...mikeh wrote:Huck wrote:Yes. But there was a return.Annibale had then some time at Ferrara, he was like a son there. Giovanni, the father, died 1508.
You missed a few posts in this thread.
Why did I write about Trivulzio short before?
They returned with the help of a French army, which was led by Trivulzio. A reason for me to assume, that the socalled BAR (a term of Ross - two Tarot sheets in Paris, each with 6 cards ) had been produced for this opportunity.Ady: "Three years after Giovanni Bentivoglio's decease his sons returned to Bologna, and from 21 May 1511 to 10 June 1512 Annibale II exercised the prerogatives of first citizen...Annibale and his brothers rode into Bologna a week after the Pope's departure, at the invitation of their friends in the city, and to the inexpressible joy of the populace" (p. 202, 203). Unfortunately 1511 was not 1447. The Pope had the Spanish on their side. While fighting raged outside the walls, Michelangelo's statue of Julius II was smashed and the head allowed to roll around for a while. The pieces were sent to Ferrara and made into a cannonball called La Giula. But the Spanish won, and the French left Italy. Annibale et al left, and that branch of the family never returned.
Maybe you go back till ca. thread Nr. 61 or a little earlier.
The prohibition existed indeed since 1377. But such prohibitions were not always active or persecuted in the same way. When Eugen entered the city 1434 (somehow parallel to Cosimo's return from exile), it seems, that this increased "active persecution" and things probably got worse, as longer Eugen stayed and as mightier he became (he started very weak and was strong in his end). So the 40's see an increased prohibition evluated against other times. We have even only one card production (1446) in Ferrara noted from 1444 - 1449, although Ferrara was playing card friendly from 1422-25 (finished by the cruel death of Parisina) and then from 1434 - 1443 (restarting with "marrying daughters") and from 1450-1463 (Borso).Well, they were excommunicated for being members of an Ecclesiastical order who disobeyed him. He didn't excommunicate Sante. And probably at that time, 1454, there was no edict against instuctional cards. The scandal generally had begun long before Ginevra got there.Whow, he EXCOMMUNICATED the Augustinians ... that's strong tobacco, isn't it, that has scandalous dimensions ...
So he surely didn't design a Trionfi deck. But perhaps Ginevra had one and that was part of the scandal?
Also, I am not convinced that just because cards were forbidden (how long before 1445, anyway?) they weren't played. Look at Pistoia. Say more.
Part of the Ferrarese anti-playing-card-period 1444 - 1449 is Leonello's marriage to a daughter of Alfonso of Aragon in 1445 and Alfonso seems to have turned against playing cards (according the Florentian biograph Bistecci - who was a conservative and against playing cards himself) he played in his youth till he was 18 and then finished it, and probable made his personal "not gambling" behavior to a general law at his court or even in Naples.
It seems, that the new first lady at the Ferrarese court brought this habit to Ferrara ... so more or less no playing cards in Ferrara.
Another part is the prohibition against the feast of Fools, which was established in Paris 1445 (this was probably more a habit outside of Italy, especially in France, but some extensions existed also for Italy). This was in its origin a feast of the lower clergy at 1st of January, which made then an artful revolution for this day, entering the local churches and had then some blasphemous activities there ...drinking etc., a crowning action was card-playing at the altar.
A sort of carnival - it was prohibited then and seems to have moved in its essence to other carnival times, which developed (much) stronger then (carnival established itself in this century, getting strong forms in in the time of pope Paul II. - the general liberalization in the 60's). A prohibition of the feast of fools was already discussed in Basel around 1435, but it seems that it realized with Eugen's powerful position around 1445.
Gambling activities at the court of Ferrara (the present to Bianca Maria of 1.1.1441) and later from Galeazzo Maria in Milan (same day) mirror the feast of the Fool in an Italian variant.
For the 1st of January 1441 in Ferrara (Bianca's present of 14 paintings, which might be cards) has the context, that Ferrara had an admired Fool with the name Gonella, who was painted by the astonishing French artist Jean Fouquet ...
... who made (not so famous then) a visit to Italy. About the date of this journey is disputed, one very intensive researcher suggests something like 1439-1442, the general far spread solution is later. Now I find in Wikipedia even a 1437. If it was 1439, the painter visited probably the council of Florence (Florence was already a Mekka for artists and the council was surely an opportunity to earn a few bucks as painter). Gonella might have been there ... at least the picture exists. Gonella became even a literary topic, for instance realized by Poggio. Poggio had letter contact to Ferrara and also Alberti, who took intellectual influence there.
Alberti got ideas of sarcastic humor in Ferrara (especially Lucian texts) and realised them in his writings, especially in Momus (1443 - 1450).
Well, the 14 paintings had a Fool, hadn't they ? ...
Fouque was from Dijon and Dijon was very special for its Day-of-the-Fool activities.
He painted also Pope Eugen ... this is said to be a copy of the other picture