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Very Old Cardinal Virtues)

Posted: 17 Mar 2020, 17:48
by Huck
Papal Burial Place Bamberg for Clemens II (after 1047 / probably c. 1237)

According ...
Das heutige marmorne Hochgrab entstand beim Bau des Eckbertdomes im 13. Jahrhundert (um 1237) und steht auf einem Sandsteinsockel, welcher an den Ecken und in der Mitte der Längsseite zylindrische Säulenbasen aufweist. ... oelscher_s
... the sarcophagus with the cardinal virtues was made c. 1237.

Picture 1:
from https://www.historisches-lexikon-bayern ... mberg,_Dom

Picture 2:

The second page has large single pictures of all virtue objects .... but the presented text has contradictions to the way, how we would identify the objects.

Picture 1 (long side):
left: "Gerechtigkeit" (= Justice) ... our value is also Justice)
middle: "Freigebigkeit" (= Generosity) .... our value is clearly Temperance
rigth: "Mäßigkeit" (= Temperance) .... our value is possibly "river of paradize", possibly Freigebigkeit

Picture 2 (long side):
left: "Stärke" (= Strength) ... our value is also Strength)
right: "Unschuld"(= Innocence) ... our value would be Prudentia, as it is the 4th missing cardinal virtue and a dragon might replace the common viper of Prudentia

The head sides present ...
a. the pope with a guardian angel
b. an unusual Jesus Christ with shield and sword in a scabbard
(large pictures at the page)

The text gives the follwing info:
Ende September reiste Papst Clemens II. über die Marken in Richtung Fonte Avellana. In der Nähe von Pesaro, im Kloster Badia di S. Tommaso am Aposella (St. Thomas Kloster, heute Gemeinde Montelabbate an der Adriaküste) erkrankte der Papst schwer an Fieber. Hier pflegten ihn die Benediktinermönche vom 24. September bis zu seinem Tod am 09. Oktober 1047. Kurz im Kloster bestattet (1. Grab), wurde sein Leichnam im folgenden Jahr unter schwierigen Umständen im Winter bei Schnee und Eis in seine Heimat nach Bamberg überführt (2. Grab). Sein Sarkophag im Westchor des Doms zu Bamberg ist das einzigste Grab eines Papstes nördlich der Alpen.
Pope Clemens travelled in the region of Pesaro and became sick with a fever around 24th of September 1047. He spend his last days at the cloister Badia di S. Tommaso at Aposella (nowadays Montelabbate at the coast of the Adria). He died 9th of October. In the next year his corpse was transported to Bamberg. His sarcophagus is the only papal burial place North of the Alps.

Re: Very Old Cardinal Virtues

Posted: 17 Mar 2020, 19:51
by Huck
RDK X, 225, Abb. 1. Evangeliar. Frankreich, 2. H. 9. Jh. [1. Cambrai, Bibl. com., cod. 327 (Evangeliar), fol. 16v. Frankr., 2. H. 9. Jh.]
4 Cardinal virtues ?

Re: Very Old Cardinal Virtues

Posted: 18 Mar 2020, 03:57
by Phaeded
Huck wrote:
17 Mar 2020, 19:51
RDK X, 225, Abb. 1. Evangeliar. Frankreich, 2. H. 9. Jh. [1. Cambrai, Bibl. com., cod. 327 (Evangeliar), fol. 16v. Frankr., 2. H. 9. Jh.]

4 Cardinal virtues ?
Yep. Carolingian, second half of the 9th century, dedicatory miniature of the Cambrai gospels. Virtues are fairly straight forward, from upper left and clockwise: Prudence with a book, Justice with the scales, Fortitude with spear and shield, and Temperance apparently with a lamp/torch and in the other hand a vase pouring water (presumably advocating a mean between the two). Figure 32 in Adolf Katzenellenbogen, Allegories of the Virtues and Vices in Medieval Art: From Early Christian Times to the Thirteenth Century, 1964. He describes the format of the miniature on p. 31, but more interesting are the general comments on the previous page:

It was the clear, fundamentally classical system of the four cardinal virtues which they added to the portrayals of notable personages, especially of rulers. For Alcuin and other writers of the Carolingian period had praised afresh and with considerable emphasis the nature of these spiritual forces and had prayed to God for these great possessions on behalf of their rulers (30)

Re: Very Old Cardinal Virtues

Posted: 18 Mar 2020, 05:26
by Huck
Thanks, Phaeded


Codex Aureus Spirensis or Codex Aureus Escorialensis 1043/46
Das Dedikationsbild (fol. 3r) zeigt Maria, Patronin des Domes, im Zentrum; links im Bild Heinrich III., rechts seine Frau Kaiserin Agnes. Die Medaillons zeigen die vier Kardinaltugenden Klugheit, Mäßigkeit, Stärke und Gerechtigkeit. In der oberen Bildhälfte ist der Speyerer Dom abgebildet.
Maria with Emperor Heinrich III and Empress Agnes. The 4 medaillons present the 4 cardinal virtues. In the upper half is the dome of Speyer.

Re: Very Old Cardinal Virtues)

Posted: 18 Mar 2020, 07:41
by Huck
Missal of Saint-Denis, ~1050

French Miniaturist, Manuscript (Cod. Lat. 8878) Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

Cardinal Virtues in Medaillons
It was made around 1050 in the Abbey of St Vaast of Arras, in the north of France, for the use of the important abbey of St Denis. The lavish decoration features purple backgrounds, luxurious frames with foliate patterns, as well as numerous full-page images and a magnificent treasure binding depicting a Crucifixion scene on the upper cover. ... nis-missal