Re: The Fool

#98
"15th century" for this card is likely wrong ...

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Andrea Vitali in Il Tarocchino di Bologna, page 32 ...

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... has 17th century, Tarocchi alla Torre

Other Bologna Fools have also the drum + wind instrument theme

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Tarocchino al Leone, 18th century

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Tarocchino All'Angelo, first quarter 19th century

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Tarocchino Alla Fortuna, 3rd quarter of 19th century

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modern

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Animal Tarocchi, collected in Sylvia Mann: "Alle Karten auf den Tisch", Fool + Pagat

All Fools are Musicians, as mostly in Tarock versions. The Pagat has mostly in the Animals Tarocchi a sausage in his hand, possibly addressing the then popular Carnival Fool, the "Hanswurst" or "Hans Wurst" (Wurst = sausage). Before it had been a figure of a sort of German "commedia dell' arte" and a hero of popular theater.

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Guillaume Mann, Colmar, c. 1780

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Backofen, Nürnberg, c. 1790

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J. De Porre, Gent, c. 1795

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Jacob Wocaun, Praha, c. 1815

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Giuseppe Bendelli, Trient, c. 1835

One appearance of Hanswurst in theater.

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Gottfried Prehauser as "Hans Wurst"
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Felix_von_Kurz

Another appearance of Hanswurst in early Cologne carnival on "a death paper" in a year 1831, when the carnival procession paused cause of protest against political prohibitions.

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http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6lne ... montagszug

********

The man with sausage might be not the Hanswurst (I didn't found a reall similar picture), but following "innkeeper" traditions in the Italian Tarocchi.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The Fool

#99
Phaeded posted at ...
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=1019&start=150#p15448
(moved to this more appropriate place)
Phaeded wrote:Huck,
All your post has shown is that early tarot tradition always shows the Fool with a musical instrument(s), not a club. That change in attribute changes the meaning of the card.
Well, I've selected Fools pictures with music instrument, naturally these are then all with music instrument. But there are Tarot Fools without music instrument.

Not all Fools are Musicians. Not all Musicians are Fools.

... :-) ...

But this is a Musician and a Fool ...



... likely a Scottish one, living in Bohemia.

And she dances to it ...



... likely a gipsy from Hungary

And she cares for the money, some fools must be realists ...



... from France, which possibly were known for collecting money.

**********

But this one, with drum and wind instrument ...

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... is not from a 15th century Tarocchi, but from the Hofämterspiel and from Germany. And this one, too (Dürer himself) ...

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...is also from Germany. As far I remember we've none 15th century Trionfi Fool with drum and wind instrument in Italy, and only one connected directly to music, the late 15th century Mato of Sola Busca Tarocchi.

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http://www.tarotpedia.com/wiki/Sola_Busca_Tarocchi
Phaeded wrote:
Trumpters are always in a noble's livery and an extension of the lord (inclusive of liveried musciians of any type; even the jester ones are richly attired by the court in question). The context for a trumpeter is almost always heralding the lord, associated with his troops, at a wedding of nobles, or in a royal banquet scene where they are either announcing the arrival of the lord of the manor or providing musical entertainment. All of these contexts shows the trumpter as a perogative of the nobility. A peasant (not a court jester) with a trumpet is unthinkable...and indeed the later Bolognese tradition literally redresses that unfathomable precedent. So what was the PMB Fool with trumpet? The historical lesson of the anarchic mob of the Ambrosian Republic, that lynched several nobles durings its reign of terror in the last year of its existence. The classes of men are shown in the PMB - but the lowest ones, peasants and petty merchants, only in the two lowest cards - the Fool and the "Juggler".
As Michael I tend to believe, that the baton is not a trumpet at the PMB-Fool. We have three Italian Fools with feathers, Giotto's Stultitia Fool and the PMB-Fool ...

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... and a third picture presented by Andrea Vitali ..
http://letarot.it/page.aspx?id=112&lng=ENG
see the link to "figure 2"

... and the both others don't have a trumpet. Why shoul the 3rd suddenly have one.

The Charles VI Fool seems to relate to the stone-throwing battle of the Morgante, similar the Este-card Fool have a Fool under attack. Also the feather Fools might be partly considered as "under attack". The Charles VI Fool defends with a string of bells, which might be considered as "an action with music", but the major meaning seems to be, that he's attacked with stone-throwing.

The Boiardo Tarocchi Fool is a Fool on an ass (possibly a German motif) ... the possibly old Minchiate (?) fool of the Rosenwald Fool is a Fool with a able and attributes, which partly belong to the Bagatello usually.

The public role of the Fool in Northern countries might have had more acceptance than in Italy, so a useful role of musician might have some importance for Fools. We've courts with Fools as advisors or as "allowed critical voice". We've a "feast of the Fools", which seems to have been more present in France and Germany than in Italy.
In Italy we've with Gonella and another from 14th century "accepted court Fools" in Ferrara, but this function might have been not everywhere.
But why did the Bolognese tradition switch to other musical instruments? To me the answer is simply related to the artistic limitation of the aspects of a card - quattrocento trumpets were extremely long (look again at the contemporary examples I gave above) and thus difficult to depict on a card.It would have been practically impossible to show the trumpet being played, as the Bolognese fools are shown playing their shorter instruments, due to the lack of room. In the PMB the trumpet is held fairly low down at waist level and there still is not enough room to depict it all as the flaring end extends up into the frame:
PMB Fool trumpet detail.jpg
As you say, Bologna had some more tradition in their cards, which indeed points to the Fool with drum and wind instrument, as shown in the post before. Bologne has proven German card makers in 15th century, possibly they carried the motif "Fool as Musician" to Italy?

Generally there was a German explosion of Fool pictures and Fools at courts end of 15th/begin of 15th century. The "Ship of Fools" became a estseller and was quickly translated to other languages. We have a lot Fool literature, especially by Thomas Murner, who also made teaching playing cards. We have the Till Ulenspiegel and his manifestation as a prototype.

Well, Italy had Folengo and other Maccaroni poets to extend the satirical side of literature. And they loved Lucian.

Right, there's another type of 15th century Fool, the beggar of the Mantegna Tarocchi as the protoype of Momus, the work of Alberti. Momus had declared, that beggar was the best role on earth.

Well, somehow there should have been some diffeences, what Germans and what Italians found funny.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The Fool

#100
mikeh wrote:But it seems to me, Phaeded, that if the artist had wanted to suggest that it was a trumpet, he would have given more pictorial clues, because given his disheveled appearance, he is more in need of a club, to fend off attackers, than a trumpet.
No one is attacking the PMB fool, who is standing quite at ease – I’m not sure how you got “victim” out of “disheveled” - the latter merely implies his station in life: poor peasant. The attempt to stick with the historical misidentification of the object as a “long pole” has allowed you to imagine an attacked fool, but this fool is no longer simply the God-denying fool, as the bearer of a trumpet he is the embodiment of insurrection (in a very real class sense – keep in mind the Ciompi uprising had already happened as well)…not incompatible with the meaning of the later card of the Hanged Man. Not only did the trumpet blasts accompany the Ambrosian Republic auctions, which entailed the selling off of Visconti’s personal possessions, but they also accompanied the constant calling out of new gride, proclamations to regulate the distributions of bread during the starvation crisis caused by Sforza’s blockade (when Sforza entered the city his men were instructed to hand out loaves of bread). Filelfo was in Milan during this hell and again, I posit him as behind the PMB’s peculiarities. Compare the bodies of Giotto’s Foolishness with the PMB Fool again - the former looks almost pregnant with swollen legs; the PMB Fool is gaunt by contrast...because he represents a starving populace, ripe for insurrection.
This theme is addressed constantly in Filelfo’s work – see Ode 4.3 in particular where a characterization he calls “Lydus”:
From him who created the universe and brought forth the heavens and all the celestial bodies in the sky [note the 7 feathers on the PMB fool – uncomprehending and thus blown about by the planetary forces], nothing can be hidden. He sees the extent of the desire that holds you, when madness overturns a heart that is sick. Nor does he allow you to know the path to salvation. Thus he pours unremitting darkness over your eyes [clearly Filelfo has appropriated the “God-denying Fool” theme, but for the context of Milan in 1449] (Ode IV.3: 31-38; Tr. Robins, p. 235)
….”For whoever joins you in your evil habits and vile life you will praise. Nor does any talk flow from your lips which is guided by modesty or wisdom. You speak obscenities: you play the Timarchus, you as a boy and degenerate adult surpassed all others ion the corrupt nature of your decadent pastimes. (IV.3: 65-71, p. 237)
The Fool, just as in Giotto, is the polar opposite of Prudence, elevated to the highest card in the tarot. In one sense Prudence is precisely an understanding of the “celestial bodies in the sky” in terms of being an embodiment of Wisdom in understanding time, represented in her three-faced configurations or via the symbol of the book. The middle face with its forked beard from this Florentine plaque of Prudence, perhaps one that Filelfo was familiar with via other productions from the copy book from which it came, when he taught in that city, closely resembles the PMB Fools’ face; without the other two faces looking into the past or future one is simply a lustful animal engaged in the present:
prudenza(220X318).gif
PMB Fool - head detail.jpg
corn head.png
mikeh wrote:Attackers are also suggested in the "Charles VI" Fool, with the boys throwing stones.
The CVI fool is smiling and playing with his string of bells(?), oblivious to any “attacking”. In fact one can make the argument consistent with my interpretation that the specific Foolishness being depicted in this card is that of a erotically-charged mob, literally in the postures of anarchic throws, attacking their own leader. The Fool incites. The erotically-charged mob aspect of this card is more explicit the Este Fool, where the exposed pubic hair of the CVI is drawing in the attention of his followers. Even the PMB Fool indicates his pubic hair with his left hand – all three Fools drawing the viewer’s attention to the non-virtuous, libidinal stance in public. “Public morality” is at stake here through the agency of the Fool – not the safety of the Fool. The advice for princes here is clear – beware the mob.
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Phaeded

Re: The Fool

#101
Huck wrote
As Michael I tend to believe, that the baton is not a trumpet at the PMB-Fool. We have three Italian Fools with feathers, Giotto's Stultitia Fool and the PMB-Fool ...
... and the both others don't have a trumpet. Why shoul the 3rd suddenly have one.
Huck,
First of all Giotto is not a tarot comparable - there are several "God-denying fools" illuminating Psalms which was the source of Giotto's Stultitia; Giotto was an influence on the PMB but not an exact model. Moreover, the "baton/pole" the PMB holds, to say it again, looks nothing like either Giotto’s club nor the club held by the Strength figure - yet the PMB Strength's club does look like Giotto's club, so why not also the Fool’s supposed club? Even if painted by a different painter - Dummet proposes someone else in Bembo's studio in Cremona, perhaps a brother - the copybook sources would have been the same so if a club was intended it would have looked similar. The PMB's "pole" looks nothing like Strength’s club but instead has the exact profile of the contemporary trumpet comparables I provided earlier.

The CVI, Este and Bologna Fools are all derivative of the PMB Fool, but altered to suit the needs of those later decks, so the meaning of the Ambrosian Republic’s mob was bound to change. CONTEXT of the deck in question is pivotal. Yet the Bolognese modifies yet retains the item in question as a musical instrument, but showing it being played – again, not enough space to show a trumpet being played, so a similar straight wind instrument was substituted.

The CVI, IMO, reflects a jab at Sixtus IV in his war on Lorenzo the Magnificent’s Florence (both pope and Fool wear a blue robe, the fool wears a triple-like crown like the papal tiara; the pope had four nephews in his service painted with him the year before the Pazzi conspiracy which I believe the four “rock throwing” youths stirred up by the Fool refer to; see Polizianos’ contemporary insulting literary jabs at Sixtus after the assassination attempt in 1478). To say it again, the context of the deck – why it was created – explains the meaning of the several changed cards of the CVI deck; to wit, the “Chariot” is no longer even female.

The Este Fool actually comes very close to my interpretation of the PMB Fool as the leader of a mob. Again, a trumpeter is always in a noble’s livery and announced the noble’s party; same with a noble’s standard bearer – which is what the Fool is here, except he of course does not precede nor announce a noble. Instead he leads the erotically-charged mob (all three “youths” reach/stare at his genitals), with a come-hither wave of his arm, under a non-sense stemma (resembles Siena’s coat of arms, but I am guessing the black/white refers to death, such as the same colored shrouds one finds on the illuminations of Petrarch’s Death trionfi manuscripts; thus a pied piper leading the fools to their deaths).
Death confronting Chastity, Pessellino trionfi illumination.jpg
Death confronting Chastity, Pessellino trionfi illumination.jpg (133.51 KiB) Viewed 17189 times
Phaeded

Re: The Fool

#102
Phaeded wrote: Huck,
First of all Giotto is not a tarot comparable - there are several "God-denying fools" illuminating Psalms which was the source of Giotto's Stultitia; Giotto was an influence on the PMB but not an exact model. Moreover, the "baton/pole" the PMB holds, to say it again, looks nothing like either Giotto’s club nor the club held by the Strength figure - yet the PMB Strength's club does look like Giotto's club, so why not also the Fool’s supposed club? Even if painted by a different painter - Dummet proposes someone else in Bembo's studio in Cremona, perhaps a brother - the copybook sources would have been the same so if a club was intended it would have looked similar. The PMB's "pole" looks nothing like Strength’s club but instead has the exact profile of the contemporary trumpet comparables I provided earlier.


You're right with the Fool in the Psalm illuminations. I personally wasn't aware about strong traditions in this iconography comparable to the Tarot iconography. It's nice to learn something new.
I think, you're also right with the assumption, that the PMB Fool expresses a poor situation, possibly the bad state of the Milanese population in the begin of Sforza's reign.
Well, I don't accept, that the baton of the PMB should have been a trumpet.

Alberti uses in his Philodoxus theater play the trumpeter in the finishing scene (No. 20). Likely the trumpet belongs to the end of the triumphal sequence, not to the beginning.
Well, there are a lot of musicians between the offered Fools, but we have also the beggar type ...

Chess iconography (Cessolis traditions)

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Karnöffel, as presented by the poet Mysner.
viewtopic.php?f=12&t=416&hilit=mysner
The Karnöffel robs somebody and steals his fine clothes. Possibly the victim looks after this action similar to the PMB-Fool, and the winner (the Karnöffel) looks similar to the rather fine dressed magician in the PMB (which isn't repeated in later Tarocchi versions). In the early time of the Trionfi decks it might well be, that the iconography showed influences of a possible forerunner deck, the Imperatori cards, which might have been famliar to the Karnöffel (later for some time called Keyserspiel).

Momus / Lucian / Mantegna Tarocchi
The beggar as "idealized best role" in the work "Momus" by Alberti, which possibly influenced the Mantegna Tarocchi beggar. Diogenes, who appeared on Tarocchi cards. Momus appeared in later art, and looked like the Mantegna Tarocchi beggar.

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Full picture
http://www.backtoclassics.com/images/pi ... ations.jpg

compare article ...
http://tarotforum.net/showthread.php?t=212528&page=3


Miseria, the late "second Fool" in the Tarocco Siciliano.

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The CVI, Este and Bologna Fools are all derivative of the PMB Fool, but altered to suit the needs of those later decks, so the meaning of the Ambrosian Republic’s mob was bound to change. CONTEXT of the deck in question is pivotal. Yet the Bolognese modifies yet retains the item in question as a musical instrument, but showing it being played – again, not enough space to show a trumpet being played, so a similar straight wind instrument was substituted.
They followed the PMB-Fool in its function as "Fool" in a card game, but these are rather different types of Fool. The Bolognese type is a musician and it repeats often enough, and CVI and Este Fools are giants .... like "Morgante".

I personally think, that the d'Este (they bought a "Morgante" in 1474) followed the theme "Orlando" (with Boiardo, and later with Ariost), that Pulci had realized earlier in his Morgante.

Orlando and Morgante meet in "Morgante" during a stone-throwing scene and become friends. "Morgante's" background is, that the poor poet Pulci got a job from the Medici.
Pulci lived in the Mugello and had a mill there, about 5 km from a holiday castle of the Medici, which was mainly used by Lucretia Tornuabuoni and her children (the other Medici were mostly too sick to make such long journeys; between the children was naturally Lorenzo de Medici). So Pulci got the commission to write the Morgante, cause it was an interest of the Medici to present "a good French side", cause they urgently needed a good business relationship to the French-king-in-spe, later Louis XI of France. This was one part of the deal with Pulci. The other was, that Lucrezia needed somebody to watch the children in the adventurious forests. Lorenzo described later Pulci in the role, who sat down at a fallen tree, letting the children do what they want, working on his poem, and finally organizing the children as his listeners to his latest ideas ... and so he arranged, that Lorenzo and all his present friends (Lorenzo's gang) later also became poet's, at least a little bit. In these early years the poem made a lot of progress, he reached canto 15 or 16 (in the latest version it had 28 canti). Then Lorenzo was old enough and the interests of the now young man changed. The development of the poem became slow.
Lorenzo loved hunting and Cafaggiolo became a hunting castle.



Cafaggiolo Castle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Medici_at_Cafaggiolo
Other sources tell, that it became of use since 1458.

The friendship between Orlando = Lorenzo (small) and giant Morgante = Pulci (big, 17 years older) started with a stone battle. Orlando had already killed one giant, but then he met Morgante, but this was actually a peaceful guy, who didn't throw stones. So they became friends. Morgante (very big) had trouble to find the right armour for the future adventures, finally he found one, but only for the upper part. His weapon became the clapper of a bell.

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Well, that's naturally only a reconstruction, how it might have been. The d'Este motif proceeded with the giant scenario.
The CVI, IMO, reflects a jab at Sixtus IV in his war on Lorenzo the Magnificent’s Florence (both pope and Fool wear a blue robe, the fool wears a triple-like crown like the papal tiara; the pope had four nephews in his service painted with him the year before the Pazzi conspiracy which I believe the four “rock throwing” youths stirred up by the Fool refer to; see Polizianos’ contemporary insulting literary jabs at Sixtus after the assassination attempt in 1478). To say it again, the context of the deck – why it was created – explains the meaning of the several changed cards of the CVI deck; to wit, the “Chariot” is no longer even female.
The nephews of Sixtus were grown up men. And "after 1478" looks too late. In my opinion the young male chariot driver with some older Medici heraldry (7 palle), explain with young Lorenzo as the focussed person. I prefer my version.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The Fool

#103
Once the Fool (Beggar) had dogs.

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Or one dog ...

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In the Marseille tradition the dog often looked (a little bit) like a cat.

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Etteilla's Fool (1788) had something, which looked like a leopard.

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The Grandpretre Tarot Fool had a lion, and it was named the Devil (true age of the deck not known)

http://marygreer.files.wordpress.com/20 ... -devil.jpg

The 66-cards French divination deck (c. 1790), recently detected for the web by Kwaw, hasn't a Fool, but a Tiger (interestingly No. 22):
Full deck at viewtopic.php?f=11&t=1083
It's a lonesome animal there

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A Moscow divination deck 1825 (42 cards and with lots of similarities to the 66-cards deck) has a similar Tiger (nearly all cards are similar to cards in the 66-cards deck).
Full deck at http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks05/d02370/d02370.htm

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... :-) ... here more a cat.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The Fool

#104
Heraldic of the printer Gutenberg ...

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... from https://books.google.de/books?id=qn3PAA ... &q&f=false

... also used at ...

https://heraldik-wiki.de/wiki/Johannes_Gutenberg

I don't know from the text, what the knight picture shall mean in this context. The round picture carries the name Gensfleisch (older name of Gutenberg).

----------------------

It shall mean a pilgrim, but somehow it looks a little bit like the Tarot-de-Marseille Fool.

A relative called "Jakob von Sorgenloch gen. Gensfleisch d.Ä. 1478, Eltville" ...

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-----------------------

A Gutenberg memorial (Frankfurt 1840)...

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-------------------------

A small text at the heraldic page gives the info, that a line Gensfleisch / Afterdingen/Ofterdingen existed, and this had the same figure with a "Spieß auf der Schulter" (a sort of lance at the shoulder) and no pilgrim bowl, so more similar to the Tarot de Marseille Fool.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The Fool

#105
Bottega di paolo uccello, pannelli di cassone con armi medici e rucellai, firenze, 1466 ca.

From ...
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File ... ca._01.JPG





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Red frame: Medici heraldry with 7 palle

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Charles VI Chariot, Medici heraldry with 7 palle

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Fool with ass-ears cap, according the picture description from c. 1466 and connected to Rucellai and Medici.

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Rosenwald Tarocchi Fool-Magician, possibly c. 1465

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calendar Fool c1464/65

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calendar Fool c1464/65

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ass-ears cap of Fool of Charles VI trionfi, hypothetical from 1463 and under influence of Pulci's Morgante

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giant Fool and giant Magician, Este cards c. 1473/74
The Este court bought a Morgante version in 1474

Contexts
.... "8 June 1466, the date of the wedding-feast of Giovanni's son Bernardo Rucellai and Nannina de' Medici, the daughter of Piero di Cosimo de' Medici and elder sister to Lorenzo il Magnifico. At the feast, 500 guests were seated on a dais which occupied the loggia and the whole of the piazza and the street in front of Palazzo Rucellai."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loggia_Rucellai

From the life of Piero de Medici
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_di_ ... %27_Medici
His time as leader of Florence was marked by an attempted coup led by Luca Pitti, Niccolò Soderini, Diotisalvi Neroni, Angelo Acciaiuoli and his cousin Pierfrancesco de' Medici, using troops provided by Borso d'Este, Duke of Modena and Reggio, and commanded by his brother Ercole d'Este (planned for 26 August 1466).
This wasn't long after the wedding.

Letter from Pulci to Lorenzo, in which he mentioned the word Minchiate
http://www.letarot.it/page.aspx?id=338&lng=ENG
To Lorenzo

It is quite true that as soon as I walk away from you, my Lauro, I walk away from reason, and for this sin I have committed in leaving you, Phoebus, indignant with me, allowed me to get sick (1). Yesterday, in desperation, I escaped with difficulty from the hands of Bisticci (2): here I can govern myself (to save myself from the illness) with certain ointments and Salay’s advice (3). I would come to you to excuse me, but I would not want to take the risk that Christ might come near enough to me to sing at night by my bed. I have a great desire to see you again, and if I had a horse I would come to you to challenge you at Minchiate, at Passadieci [literally, Pass ten], at Sbaraglino [literally, Outperform], and you know how I mistreated you (4). I'll try to come soon if you stay there for a few days; today I feel like I'm a fresh pea (5). Ser Mariano told me that you told him to send you the bagpipes and trombone; Mariano sent them (to you); and I believe that they are well settled. I had the pipes fixed before leaving you. I would have liked to have the instruments with me, and if I were stronger, I would have brought them to you. I sent a sonnet to Lady Lucrezia, I'll send you a copy. And, please, send my greetings to Piero Allarmimi and Sigismondo, and, if he is there, Cosimo Bartoli; and remember them all from me. And if you deign to meet our desire to one day to come to us, you know where an old and poor house if found (that of the Pulci). Be well. On the 23rd of August, 1466.

Your Luigi to the Palace (Your Luigi who writes to the Palace, where Lorenzo was).
This was written 3 days before the attack.

The Cassone shows at the other side heavy fights, possibly it refers to the war (1467), which followed.



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The chariot of the triumphator follows a chariot with prisoners.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: The Fool

#106
Huck wrote:
Typically cassoni depict biblical or classical events in contemporary guise/stemmi, but the 7 balls on the pennants are NOT standard for the Medici with the central one so large (although the 3 ring device is on the foot servant in front of the prisoners); the CVI charioteer does show all 7 balls as the same size, by contrast.

I'm not sure what they are trying to depict exactly, but perhaps David (an adopted Florentine hero) returning to Jerusalem with prisoners from one of his campaigns. I hazard that guess as it explains the "god-denying Fool" who always appears with David in manuscript illuminations of Psalm 52 and makes the same gesture (King David appears in the manuscript below in Medieval garb, of course - I'm guessing by the 1460s classical garb was more in vogue):
Image


The lead standard showing "SPQR" would argue against a biblical interpretation and instead for a classical scene, so its more probable the well-worn David/Fool motif (perhaps simply signifying divine-sanctioned rulership) was mixed in with the elements of a classical triumph.

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