Execution and martyrdom

#1
The placid look of the VS and other Hanged Men is often noted by esotericists and card-readers, and on TarotL and AT there are threads devoted to the notion that the card actually means martyrdom or self-sacrifice rather than merely treason or painful death. Naturally I and others have dismissed this kind of thinking as ahistorical; my explanation for the placidity of the figure is that nobody wanted to see the contorted face of a victim in pain and probably brutalized beyond all recognition, in a pack of cards. Especially in the context of a genteel card game of the aristocracy. There was enough such gruesome imagery in churches (and in reality).

However, a new book edited by early Renaissance (particularly Bolognese) historian Nicholas Terpstra shows that at the time and place of tarot's invention (and particularly in Bologna), precisely this idea of transforming a criminal into a martyr did exist (The Art of Executing Well. Rituals of Execution in Renaissance Italy (Truman State University Press, 2008)

The lay Confraternità or Compagnia di Santa Maria della Morte were devoted to comforting condemned prisoners, spending the evening before execution with them and accompanying them to the scaffold (or chopping block). What disinguished this (and other confraternities subsequently formed) from the normal practice throughout Europe of having a priest accompany the condemned to the gallows, was the degree of their devotion and some specific practices they used, such as holding up a picture of Jesus, Mary or martyred saints to the face of the condemned (tavoletta) in the moments leading up to the execution, so that he could meditate on such a holy subject and identify with it while he left the world.

These people were called comforters, and they produced a book early in the 15th century called the Comforter's Manual, which was never printed, but was copied by hand well into the 18th century, when capital punishment began to be banned in Italy (first state to do so, Tuscany, 1786). Terpstra says that this devoted transmission in manuscript form indicates that the "confraternal comforters saw their work as a mystery - not unlike the mysteries of the faith guarded by priests or the mysteries of the crafts guarded by artisans and guildsmen." (p. 184)

Book I of the Comforter's Manual
emphasizes that the comforter must bring the criminal to see that in the shadow of the gallows, the fate of the soul is more important than the fate of the body. More to the point, that dark shadow snuffs out any hope at all for saving the body, but it paradoxically brightens the chances for saving the soul. Everything rests in the prisoner's own decision to accept his execution calmly. By doing this and by forgiving all those who have had a hand in securing his death - his enemies or victims, the police and guards, the judge, the executioner - the prisoner can change his very identity. No longer a criminal, he is transformed into a martyr. And like the Good Thief crucified beside Jesus on Calvary, he can anticipate that in the instant after the axe falls or the rope tightens, he will be with Christ in paradise.
(p. 186, my bold)

Another point to be emphasized is that the comforter was not interested in the guilt or innocence of the condemned, only in making sure they save their soul. This is why Jesus and martyrs were meditated on and shown, since they were innocent but went to their death calmly. The condemned prisoner can make the same conversion, and turn their death not into a penalty for guilt but a moment of glorious martyrdom.

One way to relate this to the sequence is that it may show how to face even the worst of deaths, for the most deserving of criminals (or even unjustly condemned). If the placid look and youth of the figure mean anything.

I've put this in the Unicorn section because I'm not convinced this is the case, but I wanted to make sure people knew that this idea of the criminal being transformed into a martyr existed then.

Ross
Image

Re: Execution and martyrdom

#2
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:The placid look of the VS and other Hanged Men is often noted by esotericists and card-readers, and on TarotL and AT there are threads devoted to the notion that the card actually means martyrdom or self-sacrifice rather than merely treason or painful death. Naturally I and others have dismissed this kind of thinking as ahistorical; my explanation for the placidity of the figure is that nobody wanted to see the contorted face of a victim in pain and probably brutalized beyond all recognition, in a pack of cards. Especially in the context of a genteel card game of the aristocracy.
Punishment 'beautified':

http://books.google.com/books?id=lrKcdrQr0IYC&pg=PA53
I've put this in the Unicorn section because I'm not convinced this is the case, but I wanted to make sure people knew that this idea of the criminal being transformed into a martyr existed then.
Thanks for the reference Ross.
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Execution and martyrdom

#3
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:Everything rests in the prisoner's own decision to accept his execution calmly. By doing this and by forgiving all those who have had a hand in securing his death - his enemies or victims, the police and guards, the judge, the executioner - the prisoner can change his very identity. No longer a criminal, he is transformed into a martyr.
This is great! Thanks for letting us know about this Ross.

I would have guesses that, at some point along the torture, a person could dissociate himself from the pain and go crazy: laughter, hallucinations, etc would be ways of coping with all the actual horror of the execution. But depicting that in a card would be merely/too naturalistic -if accurate at all. What you are suggesting feels more didactic, somehow.

Thanks again!


EE

P.S: When I read the title for this thread I thought you were organizing Robert’s birthday party. :ymdevil:
What’s honeymoon salad? Lettuce alone
Don’t look now, mayonnaise is dressing!

Re: Execution and martyrdom

#5
Hi, Ross,
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:The lay Confraternità or Compagnia di Santa Maria della Morte were devoted to comforting condemned prisoners, spending the evening before execution with them and accompanying them to the scaffold (or chopping block). What disinguished this (and other confraternities subsequently formed) from the normal practice throughout Europe of having a priest accompany the condemned to the gallows, was the degree of their devotion and some specific practices they used, such as holding up a picture of Jesus, Mary or martyred saints to the face of the condemned (tavoletta) in the moments leading up to the execution, so that he could meditate on such a holy subject and identify with it while he left the world.

These people were called comforters, and they produced a book early in the 15th century called the Comforter's Manual, which was never printed, but was copied by hand well into the 18th century, when capital punishment began to be banned in Italy (first state to do so, Tuscany, 1786). Terpstra says that this devoted transmission in manuscript form indicates that the "confraternal comforters saw their work as a mystery - not unlike the mysteries of the faith guarded by priests or the mysteries of the crafts guarded by artisans and guildsmen." (p. 184)

Book I of the Comforter's Manual
emphasizes that the comforter must bring the criminal to see that in the shadow of the gallows, the fate of the soul is more important than the fate of the body. More to the point, that dark shadow snuffs out any hope at all for saving the body, but it paradoxically brightens the chances for saving the soul. Everything rests in the prisoner's own decision to accept his execution calmly. By doing this and by forgiving all those who have had a hand in securing his death - his enemies or victims, the police and guards, the judge, the executioner - the prisoner can change his very identity. No longer a criminal, he is transformed into a martyr. And like the Good Thief crucified beside Jesus on Calvary, he can anticipate that in the instant after the axe falls or the rope tightens, he will be with Christ in paradise.
(p. 186, my bold)

Another point to be emphasized is that the comforter was not interested in the guilt or innocence of the condemned, only in making sure they save their soul. This is why Jesus and martyrs were meditated on and shown, since they were innocent but went to their death calmly. The condemned prisoner can make the same conversion, and turn their death not into a penalty for guilt but a moment of glorious martyrdom.
Cool find -- I'm sorry it's not at my local library. (Three other books by that author are there, but are on "permanent loan" to some professor.) Please pass along any other insights into the art of executing well.

The Jewish Execution, another form of capital punishment by inverted hanging, was often or even usually accompanied by an attempt to save the soul of the victim, i.e., convert them. This provided a kind of morality play in which the Christians got to feel good about themselves while torturing and killing the condemned Jew. Feeling good about themselves appears to have been a component in the practice described by Terpstra as well.

The larger body of thought was the whole idea of Ars Bene Moriendi, the art of dying well by making sure that everyone died at peace with God. A good life could be squandered by a bad death, while a penitent death could absolve one of a horrid life.

About a year and a half ago I posted an image of a tavolette and a painting (Milan, c.1450) depicting the practice. The images in most of those old posts are gone, but I restored the ones in that post to serve as reference for this thread.

Executed Criminals as Low-Lifes
http://www.tarotforum.net/showpost.php? ... stcount=40

P.S. Given the descriptions which we have found regarding the actual practice of execution by inverted hanging, there would seem to be no possibility of such absolution for the Hanged Man in Tarot. It is a protracted torture and death in which there is no point at which the victim is actually killed. Somewhere along the way, hours or days into his ordeal, he dies. The point of the process is the prolonged agony, public humiliation, and a warning to others, very much like crucifixion or breaking on the wheel. As an example, if the Jews converted then they were given a quick and much more dignified death, while those who did not convert were hung upside down, over a fire, and torn at by dogs... a very BAD death indeed. Does Terpstra discuss the various forms of ultra-degrading and horrific execution, such as that depicted in Tarot?

Ah... an excellent section on the execution ritual in Bologna... very nice. God bless Google Books.

P.P.S. An informative article... unfortunately, sans images. Here are a few snips.
A persistent Aristotelian current in renaissance thought justified and provided impetus to the belief in the efficacy of images for prayer and penance. Aristotle's conception of the fundamental workings of the mind, which he did not distinguish from the soul, involved the transmission of external and internal images. According to him, all impressions of the world (and knowledge) pass through the bodily senses to a mechanism located in the heart, called the proton organon, which transforms them into phantasmata--phantasms or mental images--perceptible to the soul, in this theory of intelligence, thought is regarded as little more than the reception, distribution, and creation of images. Aristotle's notion of cerebral (or cardiac) functions is reflected in the term that he used for the essential operation in the thought process--not 'ideation' or 'cognition', but 'imagination. He summarised such beliefs in the influential statement Numquam sine phantasmate intelligit anima, 'the soul can understand nothing without phantasms'. In this visually-privileged scheme, language and abstract concepts need to be converted into phantasms in order to reach the soul or, as loan Couliano has succinctly remarked, 'the phantasm has absolute primacy over the word'. Implicit is the understanding that both sensory and mental images, of the various components of thought, pass through the intellect to the soul most directly and efficiently.
Feinberg writes that Aquinas believed "the soul's state will remain forever fixed at the moment of death, since 'it is natural to the soul to understand by turning to sense-images [and, therefore,] death won't change the soul's nature, and after death, when the soul has no sense-images to turn to, it presumably won't understand anything naturally'."
Augustine, an authority on deathbed contrition, advocated the crucified Good Thief as a model for repentance, even for non-criminals. (29) Following the dictates of Gregory, the terminally ill were encouraged to imitate Christ's actions on the cross. (30) Gradually, early church rituals expanded to include recitation of the seven penitential psalms (6, 32, 38, 51,102, 130 and 143), the litanies of the Virgin and saints, and, eventually (by the seventh or eighth century), the Office of the Dead. (31) At the beginning of the thirteenth century, Dominic (1170-1221) and his disciples provided an influential example of the use of images for prayer and penance.
He goes into the Ars Moriendi in some detail, and references some other works that also appear in Terpstra. Really makes me want to read Terpstra, but I guess I'll have to settle for what I can get via Google Books. (There are some great pictures in there, too.)

Imagination All Compact:
Tavolette and Confraternity Rituals for the Condemned in Renaissance Italy
(2005)
Larry J. Feinberg
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m ... n15950205/

Best regards,
Michael
We are either dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants, or we are just dwarfs.

Re: Execution and martyrdom

#6
I'm not a big fan of occult apologetics, but some of the best images of inverted hanging do come from martyrologies. There is an Italian one with several illustrations of assorted hangings, inverted and otherwise. Because these are shown as martyrs, some even include halos, foreshadowing Waite's Hanged Man. Naturally, both nobility and Christian virtue are depicted as stoic in extremis, but that kind of passivity was also commonly shown in anonymous souls being tormented in Hell, so nothing more than an artistic sensibility can be read into most of these images.

Tortures and Torments of the Christian Martyrs
http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Gallonio-To ... dTorments/

The transcribed text is worth reading for several points, perhaps most notably for the comparison of all hanging ("suspension") with crucifixion. This is Galliano's justification for putting hangings first in his martyrology, because of the comparison with Jesus' death. This connects directly with a quote Ross' found from Alciato, where Tarot's Hanged Man is referred to as the crux.

Among other things, Galliano mentions St. Peter and St. Calliopus, who were crucified upside-down, and St. Gregory ("the Illuminator"), first Bishop to Armenia, who was tortured upside down. These have also been mentioned in regard to Tarot's Hanged Man. In 2005 Nancy Brown presented a couple pictures on Aeclectic of St. Gregory enduring the second of his twelve tortures. They were from the Church of Saint Gregory in Ani, built by Tigran Honents in the 13th century, and are apparently from the same time. Here's a pic of the poor guy.

Image


And here are some of Galliano's martyrs, being hung in various creative ways, for your viewing pleasure.

Image


Image


Image


Image


Image


Image


That final picture is Jan Smit's execution, perhaps the best Hanged Man depiction I've found. It's by Jan Luiken, illustrating one of the victims in the Martyrs Mirror.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrs_Mirror
http://www.bethelks.edu/mla/holdings/sc ... 20p641.jpg

Best regards,
Michael
We are either dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants, or we are just dwarfs.

Re: Execution and martyrdom

#7
Hi Michael,
mjhurst wrote:
A persistent Aristotelian current in renaissance thought justified and provided impetus to the belief in the efficacy of images for prayer and penance. Aristotle's conception of the fundamental workings of the mind, which he did not distinguish from the soul, involved the transmission of external and internal images. According to him, all impressions of the world (and knowledge) pass through the bodily senses to a mechanism located in the heart, called the proton organon, which transforms them into phantasmata--phantasms or mental images--perceptible to the soul, in this theory of intelligence, thought is regarded as little more than the reception, distribution, and creation of images. Aristotle's notion of cerebral (or cardiac) functions is reflected in the term that he used for the essential operation in the thought process--not 'ideation' or 'cognition', but 'imagination. He summarised such beliefs in the influential statement Numquam sine phantasmate intelligit anima, 'the soul can understand nothing without phantasms'. In this visually-privileged scheme, language and abstract concepts need to be converted into phantasms in order to reach the soul or, as loan Couliano has succinctly remarked, 'the phantasm has absolute primacy over the word'. Implicit is the understanding that both sensory and mental images, of the various components of thought, pass through the intellect to the soul most directly and efficiently.
I hate to derail the thread but I need to point out how similar this idea is to the current thoughts in neuroaesthetics. People like V. S. Ramachandran have been exploring a neurological approach to art. The idea is not to explain art away but to gain an additional understanding to it from a neurological point of view. One of the things that interest me most about this has to do with the fact that the brain seem to be better at recognizing iconical depictions of reality than elaborate representations of the same objects. Oliver Sacks also mentions this idea of the brain storing iconical renderings of reality. I see this somehow related to what Ernst Gombrich defined as ‘the preference for the primitive: we find a natural affinity for the simplest forms. Making ‘visible what is invisible’, this is, ‘translating’ notions into images for everybody to understand while following certain representational principles is the basic intention behind all Christian visual art, and by extension, it lies at the perceptual foundation of its didactic power (and the power of a visual game like the tarot). It has been my contention for a while now that the simplicity, roughness even, of the Tarot de Marseille makes easier for us to relate to these images, not from the point of view of personal taste, but from a pure cognitive level. The Tarot de Marseille is simply more iconical than most decks that came before and after. It could be said that such simplicity is more in-tune with the way the brain ‘speaks’.

Ramachandran points out ten principles that make art appealing to the human brain:

1. Peak shift
2. Perceptual Grouping and Binding
3. Contrast
4. Isolation
5. Perceptual problem solving
6. Symmetry
7. Abhorrence of coincidence/generic viewpoint
8. Repetition, rhythm and orderliness
9. Balance
10. Metaphor


Most of those are pretty obvious. Perhaps the most obscure, but also the ‘coolest’ of these principles, for me, is the Peak Shift Effect. Just this week, Jonah Lehrer wrote about it in Psychology Today that describes it very well:
Consider the flightless fluffs of brown otherwise known as herring gull chicks. When they're first born, these baby birds are entirely dependent on their mother for food. As a result, the chicks are born with a very powerful instinct: Whenever they see a bird beak, they frantically peck at it, begging for their favorite food: a regurgitated meal. What's interesting is that this reflex can be manipulated. When the chicks are exposed to anything that remotely resembles a bird beak--say, a wooden stick with a red dot on the end that looks like the red dot on the end of an adult herring gull's beak--they peck vigorously at the fake beak. And when the chicks see a wood stick with three red dots, they peck even faster. The same thing happens when they're exposed to a long and narrow yellow rectangle. Even though the fake beaks look nothing like real seagull beaks, they elicit a stronger response from the chicks, a phenomenon known as the "peak-shift effect".

In the instinctive behavior of baby birds lies one of the core principles of visual art--a principle that can explain everything from ancient religious sculptures to abstract expressionist paintings.

Look at an early work by Pablo Picasso: his 1906 portrait of Gertrude Stein. At the time, Picasso was determined to reinvent the portrait, to push the boundaries of realism. So he spent months in his Paris studio, studying Stein and carefully reworking the paint on the canvas. After months of staring at Stein's face, Picasso still wasn't satisfied. In fact, he didn't finish the painting until after a trip to Spain. What shifted his perspective has been debated--whether it was the ancient Iberian art or the weathered faces of Spanish peasants--but his style changed forever. When he returned to Paris, Picasso gave Stein the head of a primitive mask. The perspective was flattened and her face became a series of dramatic angles. Picasso had intentionally exaggerated various aspects of her appearance, turning the portrait into an early work of cubist caricature.

Despite the artistic license, the painting is still immediately recognizable as Stein. The portrait calls attention to its own abstraction, but we still know exactly who we're looking at. Picasso took Stein's most distinctive features⎯those heavy, lidded eyes and long, aquiline nose ⎯and exaggerated them. He found a way to intensify reality through careful distortion. As Picasso put it, "Art is the lie that reveals the truth."

What's surprising about such distortions is that they often make it easier for us to decipher what it is we're looking at--particularly when they're done by a master of their craft. Studies show we're able to recognize visual parodies of people⎯like a cartoon portrait of Richard Nixon⎯faster than we're able to recognize an actual photograph of Nixon. Brain imaging experiments demonstrate that the fusiform gyrus, an area involved in facial recognition, responds more eagerly to caricatures than to real faces, as the cartoons emphasize the very features that we use to distinguish one face from another. (In the case of Nixon, cartoonists tend to exaggerate his ski-slope of a nose.) In other words, the abstractions are like a peak-shift effect, turning the work of art or the political cartoon into a "super-stimulus."

That capacity of the brain to detect the complexity of an object or event in the simplest pattern is not only related to the powerful appeal of the Tarot de Marseille, but it is consistent with this Aristotelian notion of Numquam sine phantasmate intelligit anima. I find very exciting to think that, just as the notion of medieval symmetries makes for a very powerful didactic tool by today neurological standards, these comforters were totally into something by hoping that a ‘saving image’ would a "super-stimulus" capable of effectively affect a dying man’s mind.


Thanks for posting this!

Best,


EE
What’s honeymoon salad? Lettuce alone
Don’t look now, mayonnaise is dressing!

Schematic Caricature

#8
Hi, Enrique,
EnriqueEnriquez wrote:
mjhurst wrote:
A persistent Aristotelian current in renaissance thought... summarised such beliefs in the influential statement Numquam sine phantasmate intelligit anima, 'the soul can understand nothing without phantasms'. In this visually-privileged scheme, language and abstract concepts need to be converted into phantasms in order to reach the soul or, as loan Couliano has succinctly remarked, 'the phantasm has absolute primacy over the word'. Implicit is the understanding that both sensory and mental images, of the various components of thought, pass through the intellect to the soul most directly and efficiently.
I hate to derail the thread but I need to point out how similar this idea is to the current thoughts in neuroaesthetics. People like V. S. Ramachandran have been exploring a neurological approach to art. The idea is not to explain art away but to gain an additional understanding to it from a neurological point of view. One of the things that interest me most about this has to do with the fact that the brain seem to be better at recognizing iconical depictions of reality than elaborate representations of the same objects. Oliver Sacks also mentions this idea of the brain storing iconical renderings of reality. I see this somehow related to what Ernst Gombrich defined as ‘the preference for the primitive: we find a natural affinity for the simplest forms. Making ‘visible what is invisible’, this is, ‘translating’ notions into images for everybody to understand while following certain representational principles is the basic intention behind all Christian visual art, and by extension, it lies at the perceptual foundation of its didactic power (and the power of a visual game like the tarot). It has been my contention for a while now that the simplicity, roughness even, of the Tarot de Marseille makes easier for us to relate to these images, not from the point of view of personal taste, but from a pure cognitive level. The Tarot de Marseille is simply more iconical than most decks that came before and after. It could be said that such simplicity is more in-tune with the way the brain ‘speaks’.

[...] Most of those are pretty obvious. Perhaps the most obscure, but also the ‘coolest’ of these principles, for me, is the Peak Shift Effect.

[...]That capacity of the brain to detect the complexity of an object or event in the simplest pattern is not only related to the powerful appeal of the Tarot de Marseille, but it is consistent with this Aristotelian notion of Numquam sine phantasmate intelligit anima. I find very exciting to think that, just as the notion of medieval symmetries makes for a very powerful didactic tool by today neurological standards, these comforters were totally into something by hoping that a ‘saving image’ would a "super-stimulus" capable of effectively affect a dying man’s mind.
The term "Peak Shift Effect" is a bit specialized, but I think everyone has seen a good caricature, a cartoon that simplifies and exaggerates a subject so as to epitomize the most readily identifiable elements of a person, place, or thing. You may find a sketch artist at the county fair who does quick but entertaining (and often a bit flattering) cartoons... LOL! I was just Googling the term "caricature" and the Wikipedia page has a section on Ramachandran and Hirstein.

In your comments you seem to emphasize the "roughness" of Tarot de Marseille, the simple but powerful style of a good but not great woodcut. But IMO the more significant kind of simplification and exaggeration in terms of pictorial allegory is conceptual. In another thread Ross wrote:
Ross wrote:I had previously balked at such literalism because of the lack of armies in the card, where Revelation describes them. But, it appears that the whole thing is summed up in the person of the Devil, and the destruction of the Tower by fire from heaven following in sequence. It seems we have to think of the trumps as being sketches, very summary and allusive, and not florid as larger works could allow themselves to be.
The subjects are a kind of shorthand, but also an emphatic shorthand.

The essence of allegorical summary like the Devil and Death as Rev. 20:7-10, or representational categories like the Three Estates, or Love and the Chariot, or Betrayal and Death, is a kind of focused and stylized simplicity. The audience has to know the underlying subject matter, and conventions for representing that subject matter. They also have to understand that this is a schematic representation, not a precisely mimetic one. There is metonomy, metaphor, analogy, symbolism, and overall a kind of shorthand. It makes sense in some ways but not in others, and the audience is required to filter and augment the presentation in characteristic ways.

Of course, different cultural backgrounds will yield different meanings for a given picture, despite the fantasies of people like Jung and Dan Brown. For example, President Obama (and many other people, even Rahm Emanuel and tour guide Zahi Hawass) instantly recognized a caricature of President Obama. However, even without benefit of interviewing the artist, we can be reasonably confident that the ancient Egyptian who created that image did not intend to depict the first Hawaiian president of the U.S.

Image


One might even characterize my oversimplification of your comments about "Peak Shift Effect" in terms of "caricature" as a kind of caricature.

Best regards,
Michael
We are either dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants, or we are just dwarfs.

Re: Schematic Caricature

#9
Hi Michael,
mjhurst wrote:They also have to understand that this is a schematic representation, not a precisely mimetic one. There is metonomy, metaphor, analogy, symbolism, and overall a kind of shorthand. It makes sense in some ways but not in others, and the audience is required to filter and augment the presentation in characteristic ways.
Definitively.

To what extent these images were carelessly done is hard to tell. I don’t think the artwork is reckless. All the Tarot de Marseille seem to be copying a previous one, even the Noblet I would say, although this is more of a ‘draftman’s hunch’ than anything else. The copy-of-a-copy effect may account for the cubist-like features in the Dodal, for example. But then there is the representational strategy they are consciously following in the design of each card by eliminating the backgrounds, by representing entire groups or kinds by couples of people (metonymy as you pointed out, the Devil card being a great example of it) and overall, by using the minimal elements to give a complete sense of what they wanted to say: a circle with a dot makes an eye, a hand may have less than five fingers, etc. This synthetic style is not due to lack of craftsmanship and I apologize if I gave that impression, but it was a conscious choice. This was probably informed by the printing process at the time, but even that can be put into question. After all, there are many examples of very complex and rather exquisite engravings that are contemporary, or predate, the Tarot de Marseille. That alone may reinforce the suggestion of this ‘plain’ style being a aesthetic choice.

Thanks again for your input.


Best,


EE
What’s honeymoon salad? Lettuce alone
Don’t look now, mayonnaise is dressing!

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