For the iconographical study of this "new sun" (forgery or not forgery, or perhaps better called "remake", if it is a forgery) it should be worthful to improve the information: there is also a "new star" card and we simply don't know it. That's a bad state.
A "Christina Quartini" judged the card to be of 15th century ... she should know also the Star card. Further there might be old web informations in preparation of the auction, which are lost now, but possibly still living in an archive.
Christina Quartini as author wrote about miniatures in the Sforza time - this should be the person.
Generally this sun looks like the heraldic sun of the Barberini family:
see more Barberini suns at http://romeartlover.tripod.com/sole.html
This family was of a humble state in Florence 1470. But the pope of 1623-1644 (that's the Galileo-pope) was from the Barberini family.
The suns in the Goldschmidt and Guildhall decks are similar. At least the Goldschmidt cards are clearly ca. 1450 - 65 ... according a paper analysis.
The sun with a face in heraldic is called "sun in splendour" - generally.
A sun in splendor appears variously in the "Splendor Solis"
Wikipedia wrote:Splendor Solis ("The Splendor of the Sun") is a well-known colorful alchemical manuscript. The earliest version, written in Central German, is dated 1532-1535 and is housed at the Prussian State Museum in Berlin. It is illuminated on vellum, with decorative borders like a book of hours, beautifully painted and heightened with gold. The later copies in London, Kassel, Paris and Nuremberg are equally fine. In all twenty copies exist worldwide.
The original of Splendor Solis which contained seven chapters appeared in Augsburg. In miniatures the works of Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein and Lucas Cranach were used. The author of the manuscript was considered to be a legendary Salomon Trismosin, allegedly the teacher of Paracelsus. The work itself consists of a sequence of 22 elaborate images, set in ornamental borders and niches. The symbolic process shows the classical alchemical death and rebirth of the king, and incorporates a series of seven flasks, each associated with one of the planets. Within the flasks a process is shown involving the transformation of bird and animal symbols into the Queen and King, the white and the red tincture. Although the style of the Splendor Solis illuminations suggest an earlier date, they are quite clearly of the 16th century.
Albrecht Dürer made this painting 1512 - the combination of sun, moon and basilisk is interpreted as "eternity"
see: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/hi ... the_m.aspx
The first manuscript edition is given to 1532-35, Augsburg (this was in the time, when in Augsburg the Fuggers were very rich) and it is now in Berlin.
As one can see from this source, at least one painting (and probably all) are almost identical to the British Library edition of 1588 ...http://books.google.com/books?id=NOcY_p ... q=&f=falseSee p. 28
and the British library edition is here (and some other info):http://www.rexresearch.com/splsol/trismosin.htm
English text with pictureshttp://www.hermetics.org/solis.html
The autobiographical story of "Salomon Trismosin", the "theoretical" authorhttp://digital.slub-dresden.de/sammlung ... 829636X/0/
German printed edition 1598http://books.google.com/books?id=Qzc6AA ... navlinks_s
German printed edition 1599
and here is one of 22 "very nice pictures"
... but also others of the pictures include the "sun with face".
Well, cause it has 22 pictures occasional the assumption was thought, that these are Tarot references or somehow related, but if they are, there is a curious game made ... and I think of "very special German humor". Indeed we find at
picture 17 an astronom, so it might be associated with Star
picture 18 shows a moon, so it might be associated with Moon
picture 19 shows a sun, so it might be associated with Sun
... so looking only at these 3, one might think, that there is a Tarot relation.
but there the 7 planets are involved and these appear at picture 13-18 in this form (at the top):
17: Mercury (with astronomers)
18: Moon (as this is a chaldaic row and it's the place for Moon)
and at 19 appears the sun, as the whole book is about the sun.
12 should be then Saturn ... but in the center is a young child
At 11 instead at 12 we find the "old king" (= Saturn) in an "alchemistic" bath to find youth
... so the author made Saturn with 2 pictures, indicating Saturn's transformation.
The suspicion is given, that the author knew the Tarot, but made a joke of it, organizing it in a way, that it is turned into something else.
picture 20 shows "many children"
picture 21 shows "woman at work"
picture 22 the sun above a city ... which city? I would bet, that this is Augsburg.
Reading now the story of "Salomon Trismosin", who learnt the art to make "gold from silver" in the year 1473 ... then we have Jacob Fugger (* 1459) who made a lot of money with silver mines, and he was in 1473 14 years old and in the right age to wander and to make his own experiences. In the story Salomon meets a person named "Flocker" and he learns something from him ... "Flocker" sounds like "Fugger".
Jacob Fugger died in 1425 and the typical reformatoric very special and somewhat sarcastic German humor was at his height. Fugger had become the richest man in Europe. Surely a lot of stories were running, that he made money with "strange tricks".
"He could make gold" ... if this was told of somebody with right, who could have been the "real person" of this time? Of course, this must have been Jacob Fugger.
The text was made in Augsburg, 7-10 years after the death of Jacob Fugger, rather obviously commissioned by somebody with some money, so probably either a descendent of Fugger or somehow in relation to the family.
And in the text Salomon preaches: "if you know how to become rich, don't tell the mystery anybody."
So ... an interesting early hoax ... at it seems ... .-) ... well, likely made for the fun in the internal family, but the text spread ... .-), that was possibly never intended.
So we have here the picture 5 and that is the Pope card (in Tarot):
... .-) ... there is no pope, but some miners ... Fugger was in the mining business.
And I surely am not an alchemist or a specialist in matters of alchemy , but I get my personal foolish German grin, when I observe such things.