From the Iconologia by Cesare Ripa:
A woman, with a golden crown on her head, and a trumpet in her right hand. Glory, as Cicero says, is the fame of many exceptional benefits done to people of the same family, to friends, to the homeland, and to any kind of people.
So, we can say that Glory implies Fame, but not vice versa.
Ripa's definition suggests that the World card of the Cary-Yale deck should be interpreted as Glory (since the allegory includes two crowns). But the trumpet also is a typical attribute of Fame.
Jim Schulman wrote:If the Petrarchan scheme holds, the world card has to be eternity, regardless of any iconographic foibles in indivudal world card versions.
The Fame portion of the poem lists famous classical personages, the final part being philosophers, and ending with Xeno. Cleanthes and Chrysippus, the founders of the Stoic school, and of the ethics that permeates the poem. Given that these were never celebrities, fame is treated objectively, as belonging to the people to whom humanity owes the greatest debt.
The rules for "Chess with dice" are given in the translation of Alfonso the wise text with ...And these movements should be known by all those who wish to play chess well because
without this they could not know how to do it nor understand the chess problems that men
desire to know because of the annoyance given them from the lengthiness of the regular game
when it is played out completely. Also they established for that reason the use of dice in chess so
that it could be played more quickly.
And they assigned the six, which is the highest roll of the die, to the king, which is the most
honored piece on the board. And the five to the fers. And the four to the rook. And the three to
the knight. And the two, to the fil. And the one, which they call ace, to the pawn.
mikeh wrote:Here is how I would defend Huck on the Cary-Yale. One reason for hypothesizing the priority of the CY-type is that the Petrarch triumphs work for it better than for any other group of cards. It is with that type of deck that the name "triumphs" fits most naturally; after it, the name continues for a while, but the fit is gradually lost.. After it, designs change, and perhaps the order of the cards as well, although I don't think retaining the order is that important, and in any case we don't know what the CY's was, I'm not even convinced there was an order, beyond a 4 card hierarchy in each suit (don't forget that unlike any other set of cards, the trumps all came to Yale with assignments to each of the four suits, and it is unknown when such assignments were given).
An important attribute of time, the hourglass, seems to have made its first appearance in the Trionfo del Tempo about 1450. It was then introduced in a whole series of cassone. We have seen that images of the initial stage [of depictions of the Triumph, 1440s], such as the globe and elements, were carried over by medieval cosmic imagery, but the hourglass had no cosmic connotations and was comparatively new to art: the earliest known depiction, used as an attribute of Temperance in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, preceded its appearance in the Trionfo del Tempo by about 100 years. Temperance signified moderation, regularity, and restraint, in other words, moral self-discipline or the self-imposition of limits. The hourglass of Temperance showed that proper measurement and utilization of time was a virtue. When in the fifteenth century Time made his debut with an hourglass, Temperance had long ago forsaken hers for a clock. Although there is one example of a mechanical clock on a cassone of the mid-Quattrocento, the fact that illustrators of that period still preferred to represent time by the hourglass, rather than the modern clock that was perfecting time measurement, indicates that these were not interchangeable symbols. The regularity of clockwork had become a simile for the regularity of man's body and spirit when ruled by reason. The hourglass conveyed the idea not of accurate measurement but of the brevity of human life. It was a perfect object to express the sense of value that men attached to the brief time allotted them. Concurrent with the appearance of the hourglass in Italian art, there was new emphasis on a more practical approach to time in religious and secular literature. (pp. 311-313; bold emphasis added)
But likely we cannot take the production of the deck as limited to 1473, as it could have been mater later by Allessandro Sforza's successor (husband of Camilla of Aragon for instance).
The differences between this deck and the other (Charles VI) is remarkable. Two trumps match and the other both not. Perhaps we can think of "two decks" or of replacement cards" or of "special wishes" of the commissioner. The Chariot in the Charles VI had possibly Medici heraldic, so it's perhaps naturally, that this card was modified for a foreign owner. But the strange Temperance ...
Perg. II 55 ff. (gez. 54), 212X135. Verona, 1459.
B: Text einspaltig, 24 Z. Auf fol. 52v signiert von Giacomo da Verona (Jacobus Veronensis), Verona 18. Juni 1459. Goldene Überschriften. Acht großen und sieben kleine Zierinitialen; sieben Miniaturen: fol. 3v Petrarca in einer Landschaft träumend; fol. 4r Triumph Amors; fol. 19v Triumph der Keuschheit; fol. 25r Triumph des Todes; fol. 33r Triumph der Tugend; fol. 37v Triumph des Ruhmes; fol. 46r Triumph der Zeit.
S: Humanistica formata.
E: Rotbrauner Maroquinband über Pappdeckel, mit Blind- und Golddruck (Italien, 18. Jahrhundert); Lilienstempel in Rautenmuster; Rückentitel in Golddruck. Auf dem Vorderdeckel Auszug des Begleitbriefes von Kardinal Alessandro Albani vom 7.Juli 1725.
G: 1725 als Geschenk an Prinz Eugen gekommen. Alte Signatur P. E. Mscrpt LXXXIV.
The Rosenwald, BAR and MB sheets (i.e. popular cards) don't show the girl on the chariot nor a woman over the World, while the figure of Time/Hermit varies considerably among them. Since printed Petrarchan Trionfi, with the conventional iconography, were well known by the time all these cards were printed, it is hard to argue that the original Petrarchan sense of the trumps was somehow obscure to woodcutters and a popular audience, who therefore corrupted the iconography. Rather, because the existence of the game of Triumphs is attested before there are any painted series of Petrarchan triumphs or printed ones, it would seem more reasonable to think that the original trump sequence owed nothing to any Petrarchan iconographic conventions, but later a few trump subjects became conflated iconographically with them (because made by the same painters and woodcutters in the same workshops), Time and Fame (the World) for example. But the fact that Tarot resisted a complete "Petrarchization" argues in favor of its being originally independent.
Generally Saturn, coldest, driest, and slowest of planets, was associated with old age, abject poverty and death. ... Astrological imagery--derived in part from Arabic sources--never ceased to emphasize these unfavourable implications. Saturn appears mostly as a morose, sickly old man, more often than not of rustic appearance. His sickle or scythe is frequently replaced by a mattock or spade, even when he is represented as a king enthroned and crowned (fig. 44), and this space tends to become transformed into a staff or a crutch indicative of old age and general decripitude (fig. 48).
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