Re: The Marriage Contract

#31
I know the first Sforziad was not spread about- but it did get into some sort of book form.
Filelfo wrote apparently some 12 thousand lines of a 'Heroic verse'' not really a history.There were about 9 books of this rant- there was going to be 24 Books.
What I am concerned about or why I think it matters is that in 1450 and those years around that time all these soldiers that had won lands, counties, fiefdoms etc started to have written these verbal triumphs, almost as if they had to prove they were of some sort of Noble birth because of their military prowess. Malatesta saw himself as another Augustus,
I do not know what Sforza saw himself as- but he apparently saw that Jove/Jupiter/God gave him the right to rule.
Then they all had these great orations to prove this, written. They saw themselves as "Sons of Fortune" Cosimo Medici painted the Magi and glorified his Family and friends. It was like they all gave themselves a Military Parade or Triump sequence. At the same time they made cards that seemed to celebrate Marriage that had their so called illustrious family depicted. These handpainted cards came from the same families that wished to make dynastic alliances through marriage. This 'new money' was turning itself into 'old money' by association.
There is some sort of connection...... now Ross asks if there is any connection of games played to reflect war.
Well yes there is. It is called Tarot- not the War itself- but the Glory and Triumph of winning, and the money to have illumination on little pictures. In Cosimo Medici you have the money to paint big illuminations as well.
Whilst down at the Tavern you have the little people playing their own Triumphant games. Processions of cards called 'runs' and 'sets' and one person winning a little war and making some money hopefully.
~Lorredan
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

Re: The Marriage Contract

#32
Lorredan wrote: ...

What I am concerned about or why I think it matters is that in 1450 and those years around that time all these soldiers that had won lands, counties, fiefdoms etc started to have written these verbal triumphs, almost as if they had to prove they were of some sort of Noble birth because of their military prowess. Malatesta saw himself as another Augustus,
I do not know what Sforza saw himself as- but he apparently saw that Jove/Jupiter/God gave him the right to rule.
Then they all had these great orations to prove this, written. They saw themselves as "Sons of Fortune" Cosimo Medici painted the Magi and glorified his Family and friends. It was like they all gave themselves a Military Parade or Triump sequence. At the same time they made cards that seemed to celebrate Marriage that had their so called illustrious family depicted. These handpainted cards came from the same families that wished to make dynastic alliances through marriage. This 'new money' was turning itself into 'old money' by association.
There is some sort of connection...... now Ross asks if there is any connection of games played to reflect war.
Well yes there is. It is called Tarot- not the War itself- but the Glory and Triumph of winning, and the money to have illumination on little pictures. In Cosimo Medici you have the money to paint big illuminations as well.
Whilst down at the Tavern you have the little people playing their own Triumphant games. Processions of cards called 'runs' and 'sets' and one person winning a little war and making some money hopefully.
~Lorredan
Ah. Ok. Now I get it.

Re: The Marriage Contract

#35
That's an interesting comment about Filarete's ideal city with 16 points, Huck. Filelfo had a part in this ideal city, I don't know how much. Nicholas Webb writes:
Filelfo had tried his own hand at la citta ideale through his contribution to the Trato di architectura of the artist Filarete.
(p. 57 of Mantegna and 15th century court culture, here: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-PZqv2JyU3s4/T ... nd57LG.jpg).

On the distrubution of the Sforziade, Webb says (p. 59)
...for the most part it was personalities more than ideological or political alliances which determined the groupings of the humanist network. The international ambit of that network can be illustrated by the several recipients of Francesco Filelfo's unfinished epic, the Sforziad, including Lorenzo de'Medici, Alfonso of Naples, three popes, and several humanists colleagues, among them Giovanni Pietro Arrivabene, one of Filelfo's favorite pupils.
There is also a footnote:
On the Sforziad, see K. Lippincott, "The neo-Latin historical epics of the north Italian courts: an examination of "courtly culture" in the 15th century', Renaissance Studies 3 1989, 415-28; G. Bottari, 'La "Sphortias"; in Francesco Filelfo nel Quinto Centenario della morte, Padua 1986, 459-93; E. Pellegrin, La Bibliotheque des Visconti et des Sforza, Ducs de Milan au xve siecle, Paris 1955, 336, and eadem, supplement, Florence-Paris 1969, 41, n.174.
I, too, suspect that Filelfo had some relationship to the tarot, for reasons I gave in the Plethon thread and also in the one on hieroglyphs (to which Ross added some information, in Filelfo's Latin: see the last few posts of http://www.tarotforum.net/showthread.php?t=94755&page=5).

Re: The Marriage Contract

#36
This here is the most clear piece to explain what I mean about a marriage contract and the similarity of Contract between a Lord and his people (Civic) and God and his People (Religious) and the philosopy all three. It was written by Kwaw on AT.
Originally Posted by Ross G Caldwell
You have to be clear on your dates here. The knowledge of Plato's texts is a delicate subject, especially when claiming precise influence on a specific work of art or political policy or whatever. Some scholars might have known the Republic, others not; it wasn't translated completely into Latin until Ficino around 1480.

Can you show, iconographically or textually, that the Cary-Yale "World" reflects something in the Republic?

But did Decembrio use these texts during Filippo's rule, or after, with the Ambrosian Republic (unlikely I think), or even later, under Francesco Sforza?
There was the Chrysolus-Decembrio translation for G. Visconsti, and then the translation of Decembrio's son Pier [secretary of Filippo]. Pier used in Filippos time Plato's republic as propaganda material for Milan against the regimes of Venice and Florence, in which Milan he compares as the closest in aspiration to Plato's 'ideal city', in a manner in which can be construed as being identified with Augustine's 'City of God' . There were also excerpts of Plato [particularly some of the more 'scandalous' parts others glossed over, such as homosexuality and the equality of women] in Hermaphrodita, and the very literal, without additions, omissions or glosses translation of Cassarino, also connected with the Visconti court but in an opposing faction to Decembrio.

For details on Plato's Republic as propaganda tool of Milan as closest to the Platonic 'ideal' city and the association of such with Augustines 'City of God' against Florence and Venice see 'Plato in the Italian Renaissance' by James Hankin, especially the Milan section, and Hans Baron's 'Crisis in the Italian Renaissance.'

quote from James Hankin "Plato in the Italian Renaissance".:

"Like his father, Pier Candido would use Plato's morphology of constitutions as proof that Milan's 'timocratic' constitution was superior to the oligarchic ones of her enemies Venice and Florence. Plato's authority is employed for this purpose both in the de laudibus Mediolanensium urbis panegyricus of 1436, written in reply to the recent republication of Bruni's laudatio Florentinae urbis, and in the lost declamationes, the illeitimate rule of the Visconti was identified with the rule of Plato's philosopher king, while the Venetian constitution was compared to Plato's timocracy or democracy. In the De Laudabis, Decembrio is more conservative; he argues that the Milanese constitution was identical with Plato's timocratic polity, but maintains that this is the best kind of regime one may hope for in this imperfect world:


Quote:
But to carry forward what we set out to discuss, it is frequently inquired whether a commonwealth is better ruled by the advice and authority of one man, or by the judgement of many. Plato of Athens, by far the best of all philosophers (as Cicero said), distinguished four kinds of government. One was the 'honourable', which he called by the Greek term 'timocratic'; another was 'the rule of the few', or oligarchy; a third was the popular or democratic, and a fourth was the [constitution] we both [Greeks and Latins] call 'tyrannic'. Then he added a fifth one better than all of these, the 'aristocratic', but since it comes, like the phoenix, only once every 500 years, or rather never, we may omit it, and return to the rest. Now then, there is no species of government, it seems, to be preferred to the timocratic; it is in fact what Plato asserts to have been the form of government in use among the Cretans and Lacedaemonians. When any man eager for honour and victory seizes power, and does not bring violence or death to anyone, but fights nobly and protects the commonwealth with care and distinction, he generates praise for himself and utility for his country, just as Lucius Brutus did among the Romans, and many centuries ago the extraordinary kings, the founders of this magnificent City, did, who were not so much concerned with acquiring wealth [surely a hit at the Florentines] as they were mindful of glory and posterity, and thought all things were to be subordinated tot he [good of the] commonwealth. And later, in our time the divine Prince Giangaleazzo Visconti, the father of the present glorious and victorious Duke, did the same. (Decembrio)

"Where Bruni had used Aristotles doctrine of corporeal and external goods to defend the Florentine yearning for money and public honours, Decembrio mixes Plato, Seneca and Augustine to attack such worldly values, elevating instead the supreme worth of contemplation.


Quote:
Many thing themselves indebted to God merely for having been born and having enjoyed the beauties of nature, I am affected yet more by those goods which are sought by the acuity of and goodness alone of mind - supported by no external aids - by whose who favour we not only gaze upon these visible objects, but, drawn on to higher things, we are made in some sense participants in the divine nature. What does it profit to look upon Earth, Sea, Heaven, to marvel at the diverse regions, to enter unknown cities, to learn the manners of peoples, to investigate the sources and mouths of rivers, if you neglect the founder and ruler of all these things, by whose gift an immortal soul has been vouchsafed to us, than which no more divine or useful gift was given by God to the human race. There are those who glory in riches, offices, and the other goods of fortune, and think nothin more excellent than fame and republican government, but such persons are far from a true and perfect felictiy; they make for themselves not repose, but troubles, and with troubles life can in no wise be blessed. (Decembrio)

"This passage shows particularly why the Republic was a more welcome text in Milan than in the republics of Florence and Venice. One may see how the affinity between signorial humanism and the older, contemplative humanism of Petrarch and his Milanese followers made them more receptive to the Republic as as text which gave nourishment to the contemplative life.

"Decembrio calls his translation of the Republic 'The Heavenly Polity of the Most Illustrious Philosopher, Plato of Athens'. This title comes from Book IX:


Quote:
Not in his own city, perhaps, unless some divine providence intervenes, but he will in the city to which he properly belongs.
- I understand. You mean the one we have founded in our present discussion, whose home is in the ideal, for I don't suppose it exists anywhere on earth.
- Well, perhaps it is laid up in the heavens as a pattern for anyone who wants to see it, and seeing it to found it in himself. It makes no difference whether it exists anywhere or ever will exist. It is the only city in whose affairs he can take part. (Plato)

Of which passage Decembrio wrote:
"So help me God, I do think Plato wanted to set out in words not a human but a divine and celestial polity, to be sought not in fact but in prayer."

In other words an Augustinian 'City of God' as a platonic like 'ideal' set up in heaven.

Kwaw
Above excerpt from: James Hankin "Plato in the Italian Renaissance".
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

Re: The Marriage Contract

#37
Now I am not so certain about the "Prayer" for I think these Soldier Lords were more pragmatic in their approach.
They had fought on one side , then the other, they had watched their once 'soldiers at arms' die and their money go and their fame rise and fall, along with their family. Religion had two faces and often it was not Christianity but Power and politics that ruled. The Virtues often absent. No wonder they looked for an answer outside what was present. They also aspired to be what they had not been born to- that was rule and gain wealth.
So the Visconti PBM reflects the Marriage Contract and the Civil Contract and the Philosopical/Religious ideal.
Peace in the Home, Peace in the City and if you so believed your inheritance would be the City of God.
Heavens above they must have been sick of War. A marriage contract might be the road to Peace. prestige and wealth....that is if you played your cards right.
~Lorredan
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

Re: The Marriage Contract

#38
I would like to clarify that these kinds of "contracts" are nothing like what we think of today. So the term might be misleading.

A contract implies equal parties competent to decide whether to participate or refuse.

The relationship between ruler and subject in this period in Europe is nothing like this. And the marriage contract, also unlike the "contracts" of today.

Social & political roles were based on the concept of duty and one's natural station in life, rather than rational free choice among people equal in essence if not in wealth and social status. This latter idea doesn't emerge in print until 1651, and it was controversial, enough of an outrage to get Thos. Hobbes in trouble. The "social contract" idea grows in popularity through the late 1700's, and is the philosophical basis for a couple o' good revolutions.

In the period you're talking about, Lorredan, the contract or compact between ruler and ruled is a way of describing duty or obligation, but not one freely entered, and not one that can be broken for cause.

Even the earliest social contract theory, from Hobbes, is not a contract between the ruler and his subjects. It is an (imaginary) implied contract among members of society to give up their natural freedom to do anything and everything they please, in exchange for everyone else also giving up these freedoms, for the sake of mutual safety and security. I agree to give up my right to whack you on the head and steal your stuff, and you agree to refrain from violence and theft, too. (Etc.) The ruler (sovereign) is not a party to the contract. He is the enforcer. The idea of government as a party to a contract, and therefore contractually obliged to do certain things, is first published in John Locke's 2 treatises on civil gov't in 1689.

Re: The Marriage Contract

#39
You are right Debra.
I could not think of a word that described what I meant.
Maybe 'agreement' or "acceptance" did not cut the mustard.
It is interesting that one of the Tourist things you can buy all over Italy- but especially in Lombardy and Tuscany are these wall plaques for by your front door that say 'Pax' or something about Peace in the Home brings Peace in the city. The fresco in Siena about Good and Bad Government has always impressed me with all it's Tarot elements.
I cannot think of the word that was used when the mercenary soldiers agrred to fight for someone. Was it a Contract? If you have a better word for the time please post it. :)
~Lorredan
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

Re: The Marriage Contract

#40
A better word? Yikes, I dunno! I was focused on the concept of a social contract in political philosophy sense.

Mercenaries.

I'm liking the on-line Encyclopedia Britannica a million times more than Wikipedia or websites put up by who-knows-who. Someone who claims to know what they're talking about. Anonymously.

Britannica encourages people to submit suggestions for improving the articles, but they cannot edit the entry themselves.

I've concluded that wikipedia is good for pictures and sometimes for an orientation to a subject, but it's just not a good source. Experts in the sciences keep a close eye on the wiki articles, but in social science, history, humanities...pppppffft.

Here's Britannica on Mercenaries:
mercenary
i Help us expand this topic.
Submit Contribution

mercenary, hired professional soldier who fights for any state or nation without regard to political interests or issues. From the earliest days of organized warfare until the development of political standing armies in the mid-17th century, governments frequently supplemented their military forces with mercenaries.

Employment of mercenaries could be politically dangerous as well as expensive, as in the case of the early 14th-century almogaváres, Spanish frontiersmen hired by the Byzantine Empire to fight the Turks. After helping defeat the enemy, the almogaváres turned on their patrons and attacked the Byzantine town of Magnesia (modern Alaşehir, Tur.). After the assassination of their leader they spent two years ravaging Thrace and then moved on to Macedonia.

Following the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453), Europe was overrun with thousands of men who had been trained for nothing but fighting. During the 15th century “free companies” of Swiss, Italian, and German soldiers sold their services to various princes and dukes. These hired soldiers, often greedy, brutal, and undisciplined, were capable of deserting on the eve of battle, betraying their patrons, and plundering civilians. Much of their mutinous behaviour was the result of their employer’s unwillingness or inability to pay for their services. When rigid discipline, sustained by prompt payment, was enforced (as in the army of Maurice of Nassau), mercenaries could prove to be effective soldiers. Swiss soldiers were hired out on a large scale all over Europe by their own cantonal governments and enjoyed a high reputation. In 18th-century France the Swiss regiments were elite formations in the regular army.

Since the late 18th century, however, mercenaries have been, for the most part, individual soldiers of fortune. Since World War II they have won some prominence for their exploits in certain Third World countries, especially in Africa, where they were hired both by government and by antigovernment groups.
"mercenary". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 31 May. 2012
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/top ... /mercenary>.

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests

cron