wolf carrying a sheep was depicted, as that animal had been specially consecrated to Mars by the ancients.
Our engraver seems to have decided to leave off the sheep. Levenson notes that the S-series substituted a dog for the wolf, thus showing that the engraver did not know E-series source.

Finally, here is the quote for Jupiter:
Jupiter, son of Saturn, to whom the rule of the heavens was given in the oracle, was depicted seated in an ivory throne, in his seat of majesty, holding the scepter of rule in his left hand. Frm the other, that is the right, he hurls thunderbolts downwards, keeping the Titans in check with his thunder and treading them beneath his feet. Together with him is his eagle, which, flyiing, carries beneath his feet the very beautiful youth, Ganymede., whom he abducted; the latter has in hand a crater, to fill Jove's goblet.
The engraver has obviously departed from this description, in favor of more amorous references.

I hope that helps, Huck.

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#58
AN INVESTIGATION OF ILLUMINATOR-ENGRAVERS WHO MIGHT HAVE DONE THE "MANTEGNA"

I have been reading about illuminator-engravers, following up on Levenson's suggestion (Early Italian Engravings in the National Gallery, p. 87) that the "Mantegna" might have been done by one of them. Here is a summary of pertinent details.

Levenson, I said earlier, mentioned two engravings he said were by the same engraver as that of the "Mantegna." I posted the one he reproduces, of putti picking grapes.

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Levenson notes that the putti in this engraving link the "Mantegna" engraver with the illuminators of the Borso d'Este Bible. In a previous post (viewtopic.php?f=12&t=463&start=50#p6201) I gave examples of similar putti by Crivelli and dei Russi, this Bible's principal illuminators. Another feature of this engraving is trees similar to those of the "Mantegna" images as well as to the 1478 Rome Ptolemy (compare at viewtopic.php?f=12&t=463&start=30#p6149). But stylistically the resemblance to the trees of Crivelli's and dei Russi's illuminations is not very close. I looked at more illuminations by these two, but nothing else was at all similar. There is no evidence that dei Russi even learned engraving; his career is a steady output of illuminations.

As for Crivelli, there is some evidence, connected with his involvement with mapmaking. In Ferrara, Skelton says (Bibliographic note to facsimile edition of 1477 Bologna Ptolemy, p. vi), he did commissions (I assume illuminations) for one "Maistro Nicolo todesco catolare," whom Skelton speculates was the cosmographer Donnus Nicolaus Germanus. Then after 1471 he moved to Bologna and in 1474 contracted with others to produce what became the 1477 Bologna Ptolemy. According to Skelton, it is not clear what Crivelli's involvement was in this project: the engraver is never named. But the many ornamental features in and around the maps, such as fish, boats, and water (all added after the first prints), suggest someone with the pictorial eye of an illuminator. And the heads representing the winds (two shown below), surrounding the large map on all sides, are in the style of Crivelli's illuminations of saints. Hind observed that these heads, despite the roughness of the engraving, are in "the true Ferrarese style" (1938, p. 290). Since all these features were added after the maps were done, it is an open question whether Crivelli engraved the maps.

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Within the maps, however, the trees are like some in Crivelli's illuminations (see viewtopic.php?f=12&t=463&start=30#p6144). And the way the mountains are represented, as precipices, reflects a common motif in the Schifanoia Palace, with which Crivelli would have been familiar in Ferrara before moving to Bologna.

The style of these Bologna trees and mountains is very different from that of the "Mantegna" series, the 1478 Rome Ptolemy, and the engraving given by Levenson (see the link to my earlier post above). Nor do the seas, ships, fish, or heads have anything to do with these other examples. If Crivelli did all or some of the Bologna, it is hard to imagine that he engraved these others, as indeed Hind concluded.

To me the grape-harvest engraving supplied by Levenson suggests Florence as its place of origin. It is similar in content and composition to another engraving I posted earlier (see post referenced earlier) that is identified as Florentine both by Donati (see previous post) and by Lambert (p. 93). Both are similar to a Roman sarcophagus I saw at the Getty Villa in Malibu (http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/art ... obj=311978).

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The Getty does not say where this sarcophagus was in the 15th century. But I know that Mantegna's "Bacchanal" engravings were inspired by a Bacchic procession sarcophagus in the villa of Lorenzo dei Medici (Lambert p. 193f). "Bacchic frenzies" was a theme dear to his Academy and expressed poetically by Poliziano (Hind p. 76). Perhaps Lorenzo also had a grape-harvest sarcophagus. Alternatively, it could have been in Rome, where Hind (p. 75) says a couple of other grape-themed sarcophagi were from, these inspiring a later Florentine engraving of Maenads with grapes.

Levenson mentions but does not reproduce another engraving he attributes to the same hand as the grape-harvest, a Death of Orpheus, E.3.17 in Hind. Here it is, my scan of a copy of the reproduction in Hind:

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Levenson compares the two Maenads to the "Mantegna's" Luna and Calliope. He doesn't say why, but the main reason, it seems to me, is that the lines of the Maenads' robes and those of the two "Mantegna" figures similarly suggest motion, whereas with most other "Mantegna" figures the lines suggest repose.

It is not at all obvious to me why the engraving should be Ferrarese, except for the similarity to the "Mantegna" and the two standing Belfiore Muses. The rocks and hills are found in Florentine art of the period as well. Why not a Florentine engraver using Ferrarese design elements? The Belfiore Muses are notable for their repose; using the lines of robes to connote motion is a Florentine characteristic, as for example in Bozzoni's famous "Dance of Salome" (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: ... 461-62.jpg). And precipices were a standard feature of Florentine engravings in the 1460's, considerably before they appeared in Ferrara's Schifanoia. They are some in Baldini's pre-1465 "Planets" and "Triumphs" series, for example.

Who could have done such engravings? Since I had not come up with much among the Ferrarese illuminators, I looked at ones trained elsewhere, and not only in Florence. I found just one miniaturist who depicts vegetation in the style of the grape-harvest and "Mantegna" engravings. The illumination is of of a 1472 Florentine Ptolemy Cosmographia. You can see the whole page and the other frontispiece to the same work at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Categ ... ._lat._277. On that site you will notice the attribution to Francesco Rosselli. Rosselli was a famous Florentine engraver and cartographer. The attribution of the illumination to him is not secure, but it is the one most favored. Its motifs are seen in other The scribe is known to have been Ugo or Hugo de Comminellis, a Frenchman living in Florence (Suzanne Boorsch, “The case for Francesco Rosselli as the Engraver of Berlinghieri’s Geographia, Imago Mundi Vol 56 Part 2, 2004, p. 163, Albina de la Mare, "Messer Piero Strozzi," in Calligraphy and Palaeography: Essays presented to Alfred Fairbank, ed. A. S. Osley, p. 65).

Here are some details that are undeniably like those of the "Mantegna." I get them from a reproduction in the book Gutenberg e Roma: Le origin della stampa nella citta dei papi 1467-1477 (it has many pages about Sweynheim, by the way). First, for trees:

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And for the little vegetation on the ground:

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A muzzled dog and deer appear also in another illumination attributed to Rosselli, #48 in The Painted Page, ed. Alexander, c. 1470-1480. The attributed scribe, "Hubertus," was active in Florence "from at least 1462 to the mid-1470's," according to Alexander.

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In the 1472 illumination, the face and headgear of the Pope are similar to that in the "Mantegna," and in the 1467 Bologna illumination that I posted (from Trionfi.com) at the beginning of this thread (relevant detail second below).

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There are putti, too, although not middle-aged.

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However the lettering is similar to that of the "Mantegna."

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This lettering was presumably done by de Comminellis. He did two other Ptolemies and part of a third, which was finished by the Florentine Messer Piero Strozzi (Albina de la Mare, "Messer Piero Strozzi," in Calligraphy and Palaeography: Essays presented to Alfred Fairbank, ed. by A. S. Osley, p. 65). In an earlier post I noted the similarity of some of Strozzi's other lettering to that of the "Mantegna." De la Mare relates that Strozzi's father Benedetto took up copying manuscripts to supplement his income after the Medici put punitive taxes on all the Strozzi; the son, rector of a church on the outskirts of Florence, followed in the father's footsteps.

Here you will notice how the letterer does his "M's": sometimes with diagonal sides, sometimes with vertical ones, just as in the Mantegna. The middle of the M often does not reach the baseline. The "M's" in the "Mantegna" have a similar variability. However in general the lettering is no different from that in illuminations by other Italian artists and scribes in Florence and other Italian cities: e.g. Rome (including the 1478 Rome Ptolemy), Mantua, and Venice. Here are some examples to give you an idea of the style (from Millard Meiss, "Toward a More Comprehensive Renaissance Paleography," Art Bulletin June 1960):

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One factor in Rosselli's favor is the inventory of his shop after his son's death in 1525. Besides many of the engravings commonly attributed to him, including maps as well as series of Prophets, Sibyls, and Triumphs (Boorsch p. 157), it listed such games as "Game of the Seven Virtues," "Game of the Planets," and "Game of the Triumphs of Petrarch" (Hind p. 222). There is no listing corresponding to the 50 Mantegna cards specifically, however.

Another factor is that Rosselli seems to have traveled a lot. In 1470 he reportedly was in Siena, doing illuminations and in 1480 he went to Hungary for 2 years (Hind 1938, p. 10). He ended his career in Venice. So why not, at the start of his career, also Bologna and Ferrara, to see the works of the artists there? He reportedly didn't marry until the 1470's (Boorsch p. 155).

Admittedly, many of the engravings now attributed to Rosselli do not look like those of the "Mantegna." But Levenson, in his discussion of Rosselli, distinguishes three different styles, at different periods. Here are two of them, early and middle:

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The earliest style, in the mode of its lines and shading, is not dissimilar from the "Mantegna" series. That it is the earliest style is indicated by whom some of these engravings copy: their composition resembles the earlier Florentine niello master Finiguerra.

Rosselli typically copied others' designs. Early on, his model was Finiguerra. Then it was Baldini, and later on Botticelli. Boorsch thinks that his older brother Cosimo Rosselli, a painter well-regarded enough to have been included as one of the painters of the Sistine Chapel, did many of his designs, as similar figures can be spotted on the Chapel's walls (p. 153).

As a cartographer, Rosselli's only signed and dated set of maps was in 1506 Venice. But there were 20 copper plates of maps in an inventory of Rosselli’s shop after his son’s death in 1525 (Boorsch p. 157). Boorsch thinks that Rosselli engraved the 1482 Geographia of Berlingieri, before he left for Hungary. (There is consensus that the maps were done before the poem was.) As she demonstrates, the heads representing the winds there are quite similar to representations of winds in his 1506 map. The following is from her article, p. 163:

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I would add that the Berlinghieri wind-heads are even more similar to those in Rosselli's earliest known work (1465-1470 according to Levenson), the Deluge, modeled on a drawing by Finiguerra. From this upper-left corner of the engraving, I include more details so that you can compare it to the "Mantegna" engravings (e.g. the cross-hatching in the Artisan), which must have been done around the same time or a little later.

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On three of the Berlinghieri regional maps, moreover, the mountains are similar to those of the 1478 Ptolemy (but with shading on their left instead of their right sides). It is these 1478 mountains, you will recall, that Hind found similar to those in the "Mantegna."

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The seas are also represented similarly, with masses of little horizontal lines.

But on all the other maps in the Berlinghieri series, the mountains are done quite differently; they are masses of little diagonal lines surrounded by a double line partly empty and partly filled.

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I suspect that more than one engraver was at work. Rosselli would have done the wind-heads and the maps with one of the two styles of mountains. If he also worked on the 1478 Rome around the same time, perhaps he only had time for the three maps.

Such wind-heads also resemble the middle-aged putti in the grape-harvest engravings. Here are two more from the Berlinghieri world map:

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Another inspiration for middle-aged faces could have been this Baldini engraving for the 1481 edition of Dante's Inferno, printed by the same printer as did the Berlinghieri maps.

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One final connection is that the same scribe who lettered the 1472 Ptolemy that Rosselli illuminated also lettered the manuscript copy that Berlinghieri had intended to send to the Duke of Urbino (Boorsch p. 163).

But there are some problems about attributing the "Montegna" to Rosselli. One is Hind's point that Florentine engravings have a cloudiness that the "Mantegna" and the other engravings attributed to that master lack. However this cannot be said for all Florentine engravings. It may depend on how many impressions were made before the one we know. Also, it is possible that the cloudiness is part of the printing process, and the printer in Northern Italy for some reason (say, the influence of a German engraver who had moved south) had a different technique. Nielo engravings, which appeared first in Italy, almost always have a cloudiness; perhaps it took the Florentines a while to wean themselves from that look.

Another problem with Rosselli is his age and experience. Levenson says of his early prints, "the fact that some were based on drawings provided by Maso Finiguerra, who died in 1464, makes one wonder whether Rosselli could not have begun engraving shortly before Maso's death" (p. 59). Then the "Deluge' might be as early as 1465, as he suggests. Could someone so young (about age 16 in 1464) and inexperienced have done the "Mantegna," which I and most art historians date to 1464-1467? I do not know the answer. Rosselli proved to be both very talented and very prolific. If he was only copying others' designs, I don't see why not. (I can't imagine that they were done later, because we know that some of the "stations of life" were done by 1467 and at least four of the virtues by 1468.) Alternatively, perhaps there was another young engraver-illuminator, slightly older and more experienced but with the same background, who did the 1472 and other illuminations attributed to Rosselli and also the engravings identified by Levenson. Boorsch thinks that all the attributions of manuscripts and paintings to Rosselli "should be carefully re-examined" (p. 153). But whoever he was, he must have Florentine connections, because the scribe was based in Florence.

I conclude that the engravings of the "Mantegna" have a Ferrarese inspiration, but likely a Florence-trained engraver, coming out of the workshop of Finiguerra after the master's death. The same engraver, or another member of the same workshop, may have engraved the 1478 Rome Ptolemy, and parts of the the 1482 Berlinghieri Geographia in Florence.

Who then would have been the "Mantegna"'s designer? Here Crivelli and dei Russi remain candidates, if not my favorite ones. If dei Russi did the designs, it would have been while he was working for Venetian patrons, i.e. during his time in Padua, 1462-1471, and definitely before he moved to Urbino, c. 1474 (Alexander, ed., The Painted Page, entries for dei Rossi). Dei Russi, it turns out, was probably in Bologna 1452-1455, moving there the same time Galasso did, working for Bassarion, illuminating a choir book series; he continued to work on this project in Ferrara at the same time as he was doing the Borso Bible, 1456-1561 (Pia Palladino, Treasures of a Lost Art, p. 78).

If Crivelli was the designer, it would have been at some time when he was not deeply involved in a book illumination. He is known to have finished one series in 1465, another in 1467, another c. 1469, another in 1470. and another in about 1469 or 1470 (Kurt Barstow, The Gualengi-d'Este Hours, p. 32). When did he have time to design the "Mantegna"? It may be significant that of the small number of saints for which the 1469-1470 Gualengi-d'Este Hours has illuminations, two (both done by a different illuminator, Guglielmo Giraldi) were from Bologna: Catherine of Bologna (who wasn't canonized until the 18th century) and the exceedingly obscure and unofficial St. Ossanus. Also, in Bologna Crivelli's first recorded work was for the Benedictines of San Procolo "working on initials for choir books" (Barstow p. 32). He pawned the parchment, and it was retrieved by the monks! The significance is that in 1468 engravings of four of the Virtues from the "Mantegna" showed up pasted into a manuscript now held by the Benedictine monastery in St. Gallen, Switzerland. Crivelli's misadventure at least shows that there was an active Benedictine manuscript-making industry in Bologna then.

But there were many Ferrarese-trained illuminators at that time. I still favor Bologna as central to the "Mantegna" project. Both Crivelli and dei Russi had connections there. And that is where Florentine engravers would have primarily gone if they left Florence, because of the close political ties between the two cities.

It remains possible that the engraver also was the designer, working from sketches provided by Galasso in Bologna (as I suggested in my initial post), or, less likely, by visiting Belfiore itself. But most likely, I like to think, Galasso himself, near the end of his own life. was the designer, his masterwork finally achieving fruition at the hand of a young man just starting out.

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#59
hi Mike,

... nice, that you are back again. I don't mind, that the Berlinghieri work might be from Rosselli, this seems plausible by the article, that you send me.
Where do you get your dating of the purchase from, Huck? (1468-69, I think it was.) Is it simply an inference from the fact that he finished his manuscript before Borso's death in August of 1471?
This is a suggestion of Hanegraaf, not really secure and just a plausible estimation, I would assume.
Saturn: He was depicted as an old man, gray-haired, with a long beard, stoooped, melancholy, and pallid, his head covered...he holds a sickle, and in the same hand he carries the image of a serpent which bites its own tail with its teeth. With the other, that is, the left, he brings a very small child to his mouth, and appears to devour him. Near him he has his children, that is, Jove, Juno, Neptune, and Pluto, of whom Jupiter castrated him.
Jupiter, son of Saturn, to whom the rule of the heavens was given in the oracle, was depicted seated in an ivory throne, in his seat of majesty, holding the scepter of rule in his left hand. Frm the other, that is the right, he hurls thunderbolts downwards, keeping the Titans in check with his thunder and treading them beneath his feet. Together with him is his eagle, which, flyiing, carries beneath his feet the very beautiful youth, Ganymede., whom he abducted; the latter has in hand a crater, to fill Jove's goblet.
Do you mean this?

It is said that Mars is the third of the gods, and he is third in the order of the planets....his figure was of a man raging, seated in a chariot, clad in mail and armed with other offensive and defensive weapons; he had a helmet on his head...and was girded with a sword....Before him a wolf carrying a sheep was depicted, as that animal had been specially consecrated to Mars by the ancients.
Do you mean this?



... .-) ... the other stuff is too much engraver djungle, at least to me.

I'm content with the aspect, that the Trionfi.com explanation is an alternative to the wide accepted ca. 1465 dating, which haven't led to a satisfying identification of the artist, although the suspicion of this date is already maybe 70-80 or more years old. At least there is no big agreement between the researchers.

*************************************

In this article of 1908 a medal of Lorenzo Zane is reported, made after or around 28th of April 1473. The backside is taken by a figure showing Astrologia "standing r., holding in r. a wand lowered ; before her, globe with rays (incised)"

http://www.jstor.org/pss/857744

in which description I discovered some similarity to ...

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The author of the article mentions some similarity to a coin of Isabella d'Este, which should be this one:

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... which I personally perceive as rather different.

April 1473 should be the time, when Lorenzo Zane short before became acquainted to Ludovico Lazzarelli, because it's stated, that they met probably in Camerino, when Lorenzo Zane was at his way to Rome, taking the title "patriarch of Antioch".

The Astrologia doesn't belong to the pictures, which were used by Lazzarelli in the two manuscripts for Urbino. The Astronomia used in ...

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... Marziano Capella's "De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii" looks quite different.

Another medal with an Euterpe motif (Mantegna Tarocchi) was mentioned by Hind as made for Fabrizio Varano:
Roman School, attributed to Lysippus. Medal of Fabrizio Varano, as pronotary apostolic. The design on the reverse after Nr. 18 (Euterpe) and in the same direction to the E series. The medal must date before Varano was made Bishop of Camerino, i.e. between 1471 and 1482. G.F. Hill Corpus of Italian Medals of the Renaissance, 1930, No. 818.
Fabrizio Varano was Lazzarelli's pupil (or a friend and sponsor ?) in Camerino, or at least is called this way. Fabrizio later was involved in a lot of literary activities in minor function, with some own poetical activities.

The artist "Lysippus" is described in this way ...
( fl Rome, c. 1470-84). Italian medallist. The identity of this medallist, who named himself after the ancient Greek sculptor Lysippos of Sikyon, has not been established, although Raffaele Maffei in 1506 (Commentariorum urbanorum (Rome, 1506), xxi, p. 300 v) said he was the nephew of the Mantuan medallist Cristoforo di Geremia. Maffei referred to him by his pseudonym, and two of his medals are signed with this name, one of them, that of Martinus Phileticus, Professor of Greek at Rome, in Greek. Maffei also stated that in his youth Lysippus produced a medal of Sixtus IV, and it would appear that Lysippus spent his career at the papal court in Rome, modelling a large number of medallic portraits of papal officials.
... and possibly the Lorenzo Zane medal also belonged to his work, although the author of this article left the question of the author unanswered (pointing with no confidence to "Sperandio")


********************
On this way I found a report to an incomplete edition of Lazzarelli's text (with pictures, as the report states). The report is from 1958.

http://books.google.com/books?id=bXAxRO ... 22&f=false
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The "Mantegna": 1450's Bologna?

#60
Sorry I'm so late responding. I had to focus on another project. That was an Interesting reference to Zane, Huck. Here is the image in question, from Hill's article in the Burlington Magazine, with the "Mantegna" Astrology for comparison:

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The figure on the medal, except for the wings, seems quite similar indeed, as though the "Mantegna" card had been a model, as to be sure they were in numerous places over the next decades. The artist made a few improvements: more majestic wings, and a suitable cloud for her to float on (to that extent like the Urbino image). I can't imagine that the medal was a model for the "Mantegna" image, because the cloud is a touch the "Mantegna" artist would probably not have been able to resist. As it is, he only gives Geometry a cloud, of a rather different sort, too. Are those balls inside the sphere the seven planets, or what? That part is different, too.

And here, while I'm at it, is Zane himself, on the obverse. Ecce homo:
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So what is the manuscript you impressively reproduced with the Latin originals to my quotes from Levenson?

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