Re: Bolognese sequence

#81
mikeh wrote:Huck wrote:
Annibale had then some time at Ferrara, he was like a son there. Giovanni, the father, died 1508.
Yes. But there was a return.
... :-)
You missed a few posts in this thread.
Why did I write about Trivulzio short before?
...
Ady: "Three years after Giovanni Bentivoglio's decease his sons returned to Bologna, and from 21 May 1511 to 10 June 1512 Annibale II exercised the prerogatives of first citizen...Annibale and his brothers rode into Bologna a week after the Pope's departure, at the invitation of their friends in the city, and to the inexpressible joy of the populace" (p. 202, 203). Unfortunately 1511 was not 1447. The Pope had the Spanish on their side. While fighting raged outside the walls, Michelangelo's statue of Julius II was smashed and the head allowed to roll around for a while. The pieces were sent to Ferrara and made into a cannonball called La Giula. But the Spanish won, and the French left Italy. Annibale et al left, and that branch of the family never returned.
They returned with the help of a French army, which was led by Trivulzio. A reason for me to assume, that the socalled BAR (a term of Ross - two Tarot sheets in Paris, each with 6 cards ) had been produced for this opportunity.
Maybe you go back till ca. thread Nr. 61 or a little earlier.
Whow, he EXCOMMUNICATED the Augustinians ... that's strong tobacco, isn't it, that has scandalous dimensions ... :-)
So he surely didn't design a Trionfi deck. But perhaps Ginevra had one and that was part of the scandal?
Well, they were excommunicated for being members of an Ecclesiastical order who disobeyed him. He didn't excommunicate Sante. And probably at that time, 1454, there was no edict against instuctional cards. The scandal generally had begun long before Ginevra got there.

Also, I am not convinced that just because cards were forbidden (how long before 1445, anyway?) they weren't played. Look at Pistoia. Say more.
The prohibition existed indeed since 1377. But such prohibitions were not always active or persecuted in the same way. When Eugen entered the city 1434 (somehow parallel to Cosimo's return from exile), it seems, that this increased "active persecution" and things probably got worse, as longer Eugen stayed and as mightier he became (he started very weak and was strong in his end). So the 40's see an increased prohibition evluated against other times. We have even only one card production (1446) in Ferrara noted from 1444 - 1449, although Ferrara was playing card friendly from 1422-25 (finished by the cruel death of Parisina) and then from 1434 - 1443 (restarting with "marrying daughters") and from 1450-1463 (Borso).

Part of the Ferrarese anti-playing-card-period 1444 - 1449 is Leonello's marriage to a daughter of Alfonso of Aragon in 1445 and Alfonso seems to have turned against playing cards (according the Florentian biograph Bistecci - who was a conservative and against playing cards himself) he played in his youth till he was 18 and then finished it, and probable made his personal "not gambling" behavior to a general law at his court or even in Naples.
It seems, that the new first lady at the Ferrarese court brought this habit to Ferrara ... so more or less no playing cards in Ferrara.

Another part is the prohibition against the feast of Fools, which was established in Paris 1445 (this was probably more a habit outside of Italy, especially in France, but some extensions existed also for Italy). This was in its origin a feast of the lower clergy at 1st of January, which made then an artful revolution for this day, entering the local churches and had then some blasphemous activities there ...drinking etc., a crowning action was card-playing at the altar.
A sort of carnival - it was prohibited then and seems to have moved in its essence to other carnival times, which developed (much) stronger then (carnival established itself in this century, getting strong forms in in the time of pope Paul II. - the general liberalization in the 60's). A prohibition of the feast of fools was already discussed in Basel around 1435, but it seems that it realized with Eugen's powerful position around 1445.

Gambling activities at the court of Ferrara (the present to Bianca Maria of 1.1.1441) and later from Galeazzo Maria in Milan (same day) mirror the feast of the Fool in an Italian variant.

For the 1st of January 1441 in Ferrara (Bianca's present of 14 paintings, which might be cards) has the context, that Ferrara had an admired Fool with the name Gonella, who was painted by the astonishing French artist Jean Fouquet ...

Image

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Fouquet

... who made (not so famous then) a visit to Italy. About the date of this journey is disputed, one very intensive researcher suggests something like 1439-1442, the general far spread solution is later. Now I find in Wikipedia even a 1437. If it was 1439, the painter visited probably the council of Florence (Florence was already a Mekka for artists and the council was surely an opportunity to earn a few bucks as painter). Gonella might have been there ... at least the picture exists. Gonella became even a literary topic, for instance realized by Poggio. Poggio had letter contact to Ferrara and also Alberti, who took intellectual influence there.
Alberti got ideas of sarcastic humor in Ferrara (especially Lucian texts) and realised them in his writings, especially in Momus (1443 - 1450).

Well, the 14 paintings had a Fool, hadn't they ? ... :-)

Fouque was from Dijon and Dijon was very special for its Day-of-the-Fool activities.

Image


He painted also Pope Eugen ... this is said to be a copy of the other picture

Image


***************
compare:
http://trionfi.com/0/d/91/index.php
http://trionfi.com/0/d/93/index.php
http://trionfi.com/0/p/05
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Bolognese sequence

#82
Huck wrote: Btw. I detected the sword-king of the Ursino deck in the Hoffmann book, which I earlier had ignored. Interestingly it presents a diamond ring on a shield, combined with an object, that I can't identify and it's difficukt to describe.
Image


The object inside the ring is a carnation flower ("garofano").
According to these pages:
http://www.paliodiferrara.it/san_benedetto.php?lang=it
http://www.engramma.it/engramma_v4/rivi ... rzo04.html
the emblem was created by Ercole I d'Este (1431-1505), brother of Borso, on the basis of the device of Nicolò III d'Este (which did not include the flower).

Marco

Re: Bolognese sequence

#83
Thanks for actively engaging this topic, Huck and Mike.

I don't have Ady's book "The Bentivoglio of Bologna: a Study in Despotism", so it is good to see long quotes from her. My main sources are other Bolognese histories and chronicles, as well as histories of the Council of Ferrara-Florence.

Ady's short preliminary paper, "Materials for the History of the Bentivoglio Signoria in Bologna”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, s. 4, vol. XVII (1934)
http://www.jstor.org/pss/3678520
says that the Bentivoglio archives were destroyed when the papacy regained control (p. 57). Terpstra adds to this picture that over 50 pro-Bentivoglio people were quickly executed in this purge after 1506 (The Art of Executing Well, p. 120). This suggests that we are in the same position relative to the Bentivoglio signory (archives, accounts) as we are to the Visconti - both potentially rich and detailed sources are lost forever. This can be compared to the wealth of the Este and Sforza records. But, in any case, the tendency of the evidence, taken in its entirety, shows that even if Visconti and Bentivoglio sources survived, we should not expect any references to carte da trionfi in them earlier than 1437.

This brings me to the point of discussing Bologna at all - my chart gives parameters for dating the Ur-Tarot, but not the provenance (chiefly since Ferrara and Milan are the most distant points from one another in the first 20 years, but Tarot appears simultaneously in both - this means that neither can be favored by this method, and we have to begin to conjecture by evaluating the content of the evidence). I read the Ferrara evidence of Marchione Burdochio to indicate that his retail Tarot came from Bologna. Therefore it also shows a court buying a "popular" product, which strengthens the argument that Tarot was invented outside of a court. This is when Bologna entered the picture for me (with Florence on the horizon, since the traditions are so closely related).

Given the dating and the suggestion of a popular origin, in A-Southern style if not Bologna exactly, we can begin to conjecture about the meaning of the series. Obviously, the first step in the conjecture is to imagine what the Ur-Tarot looked like. Since Bologna's tradition is demonstrably conservative for the entire time of its attestation, while Florence's is demonstrably changeable, I suggest that Bologna's was equally stable for the previous 60 years to c. 1500 (the date of the BAR sheets). Strong indirect evidence of this is the presence of the equal-Papi rule and high Angel in Piedmont, which should already have existed before 1505 there (when they are already importing French (really Avignon) cards into the heart of Piedmont (Pinerolo, just south of Turin)). This suggests that there was a time when Bolognese rules were very widespread, and since there is little trace of them anywhere else but Bologna and PIedmont, that it was early and short lived. Weaker indirect evidence is the attachment of Bolognese tarot players to their game and design (the conservatism so noted by Dummett), and the fact that Bologna is the only city to claim invention of the game (albeit in sometimes contradictory, and always implausible, ways).

Thus, I have two important premises - that the BAR sheets are an accurate reflection of the early Bolognese pattern, and that the equal-Papi rule is original - upon which to begin an interpretation of the series as it might have been conceived in Bologna between 1437 and 1441. This is where the events of this time come in, to help the interpretation.
Image

Re: Bolognese sequence

#84
marco wrote:
Huck wrote: Btw. I detected the sword-king of the Ursino deck in the Hoffmann book, which I earlier had ignored. Interestingly it presents a diamond ring on a shield, combined with an object, that I can't identify and it's difficukt to describe.
Image


The object inside the ring is a carnation flower ("garofano").
According to these pages:
http://www.paliodiferrara.it/san_benedetto.php?lang=it
http://www.engramma.it/engramma_v4/rivi ... rzo04.html
the emblem was created by Ercole I d'Este (1431-1505), brother of Borso, on the basis of the device of Nicolò III d'Este (which did not include the flower).

Marco
Excellent Marco! You found other clear examples. Are we now possibly looking at another "Ercole d'Este" tarot? Or do we prefer that Alessandro Sforza may have "bought" it for his own use, and hence points to Pesaro as the destination of this pack?

I'm impressed with these images and information.
Image

Re: Bolognese sequence

#85
Excellent, Marco

The symbol of the 3 rings seem to go back to a situation in 1409, in which Muzio Attendola worked in the service of Niccola.
But Sforza's family became "very important", the Contrari stayed small.

1401. Consolidatosi il dominio estense, la rocca ed il feudo di Vignola sono donati dal marchese Nicolò III al nobile ferrarese Uguccione I Contrari, che nel 1409 diviene signore anche delle podesterie di Monfestino e Savignano.

1420. Intorno a questa data è completata la trasformazione della rocca da edificio militare a dimora per la famiglia Contrari.

1453. Il duca Borso d’Este erige il feudo in contea, conferendo ai fratelli Ambrogio e Nicolò Contrari il titolo di conti.

So it seems, that the Medici bought the symbol from Contrari ... or how shall we call it? The new three diamonds would be probably Medici - Sforza - Este.
Piero's diamond was used in 1449 at Lorenzo round birth picture with Fama (but might be added later ?), the date for Cosimo's medal I don't know.
The "new" friendship would make sense ca. 1450 or 1454 (perhaps with the Tristano - Beatrice marriage 1454), I would assume.
Would be nice to know, when Cosimo made his medal.

Probably it would be VERY good to have pictures of all Ursino cards.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Bolognese sequence

#86
Diamond rings

Image


from clothes of Empress at Bembo cards

Borso becomes duke 1452/53 and probably needs money for it. Cosimo is a banker.
The Contrari get a title (1453) - for which reason?
The Sforza made their cards around 1452/53 - with diamond rings.

Cosimo has the 3-diamond-ring-medal - since when?

"Francesco rewarded his friends and allies in the noble families, granting them his own symbol: the three rings. They were the emblem of the only land to which he had legal title, Cremona. Besides the Borromeo family, he gave the honour to the families Cavazzi della Somaglia, Sanseverino, and Birago. Consequently, the rings can be found on many monuments in and around Milan. "
http://www.liv.ac.uk/~spmr02/rings/sforza.html

The same page says to this coin:

Image


"Cabrino Fondulo (1370-1425) was a mercenary. He conquered the city-state of Cremona in 1406, taking advantage of feud in the ruling family. In 1413, he was made Count of Soncino, Marquis of Castiglione, and `Vicario' (representative) for the Emperor Sigismund (1368-1437). The three interlaced rings seem to have been an emblem of the city, and are said to symbolise the close friendship between Fondulo, Sigismund and `antipope' John XXIII (1370-1419). The rings appear on a Cremonese coin [Sant'Ambrogio]."

The coin has a VS .. shouldn't it mean Visconti-Sforza? So this story seems to be nonsense (?) Cremona probably got the diamonds in 1441.

But the other part of the story, that Sforza distributed the symbol for friends might be true ... then Cosimo got it simply as a friend.

And this story:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitaliano_Borromeo
Vitaliano I Borromeo (? - 1449) was a Milanese Ghibelline, first Count of Arona. His father was Giacomo Vitaliani, ambassador of Padua to Venice, and his mother Margherita was of the prosperous family of Borromeo.[1] He married Ambrosina Fagnani, and his only son was Filippo Borromeo.[2] Many of his descendants took his name.

The events of Vitaliano Borromeo's youth and earlier life are unknown. According to one story, as a young man he was running out of money, and sold all his possessions to buy donkeys with covers embroidered with a camel sitting atop a basket, symbolizing his poverty. His rich but stingy uncle, Giovanni Borromeo, had previously denied his requests for money, but was so amused by this act designed to impress him that he allowed Vitaliano to enter his house.[3]

Vitaliano was given citizenship of Milan in 1406, and rose in wealth and prestige. He bought much property, and served as treasurer in 1418. At some point he began a banking service that, under his son Filippo, would rise into prominence in all the major markets of Europe. He came into his inheritance in November 1431 when his uncle Giovanni Borromeo died, and he adopted his last name. In 1439 Filippo Maria Visconti awarded him the city of Arona on the western shore of Lake Maggiore, and six years later the Duke made him Count of Arona. In 1441 he was made a Milanese counselor. In 1447 he was elected a Captain and Defender of the Liberty of Milan at the first elections of the Ambrosian Republic.[4]

As a staunch Ghibelline, he hosted a conspiracy in February, 1449 against the dictator Carlo Gonzaga, led by his friends Giorgio Lampugnano and Teodoro Bossi. The conspiracy was discovered, and while Lampugnano and Cotti were killed, Borromeo fled to Arona.[5] While in Arona over the summer, he managed to purchase Angera from the Visconti for 12,800 Imperial lire, giving him mastery of all Lake Maggiore.[6] He died that October by an unknown cause and was buried in Milan. His son Filippo was given his inheritance by Francesco Sforza, who also, according to legend, added three rings to the Borromeo-family coat-of-arms.
Image


Dromedario araldico di Borromeo
... so the "Borromean rings" seem to be given to the Borromean family instead that Sforza got it from the family.

********

The passage at ...
Nicolò III d'Este nel 1401 cedette in feudo a Uguccione de' Contrari le terre e la Rocca di Vignola; è interessante notare come il suo emblema fosse proprio un anello con diamante avvinghiato da una zinnia. In quel caso si trattava di un anello episcopale che stava a significare il legame di Ferrara con lo Stato Pontificio: venne concesso a Nicolò da papa Martino V quando lo nominò gonfaloniere di Santa Romana Chiesa, carica ereditata poi da Ercole I che assunse anche l'impresa di Nicolò sostituendo alla zinnia due foglie e un garofano.

translated via Google:
Nicolò III d'Este in 1401 gave in fief to Uguccione de 'Against the lands and Rocca di Vignola, interestingly, its emblem was just a diamond ring clutched a zinnia. In that case it was an episcopal ring which meant the binding of Ferrara in the Papal States: it was granted to Nicolo when Martin V named him gonfalonier of Holy Roman Church, a position inherited from Hercules I then I also assumed that the firm of Nicholas replacing the two leaves and zinnia a carnation.
in relation to this picture:

Image


... which is very near to that, what is at the Alessandro-Sforza-card.

This seems to say, that the popes distributed such diamonds rings.
Costanzo Sforza, son of Alessandro, in 1474/75 (time of his marriage) worked for the Chiesa, probably not in function of a gonfalonier (carrier of the standard), which seems to be a rather high rank.

His father Alessandro worked as highest general for the church in June or August (?) 1469 in a battle with a horrible result against Roberto Malatesta, who was defended with Montefeltro as highest general.
Pontifici: 2500 cavalli, 2500 fanti. Durata: dall’alba al tramonto. Nel combattimento rimangono uccisi 300 uomini. Fra i pontifici sono catturati 300/400 uomini d’arme. I collegati si impadroniscono dei bagagli e dell’artiglieria nemica e ne saccheggiano il campo.

Then Alessandro might have been gonfalonier ... he was hurt in the battle, a lot of his high officers became prisoners. It was the only recorded open battle in the period 1467 - 1477 at the condottieridiventura.it list, although there should have beenm some sieges.

The date might be near enough to 1463 to get a Charles VI deck.
Between 1466 - 1470 he had a difficult relation to Galeazzo Maria Sforza, so possibly it was not easy for him to get such a deck. He fought against Florence in 1467. In 1471 he became governor of Parma ... this should have been Milanese region then. So the war was over. Maybe then he got this deck.


Costanzo lived at least 10 monthes in Milan at the court of Francesco Sforza in 1464 (Januar - maybe earlier till October), then back to Pesaro. Then 17 years old.
In February 1467 he leaves the Milanese side with his father and goes to the Venetian side.
In 1467 in the battle of Molinella against Florence; prisoner, immediately released)
In 1468 he is at a festivity at the Ferrarese court (which is then against Milan)
1471 with Borso in Rome.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Look for SURPRIZE

#87
... :-) it's (nearly) Christmas. Look out for a SURPRIZE

... and if you see, what I saw ... that was a painter with some humor ... :-)

btw.



This is a detail from a Triptychon by Rogier von Weyden ca. 1460, commissioner had been Alessandro Sforza.

To the left are the arms of Alessandro, the helmet is crowned with a dragon with a man's face, which holds a diamond ring.

The same figure appears curiously on the heraldic page of la Sfera, which else is filled with Sforza-Visconti heraldic. The manuscript was given to Anna Sforza for her marriage 1491. I just find not the picture.

... hours later ... here it is:

Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Bolognese sequence

#88
Huck, searching "Trivulzio" all I find is your comment that he freed Bologna in 1511, plus some links and the tapestries made for him. I admit I was puzzled as to why you brought him in. Yes, I see you know the history; mea culpa. I couldn't find your claim that he brought in the BAR. Where are the thread numbers in this forum? I can't find them. I'd like to know more.

I enjoyed the surprise right here (as well as the one with its own thread), the detail in the van der Weyden. How many other surprises do you have tucked away in various threads? I have been puzzled for a while about just the obvious things in that painting (http://www.wga.hu/html/w/weyden/rogier/ ... orza1.html): like, isn't that a teenage Galeazzo Maria on the far right of the painting, and Bianca in front of him? (For Galeazzo, compare to http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: ... _1464_.jpg. Only the words in the manuscript that follows, I think, are 1464.) If it is them, wouldn't the man be Francesco, even if Allesandro commissioned the painting? And where was van der Weyden when he did it? In Flanders? (Art historians say he was only in Italy for the Jubilee, if at all.) Then did he paint the man's head in Italy and then paste it on in Flanders? And similarly for the other two, except that he worked from sketches? And also the diamond ring and whatever else I didn't notice?

I have been re-reading Ady for more quotes. I have been looking for references to pageants, triumphs, entries into the city, Ginevra, art, heresy, and Roman history. It is indeed too bad the city records were destroyed. All we have is the city's archives, the chronicles, and literary works.

On pageants, I didn't find anything until the reign of Giovanni II. Then there are a couple of good ones. First, the wedding celebration for Annibale Bentivoglio and Lucrezia d'Este, which "surpassed all others." I skip the preliminaries and the brief part about the wedding itself in Ferrara, 23 January 1487, and the festivities there.

"On 28 January the bride and bridegroom made their solemn entry into Bologna, where representatives of all the powers of Italy were assembled to do them honour. The road from Porta Galliera to the Bentivoglio palace was spanned by seven triumphal arches, representing the theological and the cardinal virtues, and on each a figure appeared as the procession passed and spoke verses of welcome to the bride. 'The rain,' says Sabadino degli Arienti, 'fell like manna from heaven', but it was not allowed to interrupt the programme. Next day there was a banquet, which is celebrated among the culinary feats of the Renaissance; it lasted seven hours, and at its conclusion the guests gave their presents to the bridal pair. After this a Florentine ballerina of six years old gave an exhibition of dancing which excited general admiration, and the evening's entertainment culminated in a masque symbolizing the triumph of Matrimony over Chastity. One morning the wedding-party attended Mass in San Petronio and another morning in San Giacomo, while feasting and dancing within the palace and feats of arms in the Piazza filled the later hours of the day. At one banquet each guest found before him an appropriate creation in sugar-icing. The bride had a triumphal car, the Papal representative a model of the Castle of S. Angelo, and Lorenzo dei Medici a peacock. Among those who took part in the dancing were 'many young couples form the butchers' gild, bound by ancient friendship to the Bentivoglio'. Toward the close of the festivities a tournament was held in which the Marquis of Mantua bore off the prize. Finally there was a display of fireworks in which a great ball, hung over the cortile of the palace, sent out cascades of fire to the amazement of the spectators. It was estimated that some 3000 strangers were entertained, and that 800 casks of wine were drunk and 30,000 pounds of meat eaten in the Bentivoglio palace before all was over. 'Truly,' says a chronicler, 'it was the greatest and finest feast that was ever held in Bologna.' (p. 173f)

It lasted until "the early days of February." The Bentivoglio have come a long way since Sante--nobody was even excommunicated. I can give you Ady's references if desired. She also lists four other prose and poetry accounts, besides the chronicles. There is apparently a list of presents in verse. I would gather from the above that the Love card (matrimony) follows the popes (chastity). I am not sure about where the Chariot goes. On the one hand, the couple is just starting out; first they get in the triumphal car, then they pass through the arches of the virtues. On the other hand, they get the sugar-triumphal cart at the end. I would love to see the libretto for the masque (by Dominico Fosco of Rimini, Ady says) and the verses (by Andrea Magnani).

Another pagent, p. 171:

"On Saint Petronio's Day, 1490, the tournament proper formed the climax of a pageant. The idea originated in a discussion which took place between Annibale Bentivoglio and Niccolo Rangoni, as to whether wisdom or fortune wielded greater influence over the affairs of men. It was in fact a tenzone, in which a contest of words culminated in an appeal to arms. Proceedings opened with the appearance on the Piazza of a triumphal car in which the goddess Sapienza sat enthroned among representatives of ancient wisdom. Behind the car rode Sapienza's champions, headed by Niccolo Rangoni in a sky-blue coat richly embroidered with pearls. The company processed round the Piazza to the sound of pipes and drums, and then made way for the car of the goddess of Fortuna, attended by Annibale Bentivoglio and his band of warriors, arrayed in green. After the processions came verse-speaking in which the two goddesses in turn pleaded their cause with a venerable man in the robes of a doctor of the University. He, having declared his inability to decide between them, made appeal to the judges of the tournament, and at their signal the fighting began. Fortune emerged victorious from the battle, and the palio awarded to the victor was placed in her car. Then amid shouts of 'Sega", 'Annibale', 'Fortuna' the procession passed like a Roman triumph through the streets on its way to the Bentivoglio palace. [References: Poggio, Cronaca, ff. 48-33. Ghirardacci, Della Historia di Bologna, 1669, Pt. III, pp. 257-62.Other descriptions of the tournament of 1490 are to be found in an anonymous poem (Biblioteca Universitaria, Bologna, Ms. 774) and in a letter from Alfonso d'Este to Isabella Gonzaga (Mantua 1882. Per nozze Cavriani-Hercolani). Another occasion on which drama mingled with fighting was the carnival of 1506, the last of the Bentivoglio regime. Annibale and his brothers were in charge of the festivities, and Lent and Carnival vied with each other before the Bentivoglio palace until Lent was routed and Carnival reigned alone. [Ref: Floriano degli Ubaldini, Cronica, iii. f. 74.]"

Again, I'd love to see the verses. Along these same lines, here is her description of a poem about the Triumphs, as part of her survey of the rather mediocre literary output during this time:

"Typical of much else is the Glorioso Trionfo of Marino Gualtiero of Florence. Here the poet discusses the virtues which merit eternal fame and describes a triumphal car prepared for Giovanni Bentivoglio among the illustrious men of the past." (p. 165)

I gather from these that Fortune and either Sapientia or Eternal Fame (Fama?) were a pair of opposites. In the tarocchi, I can see them as at the heads of the first half and second half respectively. And since Fama and Sapientia are both feminine, I would expect the World card to have a feminine personification, as in the Charles VI.

I will end this post with a quote for Huck (p. 172) :

"There is a pleasing simplicity about Poggio's description of the first football-match which he witnessed. 'On 5 June 1480 Messer Giovanni ordered a new game to be played on the Piazza. There were fifty youths on each side, those on one side wore green and the others red; a great ball was placed in the middle of the Piazza and each side began to run after it; those who sent it more often to the side of their opponents were the victors."

Football has come a ways, too.

More to follow, on the other subjects. Happy Holidays.

Re: Bolognese sequence

#89
hi Mike,
mikeh wrote:Huck, searching "Trivulzio" all I find is your comment that he freed Bologna in 1511, plus some links and the tapestries made for him. I admit I was puzzled as to why you brought him in. Yes, I see you know the history; mea culpa. I couldn't find your claim that he brought in the BAR. Where are the thread numbers in this forum? I can't find them. I'd like to know more.
The relevant thesis is in post ca. nr. 65 ... it evolves from the 12 BAR pictures, the two Parian sheets with 6 cards each. I especially consider the chariot (which I think, that it has a French Lille, but Ross has doubts) and the Star (which I consider as referring to the moment, when Emperor Maximilian attempted to become pope, in the time, when pope Julian had lost health and was considered to die soon).
The arguments are given in the post.

From this evolves my statement, that the BAR might have developed 1511/12. The later Bolognese star pictures change the scene, then a pope crowns a king to emperor (as it happened 1530 with King/Emperor Charles V. just in Bologna).

The man, who took deciding influence on the return of Bentivoglio to Bologna, had been Trivulzio as the leading general in this situation.
So I started to look, what happened to Trivulzio. 3 important points:

1. Trivulzio was in the position to start a French Tarot, which was exported to Milan.

2. Trivulzio had been in the period 1496-1499 variously in Piedmont and had an important position there.
Part of the argumentation of Ross for an early Bolognese Tarot position is, that he sees no logical reason, why the 4-papi-rule appears in Bologna and Piedmont, for which he sees no logical connection. For this connection (probably also some other reasons) he assumes, that the Bolognese pattern had to be "the oldest".
But if I assume, that the French Tarot as an import spread with Trivulzio and his intentions and took also an influence on Bologna, than I would have a scenario, which makes it logical, that Piedmontese and Bolognese rules have similarity.

3. Trivulzio was attacked by the Milanese in his Piedmontese time as a traitor. He was attacked with shame pictures, showing the hanging man, so he was attacked with Trionfi cards (as they were known then, how far spread they were, we don't know - that's a not clear factor).
From the general consideration of the Trionfi cards it seems, that all motifs appeared in 15th century, only one is missing: the Devil.
If one assumes, that this development has an inner logic and one tries to interpret it, then one comes to the consideration, that the person who added the devil should have hatred somebody, for instance the whole establishment, which created "Trionfi cards" with a background philosophy, which took from the poor and gave to the rich and tried to get fame and praise with these cards. Such a person could have added a devil. By his life circumstances Trivulzio could have been this "hating person", though he is a little late. Another person with this characteristic would have been Roberto Sanseverino in 1477 or a little later, another condottiero.
As Trivulzio was attacked with Traitor-Trionfi-cards, a reply and counter attack with Trionfi cards from his side (then called Taraux cards) would have some inner logic.

We have the confirmation, that Boiardo created a deck with 22+4x14-structure in likely 1487 and the Sola-Busca is from 1491 and has also the structure 22+4x14. So the structure existed, but it is not confirmed, if a deck with this structure existed and used the standard motifs of Tarot, cause Boiardo deck and Sola Busca have curious trumps.
We both have observed, that Boiardo's poem in January 1487 is dated at a "logical time" and we both have observed, that it is curiously contemporary to Pico da Mirandola's activities in December 1486. From this observation one might conclude, that Pico made something with a "22" and that his elder cousin contributed with the poem and its internal Trionfi deck to Pico's idea. From this fact the idea is near, that Boiardo invented the 22+4x14 structure on the base of Pico's proposed kabbalistic model ... but then we would have to look for a Genesis of the standard Tarot later than 1487.

So .. let's take a look at Trivulzio.

I enjoyed the surprise right here (as well as the one with its own thread), the detail in the van der Weyden. How many other surprises do you have tucked away in various threads? I have been puzzled for a while about just the obvious things in that painting (http://www.wga.hu/html/w/weyden/rogier/ ... orza1.html): like, isn't that a teenage Galeazzo Maria on the far right of the painting, and Bianca in front of him? (For Galeazzo, compare to http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: ... _1464_.jpg.
No, that's Costanzo (1465 18 years old, so 3 years younger han Galeazzo), who married later (1475) Camilla of Aragon. And the Lady is one of the two wifes of Alessandro.
Only the words in the manuscript that follows, I think, are 1464.) If it is them, wouldn't the man be Francesco, even if Allesandro commissioned the painting? And where was van der Weyden when he did it? In Flanders? (Art historians say he was only in Italy for the Jubilee, if at all.) Then did he paint the man's head in Italy and then paste it on in Flanders? And similarly for the other two, except that he worked from sketches? And also the diamond ring and whatever else I didn't notice?
Weyden was in Flandern, but the whole matter probably relates to a Milanese painter, who worked 1461-1464 in Weyden's workshop in Bruessel. Bianca Maria had been very interested in this matter and caused, that the painter could do so and even when the painter drank too much wine and behaved in other ways not reliable, she begged personally for excuse. A famous letter.
I have been re-reading Ady for more quotes. I have been looking for references to pageants, triumphs, entries into the city, Ginevra, art, heresy, and Roman history. It is indeed too bad the city records were destroyed. All we have is the city's archives, the chronicles, and literary works.

On pageants, I didn't find anything until the reign of Giovanni II.


That's the problem with the Bolognese origin theory. I believe, that "Trionfi"s needed potent sponsors and they are missing in Bologna till Giovanni.
Then there are a couple of good ones. First, the wedding celebration for Annibale Bentivoglio and Lucrezia d'Este, which "surpassed all others." I skip the preliminaries and the brief part about the wedding itself in Ferrara, 23 January 1487, and the festivities there.
I've read the same with interest in a similar Italian source (with limited understanding of course). But you overlook something in your (or Ady's) description - and that is, that the marriage also had festivities before in Ferrara and these included 2 important theatre shows with 3-10 000 onlookers.
The whole was rather gigantic. Lucrezia is nearly overlooked as an "daughter outside of marriage" and her fame had gone with the excesses of historians about her half-sisters Beatrice and Isabella.
"On Saint Petronio's Day, 1490, the tournament ...
This I didn't know. St. Petronio's day is 4th of October, says Wikipedia. Is any familary festivity connected, or the opening of a new chapel in San Petronio or something? I think, that some pictures in the Bentivoglio chapel (in San Petronio) were finished, Death and Fama of Costa. They were discussed at Aeclectic.

Generally I'd difficulties to find a reliable genealogy. Has Ady one? Niccolo Rangoni should be the husband of Annibale's eldest sister.
Actually it would be a necessary project to bring all info about pageants together with some information. A big list with subchapters, which lead to info. All of 15th century or in relevant times.
"Typical of much else is the Glorioso Trionfo of Marino Gualtiero of Florence. Here the poet discusses the virtues which merit eternal fame and describes a triumphal car prepared for Giovanni Bentivoglio among the illustrious men of the past." (p. 165)
Interesting ... I would like to see more.
... :-) ... I knew from the soccer-festival, but details are missing.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Bolognese sequence

#90
Huck wrote,
The relevant thesis is in post ca. nr. 65
I still can't find numbers on the posts. Perhaps you could give me a date.
The later Bolognese star pictures change the scene, then a pope crowns a king to emperor (as it happened 1530 with King/Emperor Charles V. just in Bologna)
. A picture or reference would be nice here. I'm not as familiar with all the sequences as you and Ross.

Thanks for the summary about Trevulzio and the explanation about van der Weyden's painting. I knew about Bianca sending a painter to Brussels, but I don't know the letter. So the painting is later than 1460, which is what the website gives, no "ca" so perhaps it's signed and dated?
But you overlook something in your (or Ady's) description - and that is, that the marriage also had festivities before in Ferrara and these included 2 important theatre shows with 3-10 000 onlookers.
I just skipped that part, since I knew you knew about it. Here's Ady.

"Invitations to the wedding were scattered broadcast throughout Italy, and all the talent at his comand was exploited to provide entertainment for the guests. From 23 January 1487, when Annibale arrived in Ferrara with a retinue of 'two hundred mouths', until the early days of February, when the guests began to leave Bologna, there was one long round of pageantry. On the wedding-day the Amphitruo of Plautus was performed in the courtyard of the Castello d'Este at Ferrara." [Ady's Reference: Bernardino Zambotti, Silva Cronicum. Ref. for part about Bologna, described in previous post: Sabadino, Hymeneo. See Zannoni G., Una rappresentazione allegorica a Bologna nel 1487, Rendiconti della reale Accademia dei Lincei, serie 4, vol. vii, pp. 414-27 (1891).
Generally I'd difficulties to find a reliable genealogy. Has Ady one? Niccolo Rangoni should be the husband of Annibale's eldest sister.
[/quote] Yes and yes.
Image
More later.

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