In the new Esch article I counted 110 [later corrected: it are 107] Trionfi card documents. One of them, the one with Giovanni da Pistoia 1453, was already known to us.

The number at begin gives the number of related Trionfi card documents. The number in brackets includes also references to playing card documents (no Trionfi decks). I hope the numbers are correct, but give no guarantee ... :-)

The documents are from the period 1453 - 1465 (the years 1454, 1455 and 1459 have no documents).

27 (29) Pierozzo di ser Francesco (1457 - 1464)
16 (31) Loyski (1457-1465)
14 (34) Bartolomeo de Nicolo (1457 - 1464)
11 (15) Johanni Tornieri (1456-1463)
7 (11) Giovanni da Pistoia (1453 -1457) ... already known to us (1453)
5 (7) Juliano de Miniato (1457 - 1465)
4 (4) Johanni Maneschalco (1461-63)
4 (7) Antonio del Sasso (1460-63)
3 (8) Lorenzo de Johanni (1461-65)
2 (3) Baccio (1465)
2 (2) Guliermo (1458)

ONLY ONCE, but with further playing card documents
1 (9) Cornelio (1461)
1 (4) Johanni de Domenico (1453) ... has a similar name as a Trionfi producer, Giovanni di Domenico
1 (3) Francesco d'Antonio Lippi (1460)

1453 Bartolomeo Seragli ... already known to us, worked with Filippo di Marco
1456 Donato di Ser Francesco
1456 Luigi Michele merciaro reg. 49, f. 35r "20 para fra carte et trionfi"
1458 Bartolomeo de Francesco reg. 29, f. 43v "1/2 doz.
triunfi da jocare"
1458 Nicolo da Norcia reg. 29, f. 74r "triunfi"
1458 Guliermo merciaro reg. 29, f. 100v "2 doz. triunfi da jocare"
1458 Guliermo merciaro reg. 29, f. 165r "4 para trumpfi"
1458 Johanni Archael, Flandern reg 29, f. 106v
1463 Sarto de Nicholo merciaio reg. 50, f. 38v "2. doz. triunfi"
1464 Ulivero merciaro reg. 34, f. 53r "1 doz. triunfi piccholi"
1464 Francesco della Casa reg. 36, f. 69v "merce de Fiorensa de carte, trunfi"
1465 Laurentio de Arrigo reg. 37, f. 21v "1/2 dozen tronphi pizoli"

No Trionfi decks, but further playing card documents
0 (10) Jacovo de Gaeta
0 (5)Cola de Gaeta
Further singular playing card notes (without names)


Many of the new documents are so, that one gets no insight about the number of the imported Trionfi decks. One, the most active Pierozzo di ser Francesco, however, has in 24 of 27 cases clear numbers. I counted 759 imported Trionfi decks in these 24 actions, which makes about 30 in each document (the highest single number is 84 "trunfi fra granni e picoli sensa oro"). The most other merchants don't have such high numbers, so I would guess, that Pierrozzo, who has about 25% of the actions, should have at least 33% of the imported decks. So maybe, the number of the recorded Trionfi decks is not higher than 2500.
Maybe the really recorded time were about 8 years only, than there would have been about 300 decks as an average in a year.

Re: Esch-Revolution

More to the Esch report

There are 107 Trionfi documents in the Esch article, and one of these was already known to us (Giovanni da Pistoia, 1453), so it are 106 new Trionfi card documents from 1453-1465.

That's nearly the same number, as we had already before, either from old stuff or from the recent years since 2003 inclusive the big extension, which resulted mainly from Franco Pratesi's studies in the last two years.

So, simplified, the Esch article doubled our collection.

I looked in the web to discover something of the book. I found a description of the book-presentation .... ... &tx_ttnews[tt_news]=217&cHash=49ad29991ef63a2b9b04e5a396afcfe7
Außerdem markiert 2013 den Beginn einer neuen Reihe zu Buch-, Druck-, Papier- und Schriftmuseen. Eröffnet wird die Reihe von Alan Marshall, Präsident der Association of European Printing Museums mit einem Grußwort und einer Vorstellung des traditionsreichen Druckmuseums in Lyon.

Es folgen zehn Beiträge, die sich mit der Druckforschung im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert auseinandersetzen, darunter ein außergewöhnlicher Beitrag von Prof. Dr. Arnold und Dr. Doris Esch zur Frühgeschichte der Spielkarte in Rom sowie ein detaillierter Fachtext von Prof. Dr. Dieter Wuttke über die sogenannten Zierquadrangel, einer typografischen Besonderheit.

The article is the first of 10 in this category of the book, so at a selected position, and it is called "außergewöhnlich" (exceptional). The book is sponsored by the Gutenberg-Gesellschaft in cooperation with the Gutenberg-Museum in Mainz, and they spend some money for studies to the old printing industry. I remember, that I visited once the Museum. when in Mainz for a few hours, maybe in the late 1980's.

Here's the publisher and the book.


The article is now a little bit analyzed, especially the Trionfi documents. The analysis looks this way (provisionally, I hope, the last errors are cleared) ...



The complete view is here:

The reported documents have specific states.

1. some documents contains something with cards, but not with Trionfi decks (these are not counted on the table and are not part of the 107 Trionfi card documents), beside the years, in which the merchant was active with cards. In such a case "active" is written and a number in brackets () and the number tells how much documents testify the activity.

2. Some documents contain something with cards and with Trionfi cards. Then it is regarded as a Trionfi note and counted on the table.

3. Some documents contains only something about Trionfi cards. Then it is taken as Trionfi deck document and also counted on the table.

If it is a Trionfi document (as in the case of 2. or 3.), it might have the numbers of the related Trionfi decks and it might have a price (that what the custom official thought to be the correct price, mostly that of a group of cards; from such documents one might calculate the single deck price, but occasionally it's insecure or impossible).

From 107 documents 77 have a number of the related Trionfi decks (so roughly 72 %) and 21 have a price (so 20%), but not all documents with price tell, how much Trionfi decks were imported, and occasionally trionfi cards and other playing cards are contained both in the price, leaving insecurities in the calculation.

In the table the form ...
... is chosen. The first number tells, in how much Trionfi documents a merchant appeared in a given year. The second number gives, how much of these documents contained a number for the imported Trionfi decks, and the 3rd number tells, how much of these documents contained a price. The fourth number tells then the number of decks, as far this is really recorded (in 72% of the cases, the other are noted with "0"). So the final number, which is given as the "Total" (1831 decks between 1453-1465), is naturally not the true number of imported decks, but below this true number.

A way to calculate this true number would be 1831*107 / 77. which would lead to c. 2544, and would be based on the assumption, that the missing number could be replaced by the average number of the better documented decks. However, studying the critical documents in detail, it seems, that missing numbers likely more often indicate high numbers than low numbers, perhaps so that the true number of imported decks has to be searched between 3000 and 3500, but possibly 5000 is not totally impossible.
Naturally this number also can't include smuggled decks or decks, which went to Rome for other reasons in a free-of-charge mode.

There are 13 years recorded, of which 3.5 (1454, 1455, 1459 and the half of 1456) are missing at all. If I divide "2544 (low value) and 5000 (high value)" by "9.5 years ", I get roughly something like 270 - 540 for a year. As possible buyers for the decks we have in Rome naturally a lot of tourists and estimated 30.000 - 40.000 inhabitants.
Roughly I come to a 1% probability, that a Roman bought one Trionfi deck in a year (a deck, which went through the recording office), that's the highest value, it might be more probable, that it's lower.

Trionfi decks, so Esch, never came via ship, but always on the land way. Some of the more important merchants are recognized as "from Florence" or " importing Florentine goods". The major man is Pierozzo di ser Francesco (from Florence), who caused 27 documents (25%) and imported 42% of all recorded decks. 7 of 15 persons, which more than once appeared in these years with Trionfi decks, are either recognized persons of Florence or had goods of Florence.
Another recognized group of merchants are curiously Flemish, 2 are from "Brügge" or Brugia and another also from this region. These 3 appear often together in the office (which means, they likely had traveled together) and in this way this group seems to have belonged to 2 others, Bartholomeo de Nicolo and Johanni Tornieri (from these both no original location is reported).
Following the recorded Trionfi deck numbers of this 5-men-group (392+216++0+74+34 = 715) their total number is similar high as that from the trader Pierozzo (759).

Esch considers it as probable, that the decks of the 3 Flemish merchants were made of Flemish production, cause the things, that they imported, were mostly from their home land.

Well, in the relevant period Burgundy is on its height, then of some more importance as the struggling kingdom of England and perhaps even more important than France. A few years after the period Italy feared, that the troops of Charles the Bold would attack in Italy. Burgundian traders in Rome are therefore not so surprising, however, that they had something to do with Italian playing card development, seems a Novum.

It's well known, that Tournai (nowadays at the border France/Belgium) once had been a location with excessive playing card production since 1427 till mid of 16th century. Nowadays Cartamundi (Belgium) is a giant in playing card production.

One of the hypotheses (though seldom discussed) is, that the decks fragments known with the name Guildhall and Goldschmidt (Kaplan I, p. 110 + 111) are a Belgian/French production, somehow connected to the presence of the later French king Louis XI in Genappe, Belgium, in the period 1456-61. Louis had been Dauphin then and ruled in the Dauphine in the neighborhood to Savoy , when his father, the king of France, tried to capture him (1456) and Louis escaped to the duke of Burgundy in protected exile. The wife of Filippo Maria Visconti (marriage 1427) had been an aunt of the wife of Louis, therefore Louis should have known well about Italian playing card habits.

The Goldschmidt cards include a card with a fish, and this fish is the heraldic sign of the Dauphine.



A painter of the Milanese court visited the painter Rogier van Weyden (himself "from Tournai") as a pupil on the suggestion of Bianca Maria Visconti, and then got a commission from Louis, while this had been still in Genappe in spring 1461. The case caused trouble, and Bianca Maria had to use good words to keep her painter in the workshop of van Weyden.
This was seen as the possible production date of Flemish decks in Milanese style ... earlier.

Now, from Esch's listings, we have for 1457 a note about a "cista picola con carte da jocare, trunfi" imported by Flemish merchant Loyski merciaro, and for Johanni Tornieri (who is not recognized as Flemish, but traveled occasionally with those, who are recognized as such) we have "1 paio trunfi, 4 doz. carte" already in 1456 .

With the name "Tornieri" we meet a riddle on the list, which I marked with red border on the table.
The last of all his 15 documents (inclusive those, which only contained playing cards) in 12 years (1452 - 1463) reads "20 doz. triunfi picholi" (estimated value by the custom official is 2.5 ducats). "doz." means "dozen", so if one counts here correctly this should have been 240 decks (20x12) for 2.5 ducats.

If the Roman ducat had been the normal Florentine ducat, this should be calculated 102 soldi x 2.5 = 260 Soldi [earlier I calculated 80 at this place instead of 102, but I corrected myself, cause the year 1461 knew a relation of 1 ducat = 102 soldi, 80 had been a value in the 1420s] and 260 Soldi divided by 240 decks, which makes c. 1.06 soldi for each deck, and this would have been equal to the price of the lowest priced normal decks in Florence (silk dealer lists)in the 1440 and 1450s and far lower than the other Trionfi decks (as far I understand the Italian money at this time).
[This calculation is based on the idea, that the Roman ducat was equal to the Florentine ducat, however, there were different ducats with different values in Florence then (difference possibly c. 20%). As better information is missing, this must be regarded as a provisional calculation, also the others, which follow.]

The cheapest Trionfi deck value, that I got from other calculations is also from 1463, Pierozzo di ser Francesco imports "4 doz. triunfi sensa oro" (estimated 3,9 ducats by the custom official).
4x12 = 48 and (3.9 / 48) x 102 = 8.28 Florentine soldi for each deck. Tornieri's "10 denari" for one deck is only c. 13% of this other cheapest price. The number of 240 Trionfi decks in one single import action hadn't been reached before, in 1461 I see once "7 doz." by Pierozzo and "6 doz, triumphi da jocare" and "6 doz. carte da giocare" (so totally 144 decks, but only 72 Trionfi decks) by Loyski, the Flemish merchant in 1462.

Then after 1463 (Tornieri's 240 Trionfi is the last playing card entry in 1463) interestingly the numbers show a break-down of the market.
1460 has 192 decks, 1461 has 247, 1462 has 212, 1463 thanks to the 240 decks of Tornieri at the end of the year (Christmas business ?) suddenly 522, 1464 has 70 (dramatic fall) and 1465 has 46.

Normally I would assume in such a case, that there is a reading error or a typo. However, if it gives other signs, and the observable breakdown of the market is a clear sign, then one must consider the possibility, that it's simply true, and one must consider, what it means.

From that, what is known from the silk dealer list (especially the production of Niccolò di Calvello) ...
... we have, that the cheapest prices for playing card decks are then around 1 Soldi

Franco notes at this place:
This cardmaker, "Nicholo di Chalvelo fa i naibi", provides the greatest amount of cards, more than three thousand packs. His supplies are always on a dozen basis – in practice, card amounts that another maker provided in terms of packs, he was able to provide in terms of dozens. Apparently, he had developed a system of production that allowed him to supply most of the packs and at the smallest cost. Only in a couple of cases his cards are indicated as "di forma", but I imagine that all of them were produced with woodblocks (and possibly not even painted).
I don't know, how much cards these decks had, maybe 40-56. From this I calculated, that the cheapest possible Trionfi deck must be a little more than this price, or in the worst case at least for the double price (which would be 2 soldi).
Now is the time of Niccolo di Calvello (1442-1456) a little different from the observed time in the Esch article (1453-1465) and Esch observes (at least for the Trionfi decks), that the price is falling, perhaps also generally for cards (I speculate this only, I still have to check this). In Nicolo di Calvello's time the prices are relative constant.

The market for the silk dealer's time had the cheapest Trionfi decks for 9 soldi (paid from the silk dealer to the supplier, from silk dealer to user one might suspect 10-12 soldi) and had the character, that it aimed at persons with some money.

The Tornieri document looks like a price-breaker story. Tornieri (at least for that, what we can see) is innovative and destroys the former Trionfi business, offering a product for the lowest market, a product, which everybody could buy easily.
How this was possible, is his mystery.

It's plausible, that all other merchants didn't like the development. The 1463 document is the latest document from Tornieri in Rome. For Pierozzo, who had a well established market in Rome we have 2 Trionfi documents for 1464, one without numbers and one with 12 decks (that's very poor for him). In 1465 we have nothing from him, but we know from Esch, that he later continued the business.
From Tornieri it's the last appearance (so declares Esch). Also Bartholomeo di Nicolo disappears, the other person, who accompanied the Flemish merchants. In 1464 he's still recorded with 3 documents, totally 16 Triunfi decks and 2 dozen playing cards.

The name "Johanni Tornieri" sounds to me, as if it might have developed from "Johannes of Tournai".
I checked the name in the web. I found, that a bookseller and book producer in Rome with books about music (c. 1550 - 1591) had the name Giacomo Tornieri (which also is printing business, and for Johanni Tornieri one might suspect "also printing business"). Otherwise it's an established "Italian name" (often present in Verona, which has a nearness to Northern trading ways) and a location near Siena has or had the name.

Well, in the older theories I suspected a change of the market just for the period 1463-1466. This activity of Tornieri might belong to this hypothetical "change of the market", but it still is possible, that Esch's number is just a reading error or a typo.


On the list there are marked in red the names "Giovanni da Pistoia", "Bartolomeo Seragli" and "Johanni de Domenico".
Giovanni da Pistoia was found by Franco Pratesi in Esch's book and he wrote this article:

Franco found Bartolomeo Seragli and his commissions to Filippo di Marco in an article of art research. Franco published ...
1453-1458 Florentine triumphs by Filippo di Marco

In this article two document sequences are of interest:
A [3]. Estranei 264, c. 226, left side
Bartolommeo di Paholo Seragli de’ dare...
E adì 10 di marzo [1452/53] f. otto, per lui a Pipo di Marcho portò contanti, sono per uno paio di trionfi richi ebe da lui. f. 8.

B [5] Estranei 264, c. 241, left side
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Seragli de’ dare...
E adì 21 di marzo f. uno largo, per lui a Filipo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti, sono per parte di lavoro gli à fato. f.1 s.4.

C [6]. Estranei 265, c. 27, left side
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Serragli de’ dare…
E adì 31 di marzo [1453] f. 5 larghi, per lui a Filippo di Marcho dipintore, portò e’ detto contanti, sono per resto di 2 paia di trio[n]fi fatogli, come dise Ghaspare da Ghiaceto. f. 5 s. 18 d. 4.
I think, the 3 Trionfi documents report the production of two worthwhile Trionfi decks in March 1453 by Filippo di Marco, commissioned by Bartolomeo Seragli.

In the list of Esch we find for the year 1453 and for Bartolomeo Seragli the import note of "2 para triunfi da jocare".
So, I think, that the 2 decks, which were imported, were just the two decks, that Filippo di Marco produced and Bartolomeo Seragli commissioned.

The other passage of interest (same article) is here:
E [15]. Estranei 267, c. 98, left side
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Seragli de’ dare…
E adì 6 di settembre f. due, per lui a Pipo dipintore, portò Giovanni di Domenicho contanti, per trionfi. f. 2.
E adì 20 detto f. uno, per lui a Pipo dipintore, portò Giovanni di Domenicho contanti, per trionfi. f. 1.

E adì 27 detto f. dua larghi, per lui a Pipo di Marcho dipintore, portò Giovanni di Domenicho contanti. f.2 s.6 d.7.
E adì 10 d’otobre f. uno largho, per lui a Filipo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti, per un paio di trionfi operati. f.2 s.6 d.7.
E adì 21 detto, L. trenta, per lui a Filipo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti: sono per resto di trionfi auti da lui insino a questo dì. f. 7 s.- d.8.

These are 5 documents, and I think, that all relate to the same activity in the year 1455 and the months of September/October (6th of September till 21st of October). Beside Pipo alias Filippo di Marco we also find note about a man called "Giovanni di Domenicho".
Earlier it was found, that this Giovanni de Domenicho should be the same man, who sold Trionfi decks to the silk dealers.

Franco (then unaware of the identity) had written:
Giovanni di Domenico
We only meet Giovanni di Domenico at the end of 1449 and he enters the records in an interesting way. He is at once indicated as dipintore, a painter, and his first supply contains both six packs of trionfi and eight packs of naibi doppi. At least one pack of trionfi had already been sold by the silk-dealers (January 1445)(1), but these seem to be the first packs recorded as acquired. The total price is 4L.18s. and if we assume that the naibi were priced at 4s. as those acquired a few days later, a unit cost of 11s. can be deduced for trionfi, a relatively low price, very similar to the 9s.6d. cost of naibi made by Antonio di Simone.
It seems that the production of Giovanni could substitute, trionfi apart, that of Antonio di Dino, at a similar level of overall quality, but he did not become a frequent supplier, except for a few trionfi. In alternative to Antonio di Dino, whom we find also later on, Matteo Ballerini was apparently preferred, for unknown reasons (maybe just more purchases of silks).

Well, this "Giovanni di Domenico" is the 3rd oldest Trionfi card artist, which we know by name (1. Michelino da Besozzo (Milan), 2. Jacopo Sagramoro (Ferrara), 3. Giovanni di Domenico, Florence).
He sold 6 Trionfi decks to the silk dealers for likely 11 soldi each in December 1449. In 1450 he is still the "only one name in Florence", in January 1451 "Antonio di Dino" appears as the second and "Antonio vochata il Chico" appears as the 3rd in November 1452.

Giovanni was active for the silk dealers till 1453.

Then in 1455 he's involved in the business of Seragli and Filippo di Marco, the role, which he plays in the production, is not clear by the documents. I interpret, that Giovanni di Domenico prepared woodcuts used for serial Trionfi card production and for this work he received money at 3 opportunities. All 5 documents don't tell anything about the number of the decks beside the 4th document, which speaks of one Trionfi deck (I interpret, that this is only the first deck, used to show and demonstrate the added colors; that's the first time, that Filippo gets some money in the working process) ... the highest sum is paid at the end of the commission (the number of produced decks is not mentioned).

Now we have the Esch report:
There's is no Trionfi card record in 1452 and for 1451 there are no registers for land imports. Registers for ship export exist only occasionally, Esch had two documents for 1428 (Franco Pratesi reported in ...

1428 – NAIBI COMING TO ROME ... rt-to-rome

...) and 10 further documents for 1444-46 and one document in 1451 with "tre ciste" full of cards, totally 57 dozen for estimated 24 ducats (57x12 = 684; 24/684 * 102 = 3.85 Soldi for each deck; the highest number in the known ship imports). Trionfi decks are missing in the ship imports generally.

The land import in 1452 knows not about Trionfi decks, and generally the number of imports is small. The ship imports show some traffic.
But twice Johanni de Domenico appears in Rome with totally 30 playing card decks.

In 1453 we've 3 documents of Trionfi decks, the two decks of Bartolomeo Seragli are the first in Rome (Folio number 54), the Johanni de Domenico merciaio is the second with "8 para carto cio è treunfi da jocare" (Folio number 76) for estimated 1.7 ducats. Franco interprets - himself not totally sure - that this means 8 complete Trionfi decks. This would mean (1.7/8) * 102 = 21.68 Florentine soldi for each deck

Third is Giovanni da Pistoia with 8 Triunfi decks in (Folio number 100). He also was already active with playing cards in 1452.

These are the 3 oldest Trionfi merchants in the Roman custom register.

Tornieri is already active with playing cards, and the Flemish Loyski and Cornelio have their first appearance in 1453.

I think, that one should assume, that Johanni de Domenico merciaio (active 1452-53)and Giovanni di Domenico nabaio (active 1449-53) and Giovanni di Domenicho (active 1455) are all the same man. There are not so much names in early Trionfi card business, and it's not plausible, that one appears twice, even if the combination of Giovanni and Domenico likely isn't rare.
Beside his activities as playing card producer Giovanni di Domenico is known as the father of the better known artist Francesco Botticini.


I think, we got a big present from Arnold and Doris Esch with this article. Thank you.

Re: Esch-Revolution

Thanks for counting and analyzing all this new data, Huck. I too am very happy thankful that Arnold and Doris have paid attention to our particular interest in the trionfi and playing card trade.

My overall impression is that the Florentine trade exploded in the early 1450s, although it existed on a smaller scale in the 1440s. But the 1440s are a sputter compared to the 1450s and 60s.

More importantly, it continues to confirm the idea that trionfi were a standardized product in different grades by 1450. It is impossible that "carte da trionfi" meant "anything and everything that were not normal playing cards, whatever those were." Two kinds of cards, and everybody knew what those two referents were, and the games played with them.

Re: Esch-Revolution

I wrote:
There are 13 years recorded, of which 3 (1454, 1455 and 1459) are missing at all, and perhaps 1456 and 1465 are not complete and perhaps there are other factors for loss of documents. If I carefully assume "8 full years", and divide "2544 (low value) and 5000 (high value)" by "8 years ", I get roughly something like 320 - 640 for a year. As possible buyers for the decks we have in Rome naturally a lot of tourists and estimated 30.000 - 40.000 inhabitants.
Roughly I come to a 1% probability, that a Roman bought one Trionfi deck in a year (a deck, which went through the recording office), that's the highest value, it might be more probable, that it's lower.
I found a side note, which I earlier overlooked. Esch gives, that records are missing in the following periods:

Esch gives the times for missing records of the "dogana de terra" ... I overlooked this earlier:

1450 missing
1451 missing from January till October
1454-55 missing
1456 missing from July - December
1459 missing
1466 missing September-December
1467 missing January - December
1469/74 missing October 1469 till May 1474

For 1453-1465 we have then 9.5 years, not c. 8, as I assumed. The estimated number 320-640 goes then down a little bit to 270-540 in a year.

I corrected the former article.

Re: Esch-Revolution

One point has to be noted ... in the Esch report of 2007, in which playing cards have a very small role between all the other goods, we have the values 'triunfi ("para 309", "para 24") and in the surrounding of the passage it looks, as if this note belongs to 1464.


Antonio del Sasso appears in the report of Esch 2013 as Trionfi card importer 1460, 1461 and 1463, for 1463 he is noted with "30 para triunfi" and with "24 para Triunfi" at two different dates, one (30) at begin of the year (curiously at folio 30 with the same number, such double numbers often indicate a typo) and the other (24) at near the end, as far one can conclude this from the Folio number 115 (the highest Folio number I could detect was with Folio number 200 and 202, both for the year 1461; most numbers, however, are no so high. The 3rd is 178 for 1458, which also has otherwise high values). The import increased or decreased with the presence or absence of the popes. ....

"30 + 24" and "309 + 24" look similar, but it's not the same. And 1463 is close to 1464, but it's also not the same.

In a side note it's explained (Esch 2013), that Antonio del Sasso came from Florence and cooperated with Stefano de Guelfo. Something similar is indicated in Esch 2007.

Anyway, in Esch's report 2013 appear no "309 Trionfi decks". A sort of error is anyway given. Esch 2007 didn't give a reference, only the text.

The "309" was the point, which increased my attention rapidly. Now both, the "309" and the riddle about the 240 very cheap decks of Tornieri (also 1463) dominate the situation. A few days before the Esch report arrived, I wrote:
Well, the new Esch report is on its way, but I don't know much about its content. For the current moment I see some signs of a deeper change in the period 1461-1466 (and I expect, that the new data of Esch will fall in this same perspective):

1462 ... The Cambini report suddenly speaks of a trade with 96 Trionfi decks, before we had only 1 dozen = 12 decks as the highest number in the known trades.
1463 and later ... Earlier Esch publications report other high number deals of Trionfi cards since 1463 (309 etc.)
1463 ... Borso stops his home-made productions, perhaps cause the market has changed
1463 ... a new allowance of games in Florence
1465 ... our own speculations, that the journey of Lorenzo had something to do with the change "from 14 to 20" in Milanese decks
1465 ... Florentine Trionfi deck recorded in Mantova
1466 ... first note of Minchiate, possibly indicating a change in the game-structure

The "309" and the Tornieri document ("240 very cheap Trionfi" decks) and the break-down of the import market (1464-165) are in my evaluation expected signs of a change of the market.
But something is wrong around the "309" (but it's not necessary, that the 309 is wrong) and something looks wrong, but might be correct, with the Tornieri document.

Re: Esch-Revolution

My memory had an error about the value of the Florentine ducat in relation to a Florentine ducat. I thought, it had about 80 soldi (which it had in the 1420s), but in 1461 it was already nearly 102 soldi according this list, which I found earlier, but I forgot about details.
Elsewhere it's said, that the fiorini d'oro had 92 soldi in 1447.


.... used and discussed in viewtopic.php?f=11&t=884&start=10

Generally there's some confusion in the condition, that Florence had (after 1450) different ducats, the old and a new one, which soon was traded with 20% more value.

If the Roman ducat had been similar to the old Florentine ducat, then one must calculate single Roman deck prices with

(price in ducat) divided by (number of decks) multiplied with (102 or the current relation of ducat and soldi in Florence) and one has the price in Florentine soldi. My earlier calculations above were wrong, one must add add a factor of c. 26%, but still I don't know about the relation of Roman ducat and Florentine ducat.

Franco Pratesi in his relevant articles calculated his deck prices in Florentine soldi.

For the critical Tornieri document with its 240 Trionfi decks we have now instead (2,5 / 240) * 80 the calculation "2,5 (ducats) divided by 240 (decks) multiplied with 102 (relation ducat to Florentine soldi).

This results in c. 1,06 soldi, which in the time of the silk dealers had been the price for the most cheapest normal decks. This is a less dramatic development than indicated by the earlier calculated wrong price, but still dramatic enough.


I correct my earlier wrong statements in the relevant article.

Re: Esch-Revolution - a new article

There is a new article by the Esches, for which I thank Huck; it gives a summary of previously published work as well as additional information in importation of playing cards and trionfi into Rome for a later period in the 15th century. Since it is rather short, and I am not sure of the translation of some of the terms, I include a transcript of the Italian, page by page in smaller print, followed by my English version, larger. I do not have the bibliography page. Comments in brackets are mine. The article is from «Ludica», 21-22, 2015-2016, pp. 152-154. Of particular interest, I thought, are a couple of corrections to his previous articles, regarding names and quantities; these are in the notes. Also, in the new list for 1480 we see French playing cards. I think that means French style, i.e. with hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades, but I am not sure.

Arnold e Doris Esch
Importazioni di trionfi e carte da giocare nei registri doganali di Roma, 1466-1480

Per integrare le notizie sull'importazione di trionfi e carte da gioco a Roma negli anni 1445-1465 (1), dato che la documentazione sui trionfi in un'epoca così precoce è piuttosto rara (2), diamo qui altre informazioni tratte dai registri doganali degli anni immediatamente successivi, 1466-1480 (3).

Per riassumere brevemente i risultati della pubblicazione precedente e per dare le informazioni necessarie sulla fonte: si è visto che negli anni intorno alla metà del Quattrocento i trionfi e le carte da gioco vengono importati a Roma già in una quantità inattesa, per cui il patrimonio finora noto di trionfi risulta notevolmente accresciuto. Già i registri più antichi che si sono conservati della dogana di terra (quelli precedenti al novembre 1451 sono perduti) contengono trionfi in maggio e giugno 1453, quindi proprio a ridosso della prima menzione (Ferrara 1442), e il doganiere sembra essere ancora in difficoltà con questa nozione («triunfi», «trunfi», «trumfi», «trihomphi»). Talvolta sono presenti già in quantità notevoli («18 para», «26 para», «48 para triunfi») (4). E anche per le carte da giocare («da jocare», «jugare», ma mai "naibi"), per Roma, la menzione nei registri doganali è precoce (la prima citazione del gioco delle carte negli atti giudiziari romani — peraltro frammentari — risale al 1448 (5)): fin da subito attraverso la dogana arrivano regolarmente carte da gioco e da più fornitori contemporaneamente: «tre ciste de carte dozinali da ioco, sonno] dozine LVII extimate ducati XXIV» già nel novembre 1451 in un'unica fornitura (6). È opportuno sottolineare il carattere della fonte. Non si tratta di fonti normative, che vietano o regolamentano il gioco, dalle quali veniamo a conoscenza precocemente di tutte le forme di gioco e anche del gioco delle carte'. I registri doganali — a paragone della situazione frammentaria delle fonti romane, un tesoro archivistico che Roma possiede in più rispetto alle altre città (8) — invece non regolamentano la realtà, ma la riproducono in maniera addirittura fotografica, dispiegano di fronte ai nostri occhi la cultura materiale del tempo nel modo più concreto. E per nostra fortuna i doganieri romani dell'epoca erano così accurati da registrare nel dettaglio non solo forniture costose di tessuti e forniture voluminose di metalli, ma anche piccolezze come trionfi e carte da gioco, e in questo caso anche le minime quantità e non solo intere ceste, arrivando talvolta a specificare il tipo di trionfi («triunfi mezani», «triunfi picoli», «triunfi con oro», «triunfi senza oro»).

Sono due le serie di registri che si sono conservate soprattutto per il terzo quarto del Quattrocento. Una riguarda la dogana per l'importazione via terra, l'altra la dogana per l'importazione via mare (9). La dogana di terra non registra le forniture destinate alla corte papale, perché questa era esente da diritti doganali, per cui per i trasporti via terra prendiamo visione solo delle importazioni nella Roma dei romani. Invece il registro doganale marittimo segnala anche le forniture alla Roma dei papi e cita anche le carte da gioco (fin dal primo registro che si è conservato del 1444-1445, addirittura nell'unico volume tramandato per il 1428 (10); spesso attraverso Gaeta, dove sicuramente le carte da gioco non venivano fabbricate ma trasbordate); ma non vengono menzionati i trionfi, che — come gran parte della merce fiorentina — a quanto pare giungevano a Roma solo via terra (11).

Dato che conosciamo la tariffa daziaria (per i trasporti via terra 5 per cento del valore stimato della merce importata, per la dogana marittima 6,5 per cento), è possibile calcolare il valore delle merci a partire dal pagamento doganale indicato (per il 5 per cento, quindi venti volte il pagamento), ma solo se non sono comprese altre merci. Per questo articolo non sembra essersi ancora definito un valore tariffario fisso e i valori di mercato da calcolare
1. Esch 2013.
2. Si veda (Tarot News 2013);; e in generale i contributi di Ross Caldwell, Thierry Depaulis, Huck Meyer, Franco Pratesi.
3. Roma, Archivio di Stato, Camerale 1, Camera Urbis, reg. 39-42 (nel reg. 39, 1466, dal f. 57v) e 51-55; reg. 38 e 39, reg. 40 e 51 hanno contenuto identico (un registro è tenuto dal notarius dohane, l'altro dal dohanerius); reg. 42 è un cosiddetto "bastardello", si veda ESCH 2007, pp. 110 e sg.
4. «309 para», in ESCH 2007, p. 63, dev'essere corretto in «30»: Antonio del Sasso 1463.
5. LOMBARDO 2008b, p. 40; ESPOSITO 2012, p. 229.
6. Per i dettagli: ESCH 2013, pp. 41 e sg.
7. Recentemente Rizzi 2012, in particolare pp. 213-231 e 577-579. Per la storia antica delle carte da gioco e dei trionfi, si vedano ZDEKAUER 1993, ORFALLI 1993, MORENA 1995, CAVACIOCCHI 1995, ORTALLI 1996, LOMBARDO 2008a, VITALI 2010.
8. Per questo genere di fonte: ESCH 2007.
9. Per l'entità di quel che si è conservato delle due serie si veda ESCH 2007, pp. 417 e sg.
10. LOMBARDO. 1978, nn. 17 e 110.
11. ESCH 2013, pp. 49 e sgg.
152 Schede /Observations / Fiches /Karte «Ludica», 21-22, 2015-2016

Imports of triumphs and playing cards in the customs registers of Rome, 1466-1480

To supplement notices on the importation of trionfi and playing cards in Rome in the years 1445-1465 (1), given that the documentation on triumphs at such an early period is rather rare (2), we give here other information from the customs registers of the years immediately succeeding, 1466-1480 (3)

To briefly summarize the results of the previous publication and to give the necessary information on the source: it has been seen that in the mid-fifteenth century triumphs and playing cards are imported into Rome in an unexpected amount, so the patrimony so far known for triumphs has been greatly increased. Already the oldest records that have been preserved in the customs registers (those prior to November 1451 are lost) contain triumphs in May and June 1453, so just behind the first mention (Ferrara 1442), and the customs officer seems to still have trouble with this notion ("trifun", "trunfi", "trumfi", "trihomphi"). Sometimes they are already present in considerable quantities ("18 para [packs]", "26 para", "48 para treunfi") (4). And for playing cards (“da jocare”, “jugare”, but never "naibi"), for Rome, the mention in the customs records is precocious (the first citation of the game of cards in Roman court proceedings – however fragmentary - dates back to 1448 (5)): from the beginning, regular playing cards and those with more regularly arrive at the same time: «tre ciste de carte dozinali da ioco, so[no] dozine LVII extimate ducati XXIV» ("three dozen dozens [?] of playing cards LVII extravagant XXIV ducats], already in November 1451 in a single delivery (6). It is worth emphasizing the nature of the source. These are not normative sources, which prohibit or regulate the game, from which we learn about all forms of play and also the game of cards. Customs registers - in comparison with the fragmented situation of Roman sources, an archival treasury that Rome has more than other cities (8) - do not regulate reality, but reproduce it in photographic terms, unfolding in front of our eyes the material culture of the time in the most concrete way. And for our good fortune the Roman customs officers of the time were so accurate as to record in detail not only expensive supplies of fabrics and bulky supplies of metals, but also small ones like triumphs and playing cards, and in this case even the smallest quantities and not just whole barges, sometimes even specifying the kind of triumphs ("triunfies mezani", "triunfi picoli", "triunfi con oro", "triunfi senza oro" [median triumphs, little triumphs, triumphs with gold, triumphs without gold]).

There are two sets of records that have been preserved especially for the third quarter of the fifteenth century. One concerns the customs for importation by land, the other the customs for importing by sea (9). The land customs do not record supplies for the papal court, because it was exempt from customs duties, so for land transport we only see imports into Rome for the Romans. However, the maritime customs register points out the paper supplies to Rome and also mentions playing cards (from the first register that was preserved from 1444-1445, in the unique volume handed down for 1428 (10)), often through Gaeta [then the seaport for Rome], where playing cards were certainly not made but transported); but triumphs are not mentioned, which - like much of the Florentine goods - apparently came to Rome only by land (11).

Since we know the shipping tariff (for land transport 5 percent of the estimated value of the goods imported, 6.5 percent for the maritime customs office), it is possible to calculate the value of the goods from the indicated customs duty (for 5 Percent, thus twenty times the payment), but only if other goods are not included. For this article there does not seem to be defined a fixed tariff value, and the market values to be calculated
1. Esch 2013.
2. See (Tarot News 2013);; and in general the contributions of Ross Caldwell, Thierry Depaulis, Huck Meyer, Franco Pratesi.
3. Rome, State Archive, Chamber Report 1, Chamber Urbis, reg. 39-42 (in reg. 39, 1466, p. 57v) and 51-55; reg. 38 and 39, reg. 40 and 51 have the same content (one register is kept by notarius dohane, the other by dohanerius); reg. 42 is a so-called "bastard", see ESCH 2007, pp. 110ff.
4. «309 para» [packs], in ESCH 2007, p. 63, must be corrected to '30': Antonio del Sasso 1463.
5. LOMBARDO 2008b, p. 40; EXHIBITION 2012, p. 229.
6. For details: ESCH 2013, pp. 41f.
7. Recently Rizzi 2012, in particular pp. 213-231 and 577-579. For the early history of playing cards and triumphs, see ZDEKAUER 1993, ORTALLI 1993, MORENA 1995, CAVACIOCCHI 1995, ORTALLI 1996, LOMBARDO 2008a, VITALI 2010.
8. For this kind of source: ESCH 2007.
9. For the magnitude of what has been preserved in the two series, see ESCH 2007, pp. 417f.
10. LOMBARDO. 1978, nn. 17 and 110.
11. ESCH 2013, pp. 49ff.
152 Schede/Observations/Fiches/Karte «Ludica», 21-22, 2015-2016

per il dazio delle carte da gioco o i trionfi sono fortemente oscillanti. Perciò è tanto più importante notare che alla dogana marittima talvolta vengono addirittura assunti come base i prezzi di vendita effettivamente pagati (per esempio, «pro dictis cartis pro ludendo vendutis in totum bologninis II c, paga 123 bol.» che corrisponde al 6,5 per cento) (12).

Per quanto riguarda l'origine dei fornitori — e con ciò presumibilmente anche degli stessi prodotti, dei trionfi e delle carte da gioco —, le registrazioni del 1445-1465 indicano soprattutto Firenze, dove fino a quel momento non era documentata una produzione intensiva di carte da gioco e di trionfi, mentre talvolta nei registri doganali romani vengono definiti addirittura come merce fiorentina (« 1 fardello merce de Fiorensa, entrovi carte da jocare oppure triunfi») (13). E questa provenienza fiorentina domina anche nei casi — visibilmente in diminuzione — degli anni successivi qui presi in esame, 1466-1480, nei quali comunque si apre una lacuna di trasmissione di diversi anni (da settembre 1469 a maggio 1474). Conoscendo i registri doganali nel loro complesso, quello che possiamo fornire come nostro contributo agli studi specialistici è il contesto: insieme a che tipo di merci vengono importati i trionfi e le carte da giocare? Che genere di mercanti procurano questo articolo e in quale assortimento di altre merci sono specializzati? Non sono cartai e cartolai a fornire questi articoli — bisogna fare attenzione al fatto che le «carte» («da giocare» o semplicemente «carte», al plurale) nel registro doganale sono da distinguere dalle forniture di carta comune come «carta», «carta reale», «carta da scrivere», «carta straccio», «carta piccola», «carta da Ronciglione», «da Tivoli» e così via. Le forniture di carta comune nei registri doganali (14) sono contate prevalentemente in «risme» (invece le carte da gioco in «paca»/«para» o in «dozine»), e venivano importate a Roma in gran quantità, dato che un simile centro amministrativo e culturale aveva un immenso bisogno di carta.

Per questa via potrebbe essere possibile delimitare in modo più circoscritto la fabbricazione di questi articoli e condurre a Firenze una ricerca mirata e più ricca di prospettive. Perciò, quando questi fornitori vengono ancora menzionati altrove nei registri doganali, nelle annotazioni vengono date indicazioni sul listino restante: come negli anni precedenti, sono presenti, fra l'altro, «oro battuto», «orpelli» (si pensi ai precoci trionfi Visconti decorati da oro in foglie), «argento filato», come pure oggetti d'arte e spesso «seta». Franco Pratesi, in effetti, ha trovato di recente parecchie notizie fra i setaioli, dai cui libri contabili ha potuto dimostrare il commercio di carte da gioco (15). In questo modo si può stabilire — come abbiamo già proposto — sotto quali nomi (però non sono mai grandi nomi come Medici, Spinelli, Cambini), ma anche in quale ambito della produzione artigianale si deve cercare nelle fonti fiorentine, per esempio nel ricco materiale della contabilità di imprese industriali e artigianali (16), negli atti delle corporazioni e naturalmente nel catasto, in cui alcuni mercanti menzionavano esplicitamente le loro esportazioni verso Roma (17).
12. Reg. 122,f. 18r. Il ducatus auri de camera allora valeva 72 bolognini e aveva lo stesso valore del forino (di suggello) "stretto" fiorentino: ESCH 2007, pp. 413 e sg.
13. ESCH 2013, pp. 42 e sg.; inoltre importazioni di carte da gioco tramite mercanti fiamminghi, sempre in ESCH 2013, pp. 42 e sg.
14. Sono raccolte in CHERUBINI e altri 1983, pp. 458-537.
15. PRATESI 2012.
16. GOLDTHWAITE 1998. Sull'esempio delle Ricordanze di Neri di Bicci, Escx 2007 p. 239.
17. Per la fonte: HERLIHY-KLAPISCH-ZUBER 1978; per le esportazioni da Firenze a Roma dichiarate si veda ESCH 2007, pp. 43, 62 e 238.
153 ARNOLD e DORIS ESCH, Importazioni di trionfi e carte da giocare nei registri doganali di Roma, 1466-1480, «Ludica», 21-22, 2015-2016

for playing cards or triumphs are strongly oscillating. Therefore, it is all the more important to note that at the maritime customs it is sometimes additionally assumed as a base the sales prices actually paid (for example, "Pro dictis cartis pro ludendo vendutis in totum bologninis II c. paga 123 bol.", which corresponds to 6.5 percent) (12).

Regarding the origin of suppliers - and presumably also of the products themselves, triumphs and playing cards - the records of 1445-1465 indicate above all Florence, where until now there was no documented intensive production of playing cards and triumphs, while sometimes in the Roman customs registers they are even defined as Florentine merchandise (« 1 fardello merce de Fiorensa, entrovi carte da jocare oppure triunfi» ["1 Florentine merchandise bundle, in the form of playing cards or triumphs]) (13). And this Florentine origin also dominates in the cases - visibly diminishing - of the following years here examined, 1466-1480, in which, however, a gap of transmission of several years is opened (from September 1469 to May 1474). Knowing the customs records as a whole, what we can provide as a contribution to specialized studies is the context: with what kinds of goods are imported triumphs and cards to play? What kinds of merchants are procuring this item and with what assortment of other goods is specified? They are not stationers or card makers who furnish these articles – one needs to be careful that the "cards" ("playing" or simply "cards" in the plural) in the customs register are to be distinguished from paper supplies such as «carta», «carta reale», «carta da scrivere», «carta straccio», «carta piccola», «carta da Ronciglione», «da Tivoli» [«paper», «royal paper», «writing paper», «rag paper», «small paper», «paper of Ronciglione», «of Tivoli»] and so on. Paper supplies in the customs registers (14) are mainly made up of 'reams' (instead of playing cards in 'paca' / 'para' or 'dozine’) and were imported into Rome in large quantities, since such an administrative and cultural center had an immense need for paper.

In this way it would be possible to delimit more closely the manufacture of these articles and lead to a targeted and richer prospect for research in Florence. Therefore, when these suppliers are also mentioned elsewhere in the customs registers, annotations are given on the remaining list: as in previous years, there are, among other things, «oro battuto», «orpelli» ["beaten gold", "gold-coated parchment/paper"] (think of the early Visconti triumphs decorated with gold leaf), «argento filato» [silver thread?], as well as art objects and often "silk". Franco Pratesi, in fact, recently found several notices among the silk merchants, from whose account books he was able to demonstrate the trading of playing cards (15). In this way it is possible to establish - as we have already proposed - under what names (but never are big names like Medici, Spinelli, Cambini), but also in what field of artisanal production we must look for in Florentine sources, for example in the rich accounting material of industries and handicrafts (16), acts of corporations and of course in the catasto [assessments of properties, goods, and household members for tax purposes], where some merchants explicitly mentioned their exports to Rome (17).
12. Reg. 122, f. 18r. The ducatus auri de camera then valued at 72 bolognines had the same value as the "straight" Florentine florin (of seals): ESCH 2007, pp. 413ff.
13. ESCH 2013, pp. 42f; Also imports of playing cards through Flemish merchants, also in ESCH 2013, pp. 42f.
14. Collected in CHERUBINI et al. 1983, pp. 458-537.
15. PRATESI 2012.
16. GOLDTHWAITE 1998. On the example of the Ricordanze di Neri di Bicci, Esch 2007 p. 239.
17. For the source: HERLIHY-KLAPISCH-ZUBER 1978; For exports from Florence to Rome, see ESCH 2007, pp. 43, 62 and 238.
153 ARNOLD e DORIS ESCH, Importazioni di trionfi e carte da giocare nei registri doganali di Roma, 1466-1480, «Ludica», 21-22, 2015-2016

18. Aluisi (anche Luisci) merciaio, dalle Fiandre, con il listino tipico di queste parti: articoli d'ottone, di stagno; candelabri, coltelli, «birette de Flandria», scarselle, guanti, argento filato, «cortine depinte», e così via, si veda ESCH 2013, nota 35. Le sue "carte da jocare e trionfi" importate prima del 1466 in ESCH 2013, p. 47.
19. Pierozzo di Ser Francesco, di Firenze: fornisce oro fino, argento, «oro battuto fino», «oro de mita battuto», argento battuto, oro filato, argento filato, orpelli; tessuti di seta di ogni qualità, «tele depinte», smalti, «barette de grana» (tinte con grana, cioè con il chermes), «corde de liuto» e così via, si veda ESCH 2013, nota 31; trionfi 1457-1464 importati da Pie-rozzo: ESCH 2013, p. 45.
20. Filippo da Verazzano (presso Arezzo, quindi in territorio fiorentino): introduce «imagini depinte» in grande quantità, molti «oropelli», «oro di Colonia» (filo d'oro), altari portatili, paternostri di smalto, oggetti d'avorio, centi colorati, nastri di seta, «tele todesche tente», coltre e guarnella di Venezia, si veda ESCH 2007, ad indicem.
21. Johanni de Oriolo (anche dell'Orioli): introduce «tele todesche tente», tele di San Gallo, fustagno, boccaccino, filo, seta colorata.
22. Johanne de Pino (anche de Pigno): importa «carte pente», candelieri, filo, si veda Esch 2007, pp. 246 e sg. e p. 278.
23. Con rinvio a un «bastardello», p. 67.
24. Baccio merciaro: carte da giocare e trionfi, 1464-1465, si veda ESCH 2013, p. 48.
25. Ardito Arditi, da Firenze: fornisce merce fiamminga, «argento de Colonia», «calamari [calamaio] di osso lavorati», si veda ESCH 2007, p. 128.
26. Benedetto Tornaquinci: introduce in grandi quantità soprattutto centi colorati, centi imbroccati, nastri «centi» de seta, orpelli; nonché «boccacino di Cipro», «tele todesche tente», «tele veneziane»; e una volta «imagine dipente», uno «specchio d'avolio», maioliche di Spagna, si veda ESCH 2007, ad indicem («Bernardo T.», ESCH 2007 a p. 247 è da correggere in «Benedetto T.»).
27. Introduce seta colorata, filo.
154 Schede/Observations/Fiches/Karten, «Ludica», 21-22, 2015-2016

18. Aluisi (also Luisci) haberdasher, from Flanders, with the typical list of these deals: brass articles, tin; candlesticks, knives, "Flanders biretti [priests' hats]", purses, gloves, silver thread, "painted curtains", and so forth, see ESCH 2013, note 35. Its "carte da jocare e trionfi" ["playing and triumphs"] imported before 1466 in ESCH 2013 , p. 47.
19. Pierozzo di Ser Francesco of Florence: he supplies fine gold, silver, «oro battuto fino», «oro de mita battuto» [fine beaten gold", "miter [?] of beaten gold"], beaten silver, gold thread, silver thread, orpelli [gold on parchment/paper]; silk fabrics of all qualities, "painted cloths", enamels, «barette [bars?] de grana» (coated with grana, i.e. kermes [a dark red dye made from a certain insect]), "lute strings" and so forth, see ESCH 2013, note 31; Triumphs 1457-1464 imported from Pierozzo: ESCH 2013, p. 45.
20. Filippo da Verazzano (near Arezzo, therefore in Florentine territory): introduces "depicted images" in large quantities, many "oropellas" [gold on parchment/paper], "gold of Cologne" (gold thread), portable altars, enamel paternostrials, objects of Ivory, colored dice, «boccacino di Cipro» [delicacies of Cyprus?], «tele todesche tente» [German canvases?], Venetian canvases; see ESCH 2007, for indications.
21. Johanni de Oriolo (also de Ooli): introduces "«tele todesche tente» [German canvases?], canvases of St. Gall, fustian [corduroy?], boccaccino [delicacies?], thread, colored silk.
22. Johanne de Pino (also of Pigno): imports ‘carte pente” [painted cards?], candlesticks, thread; see Esch 2007, pp. 246f and p. 278.
23. Referring to a «bastardello» ["bastard"?], p. 67.
24. Bacchus Merciaro: playing cards and triumphs, 1464-1465, see ESCH 2013, p. 48.
25. Ardito Arditi, of Florence: provides Flemish goods, "Cologne silver", "calimari" [inkwells] of worked bone; see ESCH 2007, p. 128.
26. Benedetto Tornaquinci: introduces in large quantities mainly colored centi [patchwork garments?], knotted centi, silk cemti, orpelli [gold-coated parchment or paper]; as well as "boccacino di Cipro", "tele todesche tente", "Venetian canvases"; and once a "painted image", a "ceramic mirror", majolica of Spain; see ESCH 2007, for indications ("Bernardo T." in ESCH 2007, p. 247, is to be corrected to "Benedetto T.") .
27. Introduces colored silk, thread.
154 Schede/Observations/Fiches/Karten, «Ludica», 21-22, 2015-2016

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