... the bishop figure was in the chess game before Tarot existed, though it wasn't everywhere a bishop. The French said "Fou", and others had a bow shooter. Some assumed, the elephant would be the bishop, and others had the elephant for a rook. Cessolis took the bishop as adviser, the Germans finally said "Läufer" (Runner ... = messenger) and associated it to a figure known only in the Courier game. And the Queen existed only in European chess.
The "Bishop" figure is said to have come from English and Danish chess.
There was a general line of prohibition of Chess for priests, monks etc. ... maybe till begin of 15th century. Likely not everywhere and not at every time... was it also in England? Thomas Beckett, archbishop of Canterbury, had been a chess player and he became a great man for England, so possibly not as strong as elsewhere ... but I see also a later bishop of Canterbury, who suggested prohibition. It's difficult to estimate, how somewhere in Europe the chess prohibition for clerics was stronger than elsewhere. http://www.chess-poster.com/english/che ... bishop.htm
It was also forbidden in Worcester, England in 1240 by the religious leadership.
In 1291 the Archbishop of Cantebury, John Peckman, was forbidding Chess. He threatened to put anyone on a diet of bread and water if they played Chess.
In 1380 William of Wickham (1324-1404), founder of New College, Oxford, and Winchester College, forbade Chess. He was the Bishop of Winchester and the Chancellor of England twice.
The prohibitive tendency (for the clerics) seems to change at begin of 15th century. Likely this depends on the
the "Three-Popes"-situation of c. 1410 which caused the council of Constance far in the North (from the perspective of Italy) in 1415. 3 popes were abdicated and a new pope chosen - this likely indicates, that the position of the church was weakened, and that the positions of nobility, kings and the emperor was strengthened generally - also those of the citizens. As these accepted chess as a "game of skill" the opposition against chess diminished.
In the card game the pope appeared in the Karnöffel game, at least in the version, which was described by Mysner in c. 1450 (the name Karnöffel appears first in 1426). In Master Ingold's profession game the church is presented by a "Pfaff" (1432), and the Hofämterspiel has a "Kaplan" in 1455.
For the Trionfi/Tarot cards it was so, that 4 Kings of the usual card play got as their dominant trump an Emperor, and the 4 Queens got an Empress. It wouldn't have had much sense to refer to a Bishop card instead of a Pope card in this "higher context". And this development to "higher context" seems to have already started with the Karnöffel.