I read recently (albeit I cannot attest to the veracity of the source) that the practice of utilizing “shame paintings” for financial crimes/debts had fallen into disuse by the time Trionfi cards were introduced to Italy. Can anyone tell me if research supports this contention?
mikeh wrote:Kate wrote. in AugustI read recently (albeit I cannot attest to the veracity of the source) that the practice of utilizing “shame paintings” for financial crimes/debts had fallen into disuse by the time Trionfi cards were introduced to Italy. Can anyone tell me if research supports this contention?
Ross and I discussed this issue in Nov. 2013 at viewtopic.php?f=12&t=971&p=14472&hilit=debtors#p14472, each of us quoting the same source to an opposite conclusion. Perhaps that's what you read, I don't know.
Mike H wrote:
Before this time, it is known that people (not historic individuals) hanging upside down had been depicted in hell, as part of Last Judgment scenes, as in Giotto's Arena Chapel (p. 28), but also for traitors. Edgerton comments (p. 87):Pittura infamante artists elsewhere in Italy had already devised this denigrating pose, which was to become the standard for victims of the art during the next centuries. (84) Actually, the upside-down figure as a symbol of infamy traces back to antiquity. Trecento Florentines had no trouble recognizing its meaning from the popular image on the tarot card, or the occasional upside-down suspension of an actual living culprit (often a Jew), or in other painted hell scenes such as Giotto's Last Judgment in Padua.
It seems what we have then is a continuation of the practice that originated the shame painting, and continued to inform it, but a ban in Milan on the painting itself. This ban and the punishments for breaking it were not lifted by any subsequent Visconti or Sforza that I can find. But the practice of hanging by the foot for high crimes like treason continued under Gian Galeazzo’s successors, like his son Filippo Maria -From a ruling of Filippo Maria of September 1, 1422 we read how those guilty of crimes against the state were punished according to the decrees of his forefathers and the statutes of the city of Milan. The criminal would be dragged behind a horse to the place of execution, and there hanged on the scaffold by one foot; or attached to a turning wheel, or quartered; his dismembered body parts were attached to the gates of the city, and his head on a metal pole, which stood at the top of the tower of the town hall.
We have a terrible decree of the Count of Virtù (Gian Galeazzo Visconti), dated September 13, 1393. He prescribes that he who conspires against the state, should be dragged behind a horse cum asside, along the most frequented way, to the place of justice, hanged by a foot to the scaffold, and to remain there until he dies; however while he is still alive he should be given food and drink: detur tamen eidem de cibo, et potu interim donec vivet.
(from Carlo Morbio, Storie dei municipi italiani, vol. III, pp. 27-29)
Others may, of course, arrive at a different interpretation of the Scrovegni Chapel’s Last Judgment (ca. 1304-5) by Giotto. However, I believe that the three groups of figures depicted hanging in hell within this work possibly have reference to the three Theological Virtues or their antitypes (Cf. detail of Hell in Giotto’s Last Judgment, below, which Huck kindly provided in an earlier post with the groups highlighted):
Florence and politics
Dante, like most Florentines of his day, was embroiled in the Guelph–Ghibelline conflict. He fought in the Battle of Campaldino (June 11, 1289), with the Florentine Guelphs against Arezzo Ghibellines; then in 1294 he was among the escorts of Charles Martel of Anjou (grandson of Charles I of Naples, more commonly called Charles of Anjou) while he was in Florence. To further his political career, he became a pharmacist. He did not intend to practice as one, but a law issued in 1295 required nobles aspiring to public office to be enrolled in one of the Corporazioni delle Arti e dei Mestieri, so Dante obtained admission to the Apothecaries' Guild. This profession was not inappropriate, since at that time books were sold from apothecaries' shops. As a politician he accomplished little, but held various offices over some years in a city rife with political unrest.
After defeating the Ghibellines, the Guelphs divided into two factions: the White Guelphs (Guelfi Bianchi)—Dante's party, led by Vieri dei Cerchi—and the Black Guelphs (Guelfi Neri), led by Corso Donati. Although the split was along family lines at first, ideological differences arose based on opposing views of the papal role in Florentine affairs, with the Blacks supporting the Pope and the Whites wanting more freedom from Rome. The Whites took power first and expelled the Blacks. In response, Pope Boniface VIII planned a military occupation of Florence. In 1301, Charles of Valois, brother of King Philip IV of France, was expected to visit Florence because the Pope had appointed him peacemaker for Tuscany. But the city's government had treated the Pope's ambassadors badly a few weeks before, seeking independence from papal influence. It was believed that Charles had received other unofficial instructions, so the council sent a delegation to Rome to ascertain the Pope's intentions. Dante was one of the delegates.
Exile and death
Pope Boniface quickly dismissed the other delegates and asked Dante alone to remain in Rome. At the same time (November 1, 1301), Charles of Valois entered Florence with the Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroyed much of the city and killed many of their enemies. A new Black Guelph government was installed, and Cante de' Gabrielli da Gubbio was appointed podestà of the city. In March 1302, Dante, along with the Gherardini family, was condemned to exile for two years and ordered to pay a large fine. The poet was still in Rome where the Pope had "suggested" he stay, and was therefore considered an absconder. He did not pay the fine, in part because he believed he was not guilty and in part because all his assets in Florence had been seized by the Black Guelphs. He was condemned to perpetual exile, and if he returned to Florence without paying the fine, he could be burned at the stake. (The city council of Florence finally passed a motion rescinding Dante's sentence in June 2008.)
Ein als schmählich empfundenes Angebot seiner Vaterstadt, bei Zahlung einer Geldbuße und Leistung einer öffentlichen Abbitte nach Florenz zurückkehren zu dürfen, lehnte Dante ab, woraufhin seine Verurteilung noch einmal erneuert wurde (15. Oktober 1315). In der Folgezeit scheint er sich zeitweise wieder in Verona am Hof der Scala und ab 1318 in Ravenna bei Guido Novello da Polenta aufgehalten zu haben. Während einer Mission im Auftrag Guidos in Venedig erkrankte er und starb nach seiner Rückkehr in der Nacht vom 13. auf den 14. September 1321 in Ravenna; dort liegt er bis heute begraben. Die Stadt Florenz versuchte im Laufe der Jahrhunderte mehrmals, Dante in der Stadt beizusetzen, was zu heftigem Streit zwischen Ravenna und Florenz führte. Florenz errichtete in der Basilika Santa Croce ein monumentales Kenotaph in Form eines Grabes, das aber nach wie vor leer ist.
The picture [Giotto’s Last Judgment] is from 1304-05, so before Dante's "La divina commedia" (1307-20).
The commedia is not a painting, but nonetheless a "literary shame-painting" of some dimension (which naturally inspired painters to take motifs of it; an perhaps it inspired shame paintings generally.
Edgerton notes that another [Florentine] shame painting of Brienne "with devilish features and dark and scraggly beard" was composed 20 years later (ca. 1363?). Here, Brienne appeared in a setting suggesting the Last Judgment and with an animal, which Edgerton speculates may have been inspired by Dante’s portrayal, within Inferno, of Fraud (Geryon?).
German wiki says, that Giotto Dante and were friends and that Giotto is mentioned in the commedia.
Dante had reason to complain:In March 1302, Dante, along with the Gherardini family, was condemned to exile for two years and ordered to pay a large fine. The poet was still in Rome where the Pope had "suggested" he stay, and was therefore considered an absconder. He did not pay the fine, in part because he believed he was not guilty and in part because all his assets in Florence had been seized by the Black Guelphs. He was condemned to perpetual exile, and if he returned to Florence without paying the fine, he could be burned at the stake. (The city council of Florence finally passed a motion rescinding Dante's sentence in June 2008.)
The whole is a Game between Shame and Fame. ...
Inferno , Purgatorio , Paradiso , di 33 canti ciascuna (salvo l'Inferno che ha un canto in più come introduzione) , in terzine alternate a rima incatenata (ABAB…..).
Narra un immaginario viaggio del poeta , iniziato l'8 aprile del 1300 e durato sette giorni , attraverso i tre regni ultraterreni dell'Inferno del Purgatorio e del Paradiso .
Die Reise soll ihren Anfang am Karfreitag des Jahres 1300 genommen haben.
At the beginning of 1300 the papal jubilee was proclaimed by Boniface VIII. It is doubtful whether Dante was among the pilgrims who flocked to Rome. Florence was in a disastrous condition, the ruling Guelph party having split into two factions, known as Bianchi and Neri, "Whites" and "Blacks", which were led by Vieri de' Cerchi and Corso Donati, respectively. Roughly speaking, the Bianchi were the constitutional party, supporting the burgher government and the Ordinances of Justice; the Neri, at once more turbulent and more aristocratic, relied on the support of the populace, and were strengthened by the favour of the pope, who disliked and mistrusted the recent developments of the democratic policy of the republic. The discovery of a plot on the part of certain Florentines in the papal service (18 April) and a collision between the two factions, in which blood was shed (1 May), brought things to a crisis. On 7 May Dante was sent on an unimportant embassy to San Gemignano. Shortly after his return he was elected one of the six priors who for two months, together with the gonfaloniere, formed the Signoria, the chief magistracy of the republic. His term of office was from 15 June to 15 August. Together with his colleagues. he confirmed the anti-Papal measures of his predecessors, banished the leaders of both factions, and offered such opposition to the papal legate, Cardinal Matteo d'Acquasparta, that the latter returned to Rome and laid Florence under an interdict.
Bonifacius VIII was a doubtful guide, and if he took Dante to create a splendid name in the future, the experiment went totally wrong.
Boniface, for Dante, is personal and public enemy number one. Benedetto Caetani, a talented and ambitious scholar of canon law, rose quickly through the ranks of the church and was elected pope, as Boniface VIII, soon after the abdication of Pope Celestine V in 1294. (There were rumors that Boniface had intimidated Celestine into abdicating so he could become pope himself.) Boniface's pontificate was marked by a consolidation and expansion of church power, based on the view—expressed in a papal bull (Unam sanctam)—that the pope was not only the spiritual head of Christendom but also superior to the emperor in the secular, temporal realm. Dante, by contrast, firmly held that the pope and emperor should be co-equals with a balance of power between the pope's spiritual authority and the emperor's secular authority. Boniface's political ambitions directly affected Dante when the pope—under the false pretense of peace-making—sent Charles of Valois, a French prince, to Florence; Charles' intervention allowed the black guelphs to overthrow the ruling white guelphs, whose leaders—including Dante, in Rome at the time to argue Florence's case before Boniface—were sentenced to exile. Dante now settles his score with Boniface in the Divine Comedy by damning the pope even before his death in 1303.
http://dante-staging.cdrs.columbia.edu/ ... nferno-19/
6th of April was a traditional date for Good Friday, at least for Petrarca (he saw Laura at a Good Friday, 6th of April 1327 for the first time, and she died at a Good Friday 6th of April 1348). If this was also so for Dante, then the journey at 8th of April was traditionally Easter Sunday (?). I don't know. The journey would have then been in the week after Eastern, well, in the Jubilee year 1300, so somehow in the most holy days of a century.
Five hours from this hour yesterday,
one thousand and two hundred sixty-six
years passed since that roadway was shattered here.
http://dante-staging.cdrs.columbia.edu/ ... nferno-21/
Jesus died with 33 years in his 34th year of life, c. 33 1/3 years old.
The Commedia has 100 chapters, parted in 3 parts of 33 songs + 1 prolog.
And thus the 333 years necessary, in Virgil’s calculation, for the founding of Rome, Aeneas to Romulus, were countered by, in Dante’s calculation, the 333 years from the empire’s greatest glory [the Pax Augusta during which Christ was born] to its disgraceful abandonment of its rightful seat. The 333 that Dante apparently found at hand in Brunetto’s book would likely have seemed to him, in light of Virgil’s positive use of that number, to suggest a sum (333 + 333) equal to the number of the beast. The negative political implications of the resulting 666 (Aeneas to Romulus, Christ to Constantine), reflecting the Donation and its dire result, are not difficult to grasp.
http://www.princeton.edu/~dante/ebdsa/h ... 32703.html
Ah, Constantine, what wickedness was born—
and not from your conversion—from the dower
that you bestowed upon the first rich father! (Inf. 19.115-17)
Kate wrote:Indeed. In Dante’s Commedia (Inf. 19.49-63), the tortured shade of Pope Nicholas III who, like all the dead, can see into the future, “predicts” that Boniface upon his death (d. 1303) would become an inhabitant of Hell’s Eighth Circle (Fraud), Third Bolgia (Simony), positioned upside down with head caught in the vice of a rocky crevice as if above a baptismal font, feet in the air and perpetually burned by a punishing fire. Boniface, in turn, would be followed shortly, thereafter, by Clement V (d. 1314).
Pope Boniface quickly dismissed the other delegates and asked Dante alone to remain in Rome. At the same time (November 1, 1301), Charles of Valois entered Florence with the Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroyed much of the city and killed many of their enemies. A new Black Guelph government was installed, and Cante de' Gabrielli da Gubbio was appointed podestà of the city. In March 1302, Dante, along with the Gherardini family, was condemned to exile for two years and ordered to pay a large fine. The poet was still in Rome where the Pope had "suggested" he stay, and was therefore considered an absconder. He did not pay the fine, in part because he believed he was not guilty and in part because all his assets in Florence had been seized by the Black Guelphs.
It’s widely held, I believe, that the Commedia’s opening scene—viz. with Dante in the Dark Woods, wherein, he has lost the “straight way”—commences in the late evening of Maundy Thursday and, thus, correlates with Christ’s Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. In contemporary Catholicism, the Agony in the Garden represented the First Station of the Cross. Maundy Thursday also initiated the so-called Easter Triduum or period linked with Christ’s Crucifixion and death, descent into and Harrowing of Hell, and Resurrection on Easter Sunday. (Dante and Virgil likewise emerge from Hell on the morning of Easter Sunday.)
I can’t speak for the date of 8 April 1300 which, to my knowledge, was arrived at by later commentators. However, Dante (by way of the demon leader, Malacoda) provides the following dating for an earthquake related to Christ’s Harrowing of Hell, wherein, the bridges between the Fifth and Sixth Bolgias in Inferno’s Eighth circle were destroyed (Inf. XXI 112-114):Five hours from this hour yesterday,
one thousand and two hundred sixty-six
years passed since that roadway was shattered here.
I'm fighting momentary my way through a biography of James Joyce. As a young man (22 years) he had focussed in his further life on one day, 16th of June 1904, a day in the week, when he became acquainted with his future wife Nora (10 of June). And he wrote the Ulysses about it. A few months later then June 16 he left Dublin forever, never to come back, as a poet in some styled fury, with a lot of critical words.
Isn't that a little bit similar to Dante and Florence? Dante took a week in 1300, Joyce only one day.
“Think you're escaping and run into yourself. Longest way round is the shortest way home.”
“Every life is in many days, day after day. We walk through ourselves, meeting robbers, ghosts, giants, old men, young men, wives, widows, brothers-in-love. But always meeting ourselves.”
“A man of genius makes no mistakes. His errors are volitional and are the portals of discovery.”
― James Joyce, Ulysses
In every first novel the hero is the author as Christ or Faust.
I've looked for this Italian earthquake in 1266, but found nothing. But that's around the suspected birthday of Dante (1260-1265 is estimated, May or June), but it's rather precisely a possible time, when Jesus "was made", or a little later.
33 1/3 year + 9 months production time makes 34 years.7th (?) or 8th of April 1300 minus 34 years = 7th of 8th of April 1266. Annunciation is traditionally 25th of March. A difference of about 13 or 14 days with possibly "mystical meaning" (?). And possibly Dante had also this 6th April of Petrarca (?)
The year 1300 contains a "13", and 13 possibly meant death.
Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest