Pen wrote:Huck, please give me some credit for a basic background of general knowledge - I'm quite aware of Samson, Hercules - even Lysimachus. I know that lions are used as symbolism for anything from strength to magnaminity and ambition, and the column represents security and features prominently in the emblem for Audacity (1758-60 Hertel Edition of Ripa), as well as having connections with both Samson and Hercules. Symbolism is to some extent interchangable and depends on context.
All I'm saying here is that I think RLG has a point in questioning Dummett's dismissal of Fortezza as a literal translation on those early Italian images, and musing on a possible answer.
Sorry, perhaps I should have taken my answer a little longer. Samson was used as an early picture of Fortitudo, and Samson broke columns, so broken columns were part of the iconographic program - without doubt. Naturally this doesn't exclude, that in other lines of the iconographic development also unbroken columns (or perhaps even columns, which were protected by fortitudo) were used and developed ALSO meaning.
For the Minchiate we've usually unbroken columns, as far I remember.
So a card with a castle and signed with Fortezza might easily present a protecting function, why not? We've different producers with different ideas and opinions.