SteveM wrote:she is bride
to every One --
Him and All ...
she denies no one
though all deny her
I like very much this intelligent poem. Thanks, Steve.
SteveM wrote:she is bride
to every One --
Him and All ...
she denies no one
though all deny her
It is very interesting the valuation of the Popess from which results an unequivocal relation with Popess Joanne. Aretino actually writes that she “is there for the shrewdness of those who defraud our being with falsehoods that fake us”. Even if nowadays we give to the Popess card the meaning of Christian faith, referring to the Mystical Staircase that connote the whole 22 triumphs, it is evident that how much present was the myth of Popess Joanne in the collective imaginary of the Renaissance men.
CAR: The Popess means the shrewdness of those who defraud our being with falsehoods that fake us.
Another poem, attributed to Luigi Pulci and addressed to Giuliano's pious mother Lucrezia Tornabuoni, attacked the Roman Church as underworld god Pluto's "new wife," as a poisonous Babylon, and as a "schismatic synagogue." There was no need to spell out Sixtus IV's name.
mikeh wrote:I have been looking for documentation of how old the idea is that the Pope is married to the Church.
I still have not found any visual representations of the Church as the Pope's wife until the Council of Trent.
mikeh wrote:Also, the date is important. At that time, 1250, the Cathars and other heretics were protected from the Inquisition by the local nobility (e.g. Matteo Visconti).
Even then their protection, after Peter of Verona's efforts there, were limited. After Charles of Anjou's defeat of Manfred in 1266, and of Uberto Pallavicini in 1268 Lombardy (Abulafia again), these lords had to give way even more to the Inquisition. Cathars were then burned by the wagonload (28 of them at one time in Piacenza, as Lea reports in his History of the Inquisition, Vol II p. 235, in Google Books) ...
--unless they converted, or fled to safer precincts: the alpine valleys of Piedmont,the islands of Corsica and Sicily, the wilds of Bosnia. Undoubtedly a few remained by 1299 in a kind of deep underground, but they wouldn't have made themselves known to someone as openly heretical as Sister Manfreda (who might name names under torture).
Albulafia (p. 177) says that the church at Concorezzo survived until 1289.
He does not give his source.
Typically, confessions by former believers about the survival of a heresy were made considerably after the fact. Under questioning, people named names to the Inquisition of heretics long dead (as described by Lea p. 240, 243). That seemed to satisfy the Inquisitors, who duly dug up the corpses and burned them.
So while Manfreda may well have known Cathars as a child (I don't know how old she was in 1299), these connections would have been broken long before her arrest. The Cathar beliefs were so different from hers that she wouldn't have been interested, given the risks. Whether there the Visconti had any relationship to the Cathars--independently of protecting all heretics, and especially the Guiglielmites--is worth more stidy. Since Newman didn't find any relationship, she left the Cathars out.
"Constance was the daughter of Bela III, king of Hungary. The family had many saintly connections. Constance’s brother, Andrew II, married Gertrude, a sister of St. Hedwig, duchess of Silesia; Andrew and Gertrude were the parents of St. Elizabeth. Constance herself was the mother of Agnes of Prague, a follower and supporter of Clare of Assisi.
Constance was the second wife of Premysl Otakar, king of Bohemia, whose first marriage with Adela/Adleta of Meissen was dissolved on the grounds of consanguinity, which she contested until her death. Constance and Otakar, married in 1199, had 9 children, including Wenceslas I, Otakar's successor, Premysl, marquis of Moravia, Anna, who married Henry II of Silesia (son of St. Hedwig), Blazena, known as Guglielma Boema, who settled in Milan and became famous for healing in a religious cult, and the youngest, Agnes of Prague, who founded a Franciscan house for women in Bohemia and corresponded with Clare of Assisi whose struggles with the papacy she supported."
A new election for the Imperial German throne took place in 1273. But Ottokar was again not the successful candidate. He refused to recognize his victorious rival, Rudolph of Habsburg, and urged the Pope to adopt a similar policy. At a convention of the Reichstag at Frankfurt in 1274, Rudolph decreed that all imperial lands that had changed hands since the death of Emperor Frederick II must be returned to the crown. This would have deprived Ottokar of Styria, Austria, and Carinthia.
In 1276 Rudolph placed Ottokar under the ban of the empire and besieged Vienna. This compelled Otakar in November 1276 to sign a new treaty by which he gave up all claims to Austria and the neighbouring duchies, retaining for himself only Bohemia and Moravia. Ottokar's son Wenceslaus was also betrothed to Rudolph's daughter Judith. It was an uneasy peace. Two years later, the Bohemian king tried to recover his lost lands by force. Ottokar found allies and collected a large army, but he was defeated by Hungarian assistance and killed at the Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen on the March on 26 August 1278.
Having got into a violent conflict with the King of France, Philip the Fair, who assigned himself the right to tax the French clergy, Boniface VIII emanated the famous Bull Unam Sanctam of 1302, which arrogated to the Pope's absolute supremacy over earthly power, against the king. The dispute became so harsh that Philip the Fair organized an expedition to arrest the Pope, with the purpose of removing Boniface from his office by the help of a general council.
On 7 September 1303, the king's advisor Guillaume de Nogaret led a band of two thousand mercenaries on horse and foot. They joined locals in an attack on the palaces of the pope and his nephew at the papal residence at Anagni, the notorious 'Outrage of Anagni'. The Pope's attendants and his beloved nephew Francesco all soon fled; only the Spaniard Pedro Rodríguez, Cardinal of Santa Sabina, remained at his side to the end.
The Pope was captured in his palace at Anagni in September 1303, by the French and Italian soldiers led by Guglielmo di Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna. The palace was plundered and Boniface was nearly killed (Nogaret prevented his troops from murdering the pope). Still, Boniface was subjected to harassment and held prisoner for three days during which no one brought him food or drink. Eventually the townsfolk expelled the marauders and Boniface pardoned those who were captured. He returned to Rome on 13 September 1303.
According to a legend, in such circumstances the Pope was slapped by Sciarra Colonna: the episode was therefore remembered in Italian History as the Schiaffo di Anagni ("Anagni's Slap"). The outrageous imprisonment of the Pope inspired Dante Alighieri in a famous passage of his Divine Comedy (Purgatory, XX, vv. 85-93), the new Pilate has imprisoned the Vicar of Christ. The people of Anagni rose against the invaders and released Boniface.
Despite his stoicism, Boniface was clearly shaken by the incident. The old pontiff, already suffering, developed a violent fever and died in Rome on 11 October 1303.
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1378 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon (modern-day France). This arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown.
Following the strife between Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France, and the death after only eight months of his successor, a deadlocked conclave finally elected Clement V, a Frenchman, as pope in 1305. Clement declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309 moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 68 years.
Im Jahr 1296 unterzeichnete Papst Bonifaz VIII. eine Bulle (Sepe Sanctam Ecclesiam, auch als Nuper Ad Audientiam bekannt), in der eine ketzerische Sekte verurteilt wird. Er schreibt, das einige Personen, darunter auch Frauen, die Theorie aufstellten, sie besäßen die Macht zu binden und zu lösen (die Macht des Apostels Petrus und seiner Nachfolger), sie würden die Beichte hören, sprächen von Sünden los, würden sich anmaßen zu predigen und würden die Tonsur (Zeremonie des Haarschnitts bei Klerikern) übernehmen. Sie würden sich bei Tag und Nacht versammeln, sie würden behaupten, nackt gehaltene Predigten seien wirkungsvoller, sie würden ihre Frauen untereinander austauschen usw. Der erste Teil der Bulle enthält Angaben, die durchaus auf die Gugliemiten zutreffen. 1296 ermittelte die Inquisition erneut, verhörte aber nur ein Mitglied. Dadurch in Alarmbereitschaft versetzt, verließ Schwester Mayfreda mit anderen Ordensschwestern das Kloster Biassono und zog in das Haus von Guglielmo Codega.
Am Ostertag, den 10. April 1300 zelebrierte Schwester Mayfreda die Osterliturgie. Am 19. April wurde sie zum Verhör zur Inquisition bestellt. Am 20. Juli wurde ein neuer Prozess gegen die Guglielmiten eröffnet, der Prozess richtete sich diesmal auch gegen die verstorbene Guglielma. Im September wurden die drei wichtigsten Mitglieder zusammen mit dem Leichnam der Guglielma verbrannt.
1302 erfolgte im Nachtrag noch ein Verhör eines Mitglieds, hier wird erstmals nebenbei erwähnt, dass Guglielma einen Sohn hat. Ein Verhörter behauptete, dass die Mönche von Chiaravalle die heilige Guglielma dem Mond und den Sternen vergleichen, und er kommentiert, dass sie schlecht daran tun.
In February, 1285 troops of the Golden Horde, led by Nogai Khan, invaded and sacked the Eastern part of the country, but they retreated soon. The king's popularity was by now so low that many of his opponents claimed he had invited them. These rumors seemed to be justified when Ladislas employed some of the Mongol captives as members of his personal guards.
In September, 1286 Ladislas IV arrested his wife and began to live together with his Cuman mistress, Édua. One year later he broke into the Convent of the Blessed Virgin on the Nyulak szigete ('Rabbits' Island'), where his sister Elisabeth had been living as a nun, and married her to a Czech magnate, Zaviś z Rozenberka. Having informed on these events, Archbishop Lodomer of Esztergom excommunicated the king and asked the pope to proclaim a crusade against him.
Afterwards, the anarchy became total in the kingdom, whose parts were practically governed by the great oligarchs, the members of the Babonić (Babonics), Kőszegi, Aba, Kán and Csák families, while Duke Albert I of Germany occupied several Western counties. In June 1289, Ladislas IV reconciled temporarily with the Archdiocese of Esztergom and his wife, but he did not have enough power to rule over the barons, so he joined his Cuman followers again.
In the beginnings of 1290 he appointed Mizse, a Muslim converted to Christianity, to Palatine. He was shortly slain in his camp at Körösszeg by Cuman assassins.
He died heirless. His successor, Andrew III of Hungary, issued from another branch of the Árpád dynasty.
He was born in Venice, the grandson of Andrew II of Hungary (reigned 1205-35), being the only son of Andrew II's youngest and posthumous son (possibly illegitimate), Stephen, Duke of Slavonia who was born of the old king's third marriage with Beatrice d'Este. His mother was Tomasina Morosini, descendant of a Venetian patrician family. After the death of his father (1272), he was educated with his Venetian relatives.
In 1278, Ivan Kőszegi, an aristocrat who held several strongholds in the Western part of the kingdom of Hungary, invited him. Having arrived to the kingdom, Andrew claimed the government of the duchy of Slavonia, but king Ladislaus IV of Hungary refused him. After this failure, Andrew returned to Venice.
In the beginning of 1290 Ivan Kőszegi and Archbishop Lodomer of Esztergom, who had excommunicated king Ladislaus IV of Hungary, invited Andrew to Hungary and offered him the crown. Andrew accepted the offer, but he was arrested by a Hungarian noble, Arnold de genere Hahót who handed him over to Duke Albert I of Austria.
On 10 July 1290 king Ladislaus IV of Hungary was assassinated by his own Cuman followers; thus the main branch of the Árpád dynasty became extinct. Andrew, having been informed on the king's death, escaped from Vienna and went to Esztergom, where Archbishop Lodomer crowned him with the Holy Crown on 23 July 1290. After his coronation an assembly of the 'prelates, barons and nobles' of the kingdom of Hungary in Óbuda authorized the new king to re-examine his predecessor's donations. Andrew was hastily married to a Polish princess, Fennena of Kujavia.
The legitimacy of Andrew's rule was soon questioned, since his father had been declared bastard by his brothers; therefore the new king had to face several pretenders during his reign. On 31 August 1290 King Rudolph I of Germany, who considered that Hungary belonged to the Holy Roman Empire, invested his son, Duke Albert I of Austria, with the kingdom. This claim had no practical validity. An adventurer from Poland also claimed the kingdom, pretending to be Prince Andrew of Slavonia, the younger brother of king Ladislaus IV of Hungary, but his troops were defeated by Andrew's followers. In April 1291, Queen Mary of Naples, the assassinated king's sister, also announced her claim to the kingdom. She later transferred her claim to her son, Charles Martel of Anjou, and after his death (1295) to her grandson Charles Robert.
In early 1291 Andrew III visited the Eastern part of his kingdom, where the assemblies of the local nobility held in Oradea (Nagyvárad) and Alba Iulia (Gyulafehérvár) accepted his rule. Afterwards he led his armies against Austria and defeated the Austrian troops. Duke Albert I of Austria, in the peace concluded on 26 August 1291 in Hainburg, renounced his claim to Hungary. In compensation Andrew III promised to demolish several smaller fortresses, held by the Kőszegi clan, on the border of the two countries; thereupon Miklós Kőszegi rebelled against Andrew, in alliance with the Babonić (Babonics) and Frankopan (Frangepán) families, followers of the queen of Naples. The king tried to pacify the rebellion, but he was captured by Miklós Kőszegi and had to pay ransom to regain his freedom.
In 1293 Andrew III invited his mother to Hungary. She successfully negotiated with several rebellious barons (Henrik Kőszegi, Stefan Dragutin), who accepted her son's rule. During 1294 and 1295 Andrew III and his mother lead several campaigns against the followers of Charles Martel of Anjou.
In 1291, Przemysł II, High Duke of Poland, ceded the sovereign Duchy of Kraków to Wenceslaus. Kraków was associated with the overlordship of Poland, but Przemysł held the other duchies and in 1295 was crowned King of Poland. After Przemysł's death in 1296, Wenceslaus became overlord of Poland and in 1300, he was crowned King of Poland.
The weakening of royal authority under Stephen V of Hungary allowed the House of Šubić to regain their former role in Dalmatia. Soon Ladislaus IV of Hungary, recognizing the balance of power in Dalmatia, named Croatian magnate Paul I Šubić of Bribir as Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia. Ladislaus IV died in 1290 leaving no sons, and a civil war between rival candidates pro-Hungarian Andrew III of Hungary, and pro-Croatian Charles Martel of Anjou started. Charles Martel's father Charles II of Naples, awarded all Croatia from Gvozd Mountain (Croatian: Petrova Gora) to the river Neretva mouth hereditary to Paul I Šubić.
In the beginning of 1300, Paul I Šubić accepted Charles' title to the kingdom and invited him to Hungary. His grandfather accepted the invitation and granted Charles a smaller amount of money and sent him to Hungary to enforce his claim against King Andrew III. Charles disembarked in Split in August 1300 and he went to Zagreb where he was accepted as King of Hungary by Ugrin Csák, another influential magnate of the kingdom.
When King Andrew III died on 14 January 1301, Charles' partisans took him to Esztergom where the Archbishop Gregory Bicskei crowned him with an occasional crown because the Holy Crown of Hungary was guarded by his opponents. The majority of the magnates of the kingdom, however, did not accept his rule and proclaimed Wenceslaus, the son of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia king. The young Wenceslaus accepted the election and engaged the daughter of King Andrew III and he was crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary in Székesfehérvár by Archbishop John of Kalocsa.
After his opponent's coronation, Charles withdrew to Slavonia where his partisans strengthened his rule. In September 1302, he laid siege to Buda, but he could not occupy the capital of the kingdom and had to withdraw to Slavonia again. Pope Boniface VIII confirmed Charles' claim to Hungary on 31 May 1303 and his maternal uncle, King Albert I of Germany also provided him military assistance. In the summer of 1304, King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia arrived to Hungary in order to help his son to strengthen his rule in the kingdom. However, the King of Bohemia had to realise soon that his son's position in Hungary was unstable; therefore he decided to retreat and his son followed him. On hearing his opponents retreat, Charles made an alliance with Duke Rudolph I of Austria and they attacked Bohemia but they could not occupy Kutná Hora and Charles had to retreat to Hungary.
Vaclav II is considered as one of the most important Czech Kings. He built a great empire stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Danube river. He won for his family three royal crowns (Bohemia, Hungary and Poland). Kingdom of Bohemia was the largest producer of silver in Europe in his time. He created a penny of Prague, which was an important European currency for centuries.
During his reign, there was a large urban development. He planned to built the first university in Central Europe. Power and wealth of the Kingdom of Bohemia gave rise to great respect but to the hostility of European royal families as well. His son, King Wenceslas III, was unfortunately unable to keep a mighty empire, and soon after the untimely death of Wenceslas II, his empire began to crumble. With the death of Wenceslaus II, one glorious era of the Kingdom of Bohemia ended, the time of great political and economic power of the country.
mikeh wrote:These 1500 (or fewer) Cathars would have been Italians, not Occitan refugees. If they had been foreigners, the former Cathar would have said so. Furthermore, Concorezzo was the center of the "moderate dualist" wing of the Cathars, and the Occitan refugees were mostly of the "radical dualist" persuasion. They would have gone further east, to the "radical dualist" diocese centered at Descenzano, near Brescia, if not further still to Bosnia. In fact when 200 Cathars were apprehended at Sirmione in 1276, where they had been protected by the della Scalas for decades, some were even from northern France.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsartsvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). A successor of the First Bulgarian Empire, it reached the peak of its power under Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II before gradually being conquered by the Ottomans in the late 14th-early 15th century. It was succeeded by the Principality and later Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1878.
Up until 1256, the Second Bulgarian Empire was the dominant power in the Balkans. The Byzantines were defeated in several major battles, and in 1205 the newly-established Latin Empire was crushed in the battle of Adrianople by Emperor Kaloyan. His nephew, Ivan Asen II (1218–1241), defeated the Despotate of Epiros and made Bulgaria a regional power once again. However, in the late 13th century the Empire declined under the constant invasions of Tatars, Byzantines, Hungarians, Serbs, and internal instability and revolts.
Despite the strong Byzantine influence, the Bulgarian artists and architects managed to create their own distinct style. Literature and art flourished in the 14th century and a large part of the Bulgarian population was literate.
Hm ... is there another Matteo Visconti ? The usual Matteo Visconti died 1322 and wasn't born in 1250.
"Albulafia Concorezzo" has no results.
The (or a) Guglielma cult developed in 15th century (the Ferrarese document of c. 1420, Bianca Maria's engagement after 1450 and Antonia Pulci's poetical version around 1480), not a Manfreda cult.
The Cathars in Southern France were also addressed as "Bulgars", which makes it plausible, that they to a great part were just expanding Bulgarian merchants. In the description of the Cathars it appears, that they had enough money ... so the assumption, that they lived from trade (using similar income as the later great trading nations Venice and Genova), seems logical.
As many aspects of the Cathar movement history are hampered by ...
a. irrational romanticism (similar to Tarot history)
b. results of earlier persecutions, so missing of earlier documentation
mikeh wrote:That's why I mentioned the fresco with Guglielma and two admirers (you posted it on Aeclectic). Newman makes a case that there were two major successors, Manfreda being one of them, logical candidates for the two in the c. 1450 fresco.
I know there's a lot of nonsense written about the Cathars, but Bernard Hamilton and Malcolm Lambert are very reputable, no-nonsense scholars. Yes, Catharism very much appeared along trade routes. No one knows whether any foreign missionaries were there early on. Possibly so. But traders from the Rhineland, the Low Countries, Toulouse, etc. also went to Constantinople on trade missions and stayed a while.
Around 1018, an important group that was well implanted in the working-class [populaire] mileux of Aquitane rejected the cross, baptism, marriage and the consumption of animal flesh. Around 1022, the population of Toulouse showed itself receptive to their influence -- from whence came the reputation as an old nest of heretics that Petrus Valium attributed to it: Tolosa tota dolosa.
In 1022, the Orleans affair exploded. The nobles and priests of the Church of the Holy Cross, including a familiar of King Robert and the confessor of Queen Constance, professed Bogomile opinions, perhaps influenced by an Italian missionary. They held that matter was impure; they rejected marriage and the pleasures of love, baptism, communion, confession, prayer, the ecclesiastical hierarchy and the material existence of the Christ ("We were not there and we can not judge if it is true," they said in their vows). Through the laying-on of hands, they purified the believer of his or her sins. The Holy Spirit then descended on him or her; from then on, his or her soul was raised up and delivered from suffering.
Denounced to King Robert, this group was placed on the pyre on 28 December 1022, following the penalty reserved by customary right for sorcerers. The chroniclers of the time assured their readers that the condemned went to their deaths laughing.
In 1025, in the dioceses of Chalons and Arras, an Italian named Gandulf incited the enthusiasm of the disinherited and the weaver-workers by preaching a doctrine in which various social themes, Bogomilism and the reforms announced by Henri du Mans and Pierre de Bruys were mixed.
In Italy, from whence came certain agitators, Bogomilism stocked up and engendered specific doctrines. In 1028, a community of some 30 people belonging to the nobility, and centered around the Countess of Ortes, met at the chateau of Monteforte. They formed an ascetic group whose aspirations to an evangelical Christianity assimilated the teachings of Bogomile and announced Catharism.
When the Archbishop of Milan, Aribert, arranged to pursue these people, they offered no resistance, confessed their faith and, obliged to choose between the adoration of the cross and the pyre, they willingly threw themselves into the flames, assured of another world that would liberate them from the miserable imperfections of terrestrial existence.
Other adepts of similar beliefs showed up near Verona, Ravenna and Venice. Gerard of Csanad (1037-1046) remarked that they had many brothers in faith in Greece. They scorned the Church, the priests and their rites, and mocked the resurrection of the flesh.
Between 1043 and 1048, the agitation spread to the region of Chalons, not far from Vertus, where Leuthard had previously sowed trouble. At the time of the Council of Rheims (1049), there were mysterious assemblies of peasants who refused marriage and the pleasures of love. They practiced the laying-on of hands and refused to kill animals.
In 1051, in Goslar, the emperor condemned to the gallows those Lorrain peasants who refused to kill the chickens that the bishop of the town had presented to them as a test of their beliefs.
For almost a century, no document attested to the perpetuation of Bogomilism, which was subjected to local interpretations in its propagation in Western Europe.
For almost a century, no document attested to the perpetuation of Bogomilism, which was subjected to local interpretations in its propagation in Western Europe.
There are no sources of Bogomil persecution during his reign (976 - 1014)
As Jeannette van't Sant has discerningly remarked (footnote: Le Commentaire de Copenhague de l'Ovide morlise, p. 12), it sometimes happens that the aurhor of the Commentaire strays from moral interpretation into the realm of social criticism. In fact, the mythological divinities by no means always symbolize for him vice in general, but suggest the views of his own time, and above all the vices of the great--of clergy and princes. Pluto, for example, incarnates the evil prelate; Mars and Neptune, earthly tyrants. In contrast, Saturn, Jupiter, and Apollo upon occasion represent the virtuous ecclesiastic. As for Juno, she remains the incarnation of the Church. (Survival of the Pagan Gods, p. 93f).
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