Re: Dummett and methodology [was Re: The Sun]

#221
Another consideration:

Jupiter is a planet. Beside him there are 4 other planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn.

And: Jupiter is highest card in a playing card deck, and the playing card deck has 4 suits, and the 4 suits are birds.

The German lot book oracle, to which I spend so much energy ("The pope and the donkey") ...

Image


... had in its astrological ideas the curious detail, that "planets" are connected to "birds". This idea seems to have still lived in the time of Dürer, who painted Mercury with bird's feet (well, possibly cause he was the messenger of Jupiter and had shoes with wings traditionally ... well, then the other planets needn't to be birds).



However, in the calendar representations the planet gods were sitting on flying chariots "above" at the heaven.

Image
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Dummett and methodology [was Re: The Sun]

#222
mikeh wrote: Which is the "burning star? I would think the one in his left hand, although it should be red. It is surely not one of the soldiers on the ground, because ti is something he "lets loose when scorned".

In the Ptolemy’s system the world is divided into four parts, the Northwest governed by Aries, Leo and Sagitarrius is ruled by Jupiter “on account of the north wind, Mars joining in on account of the South wind...”*


When Jupiter floods the world, he lets loose the south wind,(associated with Mars), as in Ovid Metamorphis:


Bk I:244-273 Jupiter invokes the floodwaters

When he had spoken, some of the gods encouraged Jupiter’s anger, shouting their approval of his words, while others consented silently. They were all saddened though at this destruction of the human species, and questioned what the future of the world would be free of humanity. Who would honour their altars with incense? Did he mean to surrender the world to the ravages of wild creatures? In answer the king of the gods calmed their anxiety, the rest would be his concern, and he promised them a people different from the first, of a marvellous creation.

Now he was ready to hurl his lightning-bolts at the whole world but feared that the sacred heavens might burst into flame from the fires below, and burn to the furthest pole: and he remembered that a time was fated to come when sea and land, and the untouched courts of the skies would ignite, and the troubled mass of the world be besieged by fire. So he set aside the weapons the Cyclopes forged, and resolved on a different punishment, to send down rain from the whole sky and drown humanity beneath the waves.

Straight away he shut up the north winds in Aeolus’s caves, with the gales that disperse the gathering clouds, and let loose the south wind, he who flies with dripping wings, his terrible aspect shrouded in pitch-black darkness. His beard is heavy with rain, water streams from his grey hair, mists wreathe his forehead, and his feathers and the folds of his robes distil the dew. When he crushes the hanging clouds in his outstretched hand there is a crash, and the dense vapours pour down rain from heaven. Iris, Juno’s messenger, dressed in the colours of the rainbow, gathers water and feeds it back to the clouds. The cornfields are flattened and saddening the farmers, the crops, the object of their prayers, are ruined, and the long year’s labour wasted.

Translation by Kline: http://ovid.lib.virginia.edu/trans/Meta ... #488381099

SteveM

*Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought" By Clarence J. Glacken, in the chapter on Early Modern Environment Theories, p.437.
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Dummett and methodology [was Re: The Sun]

#223
SteveM wrote:n the Ptolemy’s system the world is divided into four parts, the Northwest governed by Aries, Leo and Sagitarrius is ruled by Jupiter “on account of the north wind, Mars joining in on account of the South wind...”*
....
*Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought" By Clarence J. Glacken, in the chapter on Early Modern Environment Theories, p.437.
Likely based on this ...
CHAPTER XXI

THE TRIPLICITIES

THE familiarity existing by triplicity arises in the following mode:

The triplicity preserves accordance with an equilateral triangle, and the whole zodiacal orbit is defined by three circles, viz. that of the equinox, and those of the two tropics; the twelve signs are, therefore, distributed among four equilateral triangles.

The first triangle, or triplicity, is formed by three masculine signs, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, having the Sun, Jupiter, and Mars as lords by house. Mars, however, being contrary in condition to the solar influence, this triplicity receives, as its lords, only Jupiter and the Sun. By day, therefore, the Sun claims the principal co-regency of it, and Jupiter by night. Aries is on the equinoctial circle, Leo on the summer, and Sagittarius on the winter circle. This triplicity is principally northern, owing to the concurrent dominion of Jupiter, who is fruitful and airy, and expressly connected with winds proceeding from the north; it is, however, also north-west, in consequence of being, in some degree, combined with the west by means of the house of Mars, who introduces western breezes and the feminine qualities of that quarter, in consequence of his lunar condition 1.

The second triplicity, formed by Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, is allotted to the dominion of the Moon and Venus, since it consists of feminine signs. The Moon rules it by night, and Venus by day. Taurus is on the summer circle, Virgo on the equinoctial, and Capricorn on the winter. This triplicity is southern, in consequence of the dominion of Venus, whose warm and moist influence produces south winds: it, however, additionally receives a mixture of the east, by means of Saturn; for, as Capricorn is the house of that planet, and an eastern sign, Saturn becomes effective of winds from that quarter, and furnishes this triplicity with a mixture of the east, with which quarter he is further connected by means of his solar condition. 2

The third triplicity is composed of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, masculine signs. It holds connection with Saturn and Mercury by containing their houses, and is therefore attributed to them, and not to Mars, to which planet it bears no relation. Saturn rules it by day, owing to his condition, 3 and Mercury by night. Gemini is on the summer circle, Libra on the equinoctial, and Aquarius on the winter. This triplicity is principally eastern, by the influence of Saturn; but it becomes north-east by receiving also a mixture of the north from the condition of Jupiter, with which planet Saturn has, in this respect, a diurnal familiarity. 4

The fourth triplicity, formed by Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, is left to the remaining planet, Mars, who has right in it by means of his house, Scorpio. But, as the signs which compose this triplicity are feminine, the Moon by night and Venus by day, through their feminine condition, govern it, together with Mars. Cancer is on the summer circle, Scorpio on the winter, and Pisces on the equinoctial. This triplicity is western, in consequence of the government of the Moon and Mars; but it is also blended with the south by the joint dominion of Venus, and therefore becomes south-west.
http://www.sacred-texts.com/astro/ptb/ptb24.htm

I wonder, why Ptolemy doesn't refer to the 4 elements in this system, as it is common nowadays.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Dummett and methodology [was Re: The Sun]

#224
Huck wrote: I wonder, why Ptolemy doesn't refer to the 4 elements in this system, as it is common nowadays.
?? The division of the zodiac into four triplicilities is according to the four elements, fire signs, earth signs, air signs and water signs, not sure what you mean.
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Dummett and methodology [was Re: The Sun]

#226
SteveM wrote:
07 Nov 2016, 13:08
mikeh wrote:The only reason that these virtues don't make sense at the top, it seems to me, is that at the Last Judgment it is the virtue of Justice in particular that comes to the fore. What am I missing?
Its position makes it not just the cardinal virtue Justice, but possibly identifies it with Astrea, returning to earth at the return of the Golden Age.

“Now is the Virgin returning also, and the realms of Saturn come again."

The world card and the earthy kingdom it represents, is the long-standing ideation of Ferrara with the world to come as the vision of Peace.

The ideation of Ferrara as the City of Peace was one propagated by Niccolo d'Este, and followed also, together with Guarina influenced 'Justice-Peace' trope by Leonello, Borso and Ercole d'Este. It is also reflected in the medal of Isabelle d'Este of Nemesis returning as Astrea in the Golden age of Peace. Another d'Este of the 16th century (can't find the reference at the moment) also took the motto 'Justice kisses Peace' (from psalms), so a long standing trope over time and generations among the d'Estes.
"Hail, honour of Este, glory of the world, Borso ; under whose
sway Astraea has left the stars to dwell on earth ; with whom as
prince, the manners of the olden time and the golden ease ot eternal
spring have returned."

"Salve, Estense decus, terrarum gloria, Borsi ;
Quo dace, sideribns terras Astrea relictis
Incolit, et prisci rursum, quo principe, mores
Aureaque aeterni redierunt otia veris."

(Mateo Boiardo: Pastoralia, vi. 65-70).

Another Ferrara Court poet Ercole Strozzi (the younger first cousin of Matteo Boiardo), in his funeral elegy for Eleonora of Aragon (wife of Ercole d'Este) also made several representations in his poem on the theme of Justice, Astraea and the Golden Age.

In line 27 he represents Eleonor herself with Astraea, suggesting her marriage to Ercole and arrival at Court is a continuation of the Golden Age of Ferrara under the just rule of the d'Este:

[27 Heu raperis Spes Qua pietas, qua prisca fides, Astrea que nobis magna tuorum: Venerat, et nitidos terris mutaverat axes.]

In lines 113/14 is described how, following the death of Leonello, the fate of the kingdom called upon Borso, who brought the Golden Age to his country:

[113 Mox solio insedit, fatis in regna vocatus
Borsius, et patriae dedit aurea saecula genti.]

In Lines 423 to 425 Eleonora in a death bed speech to her son Alfonso extolls him to be just in his treatment of his faithful citizens, with level scales to reward the good and punish the bad; to remember that in the Golden Age the Goddess (ie, Astraea/Justice) wandered safely over the world:

[420 Proximus huic Alphonse: mihi Ilithyia priorem
Quem sexu meliore dedit: pia sarcina regni
Te manet: aetheria cum mecum serus in arce
Astra colet genitor. Populi tunc fida fovere
Agmina: et aequata iustis dare praemia lance:
Supplicioque malos tunc perdere
Nate Iusticiam coluere dei, cum saecla vigerent
memento Aurea: et immensum erraret dea tuta per orbem.]

Ercole Strozzi's father Tito Vespassian Strozzi in his latin Poem 'Borsias' describes Astraea standing watch over the birth Borso d'Este:

[At Iovis imperio pueri fidissima custos
excubat ante torum noctes Astraea diesque]

At Jove's command as faithful guardian of the child
Astraea herself stood watch at night

The theme is resumed by Ercole Strozzi's friend Ariosto in regards to Alfonso d'Este, in his Orlando Furioso (being a continuation of Boiardo's Orlando in Love), with the return of Astrea to mark the reign of Ercole d'Este successor :

Alfonso è quel che col saper accoppia
sì la bontà, ch’al secolo futuro
la gente crederà che sia dal cielo
tornata Astrea dove può il caldo e il gielo.:

Alfonso know how to combine goodness, such that future generations will believe that Astrea had returned from heaven---
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Dummett and methodology [was Re: The Sun]

#227
I think the "lights" are to be identical to the concentric/radiant lights one frequently sees in the corners of the Visconti-Sforza trumps (which fits the descriptor "splendour" [of right reason]), as in the Justice trump here:
Image


Mars merely signifies that aspect of Jupiter's wrath - reigning down destruction when humanity reaches too far in an act of hubris (how I read the "Tower" card). In any number of epics, Jove rouses Neptune, Mars, etc. to thwart a hero or send a violent message.

As for the four stars appearing above Jupiter, see the well-known "Great Square of Pegasus" (a portion of that constellation):
Image
The blue line is the ecliptic - the planets, including Jupiter, loosely follow this same path through the stars, thus Pegasus and its Square are above Jupiter.

The identification of the "great square of Pegasus" not only makes literal sense in regard to the phrase used but also ties into the rest of Jupiter's attributes in the text:

1. "instructed ignorant men" could refer to a number of gifts from the Gods to humanity, but the MUSES were what was celebrated the most in the 15th c. Filelfo organized his (unfinished) books of Odes under the tutelary Muses; Guarino laid out an artistic program for the muses for the Studiolo of the Palazzo Belfiore in Ferrara, etc. Pegasus scratched his hoof on Mount Helicon and created the Hippocrene ("horse spring"), home of the Muses. I.e., Jupiter "instructed ignorant men" by inspiring them with the Muses. Pegasus also becomes a symbol of fama in the Middle Ages (why Pegasi are pulling the Chariot in the PMB, in my opinion); see p. 276f in Benjamin Koonce's Chaucer and the Tradition of Fame: Symbolism in The House of Fame (1966).

2. "Who for the sake of sacred worship happily defeated the blaspheming Giants by war." This 'Gigantomachy', famously celebrated on the bas reliefs of the Great Altar of Pergamon, featured all of the gods, including Hercules, in a desperate fight to save Olympus from the Giants. Ovid has the Giants attempt to seize "the throne of Heaven" by piling "mountain on mountain to the lofty stars" (Metamorphoses 1.151–162), in a classical parallel to the biblical Tower of Babel; in both instances the theme is God's wrath. In both cases, Jupiter/God is typically depicted using lightning as his weapon (e.g., the Sola Busca Nebuchadnezzar trump).

3. "thunderbolt, which at one time he often used to protect his sacred laws against so many lustful and violent men. " This is tied to the previous statement about "blaspheming Giants" (and humanity) as Jupiter also fulminated (struck with lightning) the Giants and/or Titans, depending on which source you are reading (the two myths get conflated and confused in the Hellenistic period forward). Greco-Roman poets write about Pegasus's ascent to heaven after his birth and his obeisance to Zeus, who instructed him to bring lightning and thunder from Olympus (thus tying Pegasus to both God/Jupiter's wrath - the Lightning bolt - as well as to his instruction of man via the Muses).

The simplest identification of a grouping of stars - unless 7 (indicating the planets plus moon/sun) - would be a constellation. The Square of Pegasus fits this.

Phaeded

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