TWO OF SWORDS: Friendship, Attachment, Tenderness, Kindness, connection, Relationship, Similarity, Intimacy, Concord, Association, Interest, Conformity Sympathy, Affinity, Attraction. REVERSED: False, Falsehood, Lying, Imposure, Duplicity, Bad Faith, Roguery, Trickery, Treachery, Deception, Superficial, Superficiality, Surface.
2 OF BATONS: Sorrow, sadness, Melancholy, Affliction, Displeasure, Distress, Grief, Mortification, Ill Humor, Quarrel, Affliction, Gloomy Ideas.--Bitterness, Anger, Spite. REVERSED: Surprise, Enchantment, Shock, Trouble, Unforeseen Event, Unexpected Occurrence, Fright, Emotion, Fear, Dread, Terror.--Dismay, Astronishment, Domination, Ravishing, Alarms.---Wonder, Phenomenon, Miracle.
2 OF CUPS: Love, Passion, Inclination, Sympathy, Appeal., Proclivity, Friendship, Kindness, Affection, Attachment, Liking, Union, Gallantry, Attraction, Affinity. REVERSED: Desire, Want, Wish, Will, Craving, Covetousness, Cupidity, Concupiscene, Jealousy, Passion, Illusion, Longing, Appetite.
2 OF COINS: Embarrassment, Obstacle, Engagement, Obstruction, Hitch, Snag.--Trouble, Upset, Emotion, Awkward Position, Confusion, Difficulty, Unexpected Obsacle, In Error, Obscurity.--Agitation, Anxiety, Perplexity, Concern. REVERSED: Note, Written Dolcument, Handwriting, Test, Literature, Doctrine, Erudition, Written Work, Book, Production, Composition, Dispatch, Epistle, Missive.--Written Character.--Literal Sense--Alphabet, Elements, Principles, Bill of Exchange.
The Triad has a special beauty and fairness beyond all numbers, primarily because it is the very first to make actual the potentialities of the monad--oddness, perfection, proportionality, unification, limit... (p. 49)
The monad is like a seed in containing in itself the unformed and also unarticulated principle of every number; the dyad is a small advance towards number, but is not number outright because it is like a source, but the triad causes the potential of the monad to advance into actuality and extension... (p. 50)
They call the triad 'piety': hence the name 'triad' is derived from 'terror'--that is, fear and caution. (Translator's note: Here trias [triad] is linked with trein [to be afraid]).
The triad, the first odd number, is called perfect by some, because it is the first number to signify the totality--beginning, middle and end. When people exalt extraordinary events, they derive words from the triad and talk of 'thrice blessed,' 'thrice fortunate.' Prayers and libations are performed three times... Among the virtues, they likened it to moderation: for it is commensurability between excess and deficiency... (p. 51)
The triad is the form of the completion of all things, and is truly number, and gives all things equality and a certain lack of excess and deficiency, having defined and formed matter with the potential for all qualities... (Translator's note: Since the triad is the first actual number, and qualities [and everything else] owe their existence to number, then the triad is the source of all qualities.) (p. 51f)
...a slit in his habit opens to receive a set of rays emanating from a light source above his head (figs. 56-57). Here the analogy with Francis stigmatisation is more emphatic, for the rays strike an open and bleeding wound in Augustine's chest.
Nelli's fresco depicts Augustine kneeling in a chapel doorway, his gaze fixed upon an apparition of the Trinity, figured as the Throne of Mercy and enveloped by angels. ...The saint delicately opens a slit in his habit to reveal his heart, on which Nelli has traced a miniature, ghostly reflection of the Trinity. The Gubbio fresco takes its iconographic cue from the established visual repertoire of Francis' stigmatization. (Cooper p. 186)
Rather unusually, Lippi rendered the Trinity as three conjoined cherub heads, and he placed the scene in Augustine's study, with the saint wearing the Hermits' black habit but no vestments or mitre. Looking up from his scroll, Augustine is struck in the chest--and, one presumes, his heart--by three golden arrrows.
3 OF SWORDS: Estrangement [or Distance], Departure, Absence, Cap [or Deviation], Dispersion, Remote, Delay.---Scorn, Repugnance, Aversion, Hate, Disgust, Horror.--Incompatibility, Annoyance, Opposition, Unsociableness, Misanthropy, Rudeness.--Separation, Division, Rupture, Antipathy, Part, Cut. REVERSED: Distraction, Insanity, Delirum, Mental Alienation [Derangement], Absent-Mindedness, Crazy Behavior.--Error, Miscalculation, Loss, Detour, Gap [or Discrepancy], Dispersion.
3 OF BATONS: Enterprise, Begin, Start.--Usurp, Seize.--Daring, Brashness, Boldness, Carelessness, Adventurous, Audacious, Temerity, Bold, [Foolhardy, Rash].--Undertaking, Muddled..--Disconcerted.--[Crippled or] Paralyzed, Effort, Test, Temptation. REVERSED: Interruption in: Misfortunes, Troubles, Pain, and Toil.--End, Cessation, Discontinuation, Respite, Rest, Influence, Intermediary, Intermittence.
3 OF COINS: Important, Noble, Consequential, Celebrated, Big, Great, Extensive, Enormous, Manificent, Renowned, Famous, Powerful, Lofty, Illustrious.---Illustration, Esteem, Grandeur of Soul, Nobility of Conduct, Acts of Generosity, Magnificently, Splendidly. REVERSED: Puerility, Childhood, Childishness, Frivolity, Weakening, Debasing, Reduction, Courteousness, Lowness, Medicrity, Trifle, Trinket, Servility, Weakness, Child, Infant, Puerile, Puny, Low, Grovelling, Lowly Contemptible, Humble.--Abjection, Humility, Humiliation.
3 OF CUPS: Success, Science, Fortunate Outcome, Happy Issue, Victory.--Healing, Cure, Relief.--Fulfillment.--Perfection. REVERSED: Expedition, Dispatch, Execution, Achievement, [Completion.] End, Conclusion, Termination, Accomplishment.
Everything in the universe turns out to be completed in the natural progression up to the tetrad, in general and in particular, as does everything numerical--in short, everything whatever its nature. The fact that the decad...is consummated by the tetrad along with the numbers which precede it (Trans. note: 1+2+3+4=10), is special and particularly important for the harmony which completion brings; so is the fact that it provides the limit of corporeality and three-dimensionality. For the pyramid, which is the minimal solid and the one which first appears, is obviously contained by a tetrad, either of angles or faces, just as what is perceptible as a result of matter and form, which is a complete result in three dimensions, exists in four terms (Trans. note: perhaps the four Aristotelian causes, mentioned on p. 58, or perhaps the four elements...). (p. 55)
...as regards 1,2, 3, 4, the decad...is a measure and a complete boundary of every number, and there is no longer any natural number after it, but all subsequent numbers are produced by participation in the decad, when the cycle is started a second time, and then again and again on to infinity. (p. 55)
.the by which, the from which, the by means of which, and the with what end (that is, God, matter, form, result). (p. 58)
The tetrad is the first to display the nature of solidity: the sequence is point, line, plane, solid (i.e. body). (p. 63)
4 OF COINS: Charity, Present, Gift, Generosity, Liberality, Child’s Holiday Gift, Favor, Offering, Donation, Bonus, Assistance.—The Color White, Lunar Medicine, Pierrot [Pierre au blanc, [White Stone]]. REVERSED: Enclosure, Circuit, Convolution, District, Circumference, Circle, Circulation.—Intercept, Obstruction, Blocking, Cornering, Cloister, Monastery, Convent.—Immutable, Fixed, Determined, Definitive, Extremity, Borders, Limits, Bounds, End, Barrier, Partition, Outdoor Wall, Hedge, Interior Wall.—Obstacles, Hindrances, Difficulty, Suspense, Delay, Opposition.
4 OF BATONS, ETTEILLA, UPRIGHT: Society, [Company,] Association, Assembly, Connection, Federation, Union, Assembling, Reunion, Circle, Community, Gathering, The Masses, Crowd, Throng, Group, Band, Company, Cohort, Army.—Convening, Accompaniment, Blending, Mixing, Alloy, Mixture.—Contract, Convention, Pact, Treaty. REVERSED: Prosperity, Increase, Growth, Advancement, Success, Attainment, Happiness, Flourishing, Felicity.—Beauty, Embellishment.
4 OF CUPS: Weariness, [Boredom,] Displeasure, Discontentment, Disgust, Aversion, Enmity, Hate, Horror, Anxiety, Mental Suffering, Mild Dejection, Vexation, Painful, Annoying, Unpleasant.—Distressing, Troubling. REVERSED: New Instruction, New Light.—Sign, Indication, Conjecture.—Omen, Presage.—Premonition, Prognostication, Prediction, Novelty.
And just like Solon's apothegm about "seeing the end of a long life," (Translator's note: Solon said, "Count no man happy until he is dead." See Herodotus I.30-33) it is possible to understand from Homer that those who are still alive are only thrice blessed in point of happiness, since thre is still the uncertainty of change and alteration, while those who are dead have happiness securely and are out of the reach of change in a more complete manner--i.e. four-fold. For he says of someone still alive only "thrice blessed son of Atreus," but of those who have died an excellent death, "Thrice and four times blessed are the Greeks who perished then." (Trans. note: the first quote is perhaps from a variant of Iliad 3.182; the second line is Odyssey 5.306.) (p. 60)
4 of SWORDS, ETTEILLA, UPRIGHT: Solitude, Desert, Retreat, Hermitage.—Exile, Banishment, Ostracism.—Uninhabited, Remote, Abandoned, Given Up.—Tomb, Sepulcher, Coffin. REVERSED: Economy, Good Management, Wise Administration.—Foresight, Direction, Household Management, Savings, Avarice.—Order, Arrangement, Relationship, Agreement, Concord, Accord, Concordance, Harmony, Music, Disposal.—Testament. Reserve, Limitation, Exception.—Circumspection, Constituency, Discreet, Wisdom, Sympathy, Care, Precaution.
The tetrad comprehends the principle of soul, as well as that of corporeality; for they say that a living creature is ensouled in the same way that the whole universe is arranged, according to harmony. (p. 63.)
If the universe is composed out of soul and body in the number 4, then it is also true that all concords are perfected by it.
...It is the image of Diana, the celestial nymph, the corporeal soul of the universe, vestal of the higher intelligence that is concealed in all belongs.
Since in the realm of embodiment there are, according to natural scientists, three life-engendering things--vegetative, animal, and rational--and since the rational is subsumed under the hebdomad and the animal under the hexad, then the vegetative necessarily falls under the pentad, with the result that the pentad is the minimal extreme of life. (pp. 72-73).
When it is squared, it always encompasses itself, for 5x5=25, and when it is multiplied again, it both encompasses the square as a whole and terminates at itself, for 5x25=125.
says the first paragraph of the chapter (p. 65). And:It is the midpoint of the decad...
So, you see, the pentad is another thing which as neither excess nor defectiveness in it, and it will turn out to provide this property for the rest of the numbers, so that it is a kind of justice, on the analogy of a weighing instrument. (p. 70)
The pentad is the first number to encompass the specific identity of all number, since it encompasses 2, the first even number, and 3, the first odd number. Hence it is called 'marriage,' since it is formed of male and female. (p. 65)
Because it levels out inequality, they call it 'Providence' and 'justice' (division, as it were) [Translator's note: the word for 'division' (dichesis) is similar to that for 'justice,' (dike)], ... and 'Aphrodite' because it binds to each other a male and a female number. Likewise, it is called 'nuptial' and 'androgyny' and 'demigod'--the latter because it is half of ten, which is divine, but also because in its special diagram is is assigned the central place. (pp. 73-75)
5 OF BATONS: Gold, Riches, Opulence, Splendor, Sumptuousness, Brilliance, Luxury, Abundance, Fortune.—Physical, Philosophical, and Moral Sun. REVERSED: Legal Proceeding, Lawsuit, Disagreements, Discussions, Disputes, Fights, Litigation, Pre-Trial Investigation, Judicial Proceeding.—Annoyances, Conversation, Squabble, Harassment.—Contradiction, Inconsistency.
5 OF SWORDS: Loss, Falsification, Waste, Degradation, Detriment, Decline, Destruction, Deterioration, Deprivation, Reduction, Injuries, Defeats, Prejudice, Wrong, Defect, Fault, Miserliness, Decline in Business, Damages, Disadvantage, Devastation, Squandering, Dissipation, Misfortune, Afflictions, Setback, Reversals of Fortune, Ruin, Downfall, Rout.—Debauchery, Disgrace, Defamation, Dishonor, Vile Abuse, Infamy, Affront, Meanness, Deformity, Humiliation.— Theft, Robbery, Abduction, Plagiarism, Kidnapping, Hideous, Horrible.—Opprobrium, Corruption, Dissoluteness, Seduction, Licentiousness. REVERSED: Mourning, Despondency, Ailment, Grief, Distress, Mental Suffering, Funeral Rites, Interment, Obsequies, Funerals, Inhumation, Sepulcher.
An amphora, vas genitrix of alchemistic memory, here a symbol of the receptive aspect of the human mind, contains five swords, phallic symbols which in thies case are symbols of the fertile ideas from without and tied, so to speak, by the intellence agent, which knows how to join concepts from diverse directions to each other. (p. 127)
Hind quite rightly noted that the "representation of the penis in the form of a bird dates from antiquity," and that accello is still used ideomatically for "penis" in Italian...
The three-pointed tuft at the top of the head might also have a sexual connotation.The color red '"brings to mind vital energy, blood, fire, the desire for conquest and power. (Sola Busca Tarot, p. 71)
5 OF COINS: Lover, Person In Love, Chivalrous Man [Galant], Refined Woman [Galante], Husband, Wife, Spouse, Friend.— Paramour, Mistress.—Love, Cherish, Adore.—Harmony, Accord, Suitable Character, Presentable, Decorum.REVERSED: Muddled, Disorganization.—Debauchery, Disorder, Trouble, Confusion, Chaos.—Damage, Ravage, Ruin.—Dissipation, Wasting [Consumption, therefore also Tuberculosis?].—Dissoluteness, Licentiousness.—Discord, Disharmony, Conflict.
5 OF CUPS: Legacy, Succession, Bequest, Gift, Donation, Dowry, Patrimony, Handing Down, Will.—Tradition, Decision—Conspiracy. REVERSED: Consanguinity, Blood, Family, Forbears, Ancestors, Father, Mother, Brother, Sister, Uncle, Aunt, Cousin.—Filiation, Extraction, Race, Lineage, Alliance [Union].—Affinity, Contact, Relationship, Connections [Junctions].
Batons shows a man carrying a gourd and five large arrows or spears. Di Vincenzo, in Sola-Busca Tarot p. 100), calls the gourd a "symbol of human stupidity," since it is "dried up." But perhaps it conceals something, inside or symbolically. We might ask, what did gourds mean in Renaissance art? A cursory look on the Web shows a few possibilities. At http://academic.evergreen.edu/curricula%20...%20r%2009.pdf, p. 7, we find it identified in Durer's Jerome in his Study as a symbol of divine favor, referring back to a gourd that God provides Jonah for shade and then destroys in the night, an act that makes Jonah upset and perplexed. God uses the gourd as an explanation for why he spared Nineveh, after it repented of its sins: it is for him to decide who he will favor and not. According to Ferguson (Signs and Symbols in Christian Art, with Illustrations from the Paintings of the Renaissance, p. 31, in Google Books) its association with the story in Jonah made the gourd a symbol of the Resurrection. In a Crivelli Madonna and Child, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/food/hd_food.htm), it has the meaning of salvation. That is especially clear if it is pictured with an apple, the fruit of death to which the gourd is the antidote. Ferguson also mentions that pilgrims carried water in gourds (p. 31); it was particularly associated with the pilgrimage to Compostela (p. 124). When shown with a fig, however, a gourd could be a phallic symbol (http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/mcj025/). Moreover, Levenson (Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration, p. 294, in Google Books) says that the gourd, especially if shown with a skull, as in Durer's engraving, might also have been seen as a symbol of transience, because in the Jonah episode God destroys the gourd overnight. Similarly, Parshall (at http://www.jstor.org/pss/3048864, Art Bulletin Vol. 53 No. 3), refers to its use as a symbol of vain pride.
As usual, we have an ambiguous image. Drawing from the above, I would say that the man is either a thief who has stolen something of only transient worth, or a pilgrim seeking salvation while warily walking a path where danger lurks. A relevant detail might be that the batons are divided into a group of three and a group of two (forming an X), suggesting the unification of male (as in the man and his gourd) and female that produces new fruit, i.e. rebirth.
ETTEILLA 6 OF SWORDS: Road, Path, Lane, Walk, Passage, Footpath, Route—Walking, Trafficking, Canvassing, Thoughtfulness [the text reads: Prévenance; but if Provenance is meant, then the translation is: Provenance], Driving, Means, Manner, Way, Expedient, Voyage, Course, Stroll, Pattern, Tracks, Trace, Envoy, Commissionaire [Messenger]. REVERSED: Declaration, Declaratory Act, Exposition, Discussion, Interpretation.—Charter, Constitution, Diploma, Manifest Law, Ordinance.—Publication, Proclamation, Conspicuousness, Public Notice, Publicity, Authenticity, Fame.—Denunciation, Counting.—Enumeration.—Knowledge, Discovery, Exposure, Vision, Revelation, Apparition, Appearance, Admission, Confession, Protestation, Approval, Authorization.
ETTEILLA 6 OF CUPS: The Past, Times Gone By, Wilted, Faded, Formerly, Earlier, Previously, Long Ago, In The Olden Days.—Old Age, Decrepitude, Antiquity. REVERSED: Advent, Future.—After, Following, Subsequently, Later.—Regeneration, Resurrection.—Reproduction, Renewal, Repetition.
When squared, it includes itself, for 6x6=36; when cubed, it no longer maintains itself as a square, for 6x36=216, which includes 6 but not 36. [Translator's note: That is, 36 is circular, 216 is spherical.] (p. 75)
...it is the function of marriage to make offspring similar to parents. (p. 75)
Since the cube of 6 is 216, the period pertaining to seven-month offspring, when to the seven months are added the six days in which the seed froths up and germinates, [translator's note: Greek months consisted of thirty days. The first six days of pregnancy were commonly held to be different from the rest, a preliminary period leading to pregnancy proper (see also pp. 93-4). Interestingly, in modern embryology, the fertilized egg is reckoned to be implanted in the uterus on or about hte sixth day] then Androcydes the Pythagorean, who wrote On the Maxims, and Eubulides the Pythagorean, Aristoxenus, Hippobotus and Neanthes, who all recorded Pythagoras' deeds, said that the transmigrations of soul which he underwent occurred at 216-year intervals; that after this many years, at all events, he came to reincarnation and rebirth as Pythagoras, as it were after the first cycle and return of the soul-generating cube of six (and this number is in fact recurrent because of being spherical), and that he was born at other times after these intervals. (pp. 83-84)
ETTEILLA, 6 OF COINS: The Present, At the Moment, Presently, Now, Forthwith, Suddenly, Instantly, At This Time, Today, Assistant, Witness, Contemporary.—Attentive, Careful, Vigilant. REVERSED: Desire, Wish, Ardor, Overzealousness, Passion, Affectations, Cupidity, Envy, Jealousy, Illusion.
WAITE, 6 OF PENTACLES: Presents, gifts, gratification; another account says attention, vigilance; now is the accepted time, present prosperity, etc. Additional Meanings: The present must not be relied on.
The hexad is the first perfect number; for it is counted by its own parts, as containing a sixth, a third, and a half. (p. 75)
ETTEILLA 6 OF BATONS: Domestic Worker, Servant, Valet, Lackey, Maid, Mercenary, Subordinate, Slave.—Courier, Messenger, Domestic Help.—Interior of a House, Housekeeping, Family, All Domestic Servants. REVERSED: Waiting, Expectation, Hope [Desire], Believe Deep Down, Base Yourself On, Trust, Promise Yourself.—Confidence, Foresight.—Fear, Apprehension.
Etteilla transferred the meanings of the French suited piquet pack from his first book on cartomancy to the tarot cards in his later book. e.g.,
Etteilla 10 hearts = Town, 10 cups = City; 10 clubs = house, 10 coins = house.
Etteilla used the reverse meanings of the piquet cards to make up for the additional cards in the tarot, e.g.,
Etteilla 10 hearts R = inheritance, 5 cups = inheritance; 10 clubs R = lover, 5 coins = lovers; 7 spades R = friendship, 2 swords = friendship; 7 clubs R = embarrassment, 2 coins = embarrassment; 7 hearts R = desire, 2 cups = love.
In general but not always the fives are reversed tens, twos reversed sevens, fours reversed nines.
Etteilla's 'authority' for the the correlation of french to italian suits ~
was probably Mellet:
V. Comparaison de ces Attributs avec les valeurs qu'on assigne aux Cartes modernes pour la Divination.
Nos Diseurs de bonne-fortune ne sachant pas lire les Hiéroglyphes, en ont soustrait tous les Tableaux & change jusqu'aux noms de coupe, de bâton, de denier & d'épée, dont ils ne connoissoient ni l'etynologie, ni l'expression; ils ont substitué ceux de coeur, de carreau, de trefle & de pique.
Mais ils ont retenu certaines tournures & plusieurs expressions consacrées par l'usage qui laissent entrevoir l'origine de leur divination. Selon eux,
Les Coeurs, (les Coupes), annoncent le bonheur. Les Trefles, (les Deniers), la fortune. Les Piques, (les Epées), le malheur. Les Carreaux [Il est à remarquer que dans l'Ecriture symbolique les Egyptiens traçoient des carreaux pour exprimer la campagne.], (les Bâtons), l'indifference & la campagne.
V Comparison of these Attributes with the values assigned to modern cards for the purpose of divination.
Our tellers of good-fortune not knowing how to read hieroglyphics, withdrew all the images and changed the names of cups, batons, denier & swords, while understanding neither the etymology nor the expression; substituting hearts, diamonds, clubs & spades.
Nevertheless, they retained certain turnings & several expressions by which we can retrace the origin of their divinatory meanings to the original suits.
According to them, the Hearts (Cups) announce happiness. The Clubs (Coins) fortune. Spades (Swords) misfortune. Diamonds [note that in the symbolic writing system of the Egyptians diamond squares represent the countryside] (Batons) indifference & the countryside.
Recherches sur les Tarots, et sur la Divination par les Cartes des Tarots par M. Le C. de M. ***
Mellet also associates the 10 hearts / cups with the town/city:
Les coeurs & plus particulierement le dix, dévoilent les événemens qui doivent arriver à la ville.
The hearts & more particularly the Ten, reveal the events that must arrive at the city.
A wicked pack of cards by Decker, Depaulis and Dummet, p.74 & 94
*The correspondence of latin to french suits has also been made recently in the Dame Fortuna tarot deck, which is based on Etteilla.
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