This is where I think that the triumphs and tarot do not properly 'match', but are, rather, two wonderful products of the early Renaissance, and thus overlaps are to be expected... I say this despite there being various authors who see in the tarot a reflection of triumphs.
An example of overlaps are, to my eyes at any rate, the triumph of Love and trump VI by the same name (I realise that both card number and title are later 'additions') and the triumph of Death and trump XIII Death.
With the triumphs of chastity, time, eternity, and fame, I personally do not see a direct overlap. Certainly there are partial overlaps, the most 'obvious' (especially in light of very early deck imagery) is between time and trump VIIII the Hermit. Even there, however, the differences are as significant as the similarities, especially by the time (excuse the pun) he is represented with the habit of the abbot.
The triumph of eternity certainly has the four evangelists (here the eagle is below the bull, incidentally, and in reference to another current thread) as does XXI, and both card and triumph reflect one or another concept of Christ, but the differences are, again, significant.
This is where I personally consider the triumphs an important part of the environment in which tarot developed (and thus influential), but the latter not a direct take of trump-as-triumph.