Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#1
I have not seen Stendhal’s account of tarot playing in the boses of La Scala opera house, Milan, posted anywhere, at least not anywhere known to Google’s search engine. Andrea cites it briefly for its mention of tarot as "one of the chief preoccupations of the Milanese", but for me the chief interest is Stendhal's next sentence, where he talks about the deck and mentions the Popess card. Also of interest is the intense but game-confined passions evoked by the game (with words like "cojononon" flung about), like a kind of temporary madness. Here is the whole passage on tarot, from his 1823 Rome, Naples, and Florence. Bear in mind that it is not a true journal of what happened on specific days. It is based on three trips to Italy and may include things he did not personally witness. That it is in part a work of fiction is suggested at the beginning, when he introduces himself as a German army officer on four months’ leave from Berlin. It was for that persona that he chose the pseudonym of Stendhal, similar to a German place name (perhaps he’d heard of the birthplace of Winckelmann, a German who actually settled in Italy). I give the major part of the entry for 25 October, 1816, first in French (which I lifted off the internet somewhere) and then in the published translation by Richard N. Coe, pp. 32-34 (Sussex, UK, 1959). In those few places where Coe’s lively but rather free translation differs materially from the French original, I have underlined the suspect translation and in brackets put the French followed by my reading of it.
25 octobre 1816. — Ce soir, une femme brillante de beauté, de finesse, d'enjouement, Mme Bibin Catena, a bien voulu essayer de m'apprendre le taroc. C'est une des grandes occupations des Milanais. C'est un jeu qui n'a pas moins de cinquante-deux cartes, grandes chacune comme trois des nôtres. Il y en a une vingtaine qui jouent le rôle de nos as, et qui l'emportent sur toutes les autres ; elles sont fort bien peintes, et représentent le pape, la papesse Jeanne, le fou, le pendu, les amoureux, la fortune, la mort, etc. Il y a d'ailleurs, comme à l'ordinaire, quatre couleurs (bastoni, danari, spade, coppe); les cartes portent l'image de bâtons, de deniers, d'épées et de coupes. M. Reina, l'un des amis auxquels m'a présenté Mme G***, me dit que ce jeu a été inventé par Michel-Ange. Ce M. Reina a formé l'une des belles bibliothèques de l'Europe : il a, de plus, des sentiments généreux, chose singulière et que je ne me souviens pas d'avoir jamais vue réunie à la bibliomanie. Il fut déporté aux Bouches de Cattaro en 1799.
Si Michel-Ange a inventé le tarocco, il a trouvé là un beau sujet de disputes pour les Milanais, et de scandale pour les petits-maîtres français. J'en ai rencontré un ce soir qui trouvait les Italiens bien lâches de ne pas mettre l'épée à la main vingt fois pour une partie de tarocco. En effet, les Milanais ayant le malheur de manquer tout à fait de vanité, ils poussent à l'excès le feu et la franchise de leurs disputes au jeu. En d'autres termes, ils trouvent au jeu de tarocco les émotions les plus vives. Ce soir, il y a eu un moment où j'ai cru que les quatre joueurs allaient se prendre aux cheveux ; la partie a été interrompue au moins dix minutes. Le parterre impatienté criait : « Zitti ! zitti ! », et la loge n'étant qu'au second rang, le spectacle était en quelque sorte interrompu. « Va a farti buzzarare ! » criait l'un des joueurs. « Ti te sei un gran cojononon ! » répondait l'autre en lui faisant des yeux furibonds et criant à tue-tête. L'accent donné à ce mot cojononon m'a semblé incroyable de bouffonnerie et de vérité. L'accès de colère paraît excessif et laisse toutefois si peu de traces, que j'ai remarqué qu'en quittant la loge il n'est venu à l'idée d'aucun des disputeurs d'adresser à l'autre un mot d'amitié. À vrai dire, la colère italienne est, je crois, silencieuse et retenue, et ceci n'est rien moins que de la colère. C'est l'impatience vive et bouffonne de deux hommes graves qui se disputent un joujou, et sont ravis de faire les enfants pendant un moment.
Dans ce siècle menteur et comédien (this age of cant, dit lord Byron), cet excès de franchise et de bonhomie entre gens des plus riches et des plus nobles de Milan me frappe si fort, qu'il me donne l'idée de me fixer en ce pays. Le bonheur est contagieux.
Le maudit Français, que j'aurais voulu à cent lieues de moi, m'a retrouvé au Café de l'Académie en face de la Scala : « Quelle grossièreté, me dit-il : cojononon! Quels cris! Et vous dites que ces gens-là ont des sentiments délicats ! qu'en musique leur oreille est blessée du moindre son criard ! » Je méritais de voir ainsi toutes mes idées polluées par un sot; j'avais eu la bêtise de lui parler avec candeur. ...

(25th October. This very evening, signora Bibin Catena, a woman radiant with beauty, intelligence, and joie de vivre, condescended to teach me the gentle art of playing tarocchi. This is one of the most obsessive preoccupations of the Milanese. It is a game which requires a full pack of [un jeu qui n'a pas moins de: a game which has not less than] fifty-two cards, each one three times the size of our own familiar variety. A score or more have attributes similar to the aces in an ordinary pack snd can beat any other card; they are beautifully designed and represent the Pope, Pope- Joan, the Jester [papesse Jeanne, le fou: Popess Joan, the Fool], the Hanged Man, the Lovers, Fortune, Death, etc. There are, however, four suits (bastoni, danari, spade, coppe), just as in other games, pictured respectively by staves, coins, swords and goblets [coupes: cups]. Signor Reina, whose acquaintance I owe in the first place to the kindness of Signora G***, told me that this game was originally invented by Michelangelo. This same Signor Reina has brought together one of the finest libraries in Europe: he is, moreover, of an extremely generous disposition—an uncommon phenomenon, and one which never before recall having discovered in an alliance with a passion for books. He was among those deported to the Delta of the Cattaro in 1799.
If there be indeed a grain of truth in the claim that it was Michelangelo who invented the game of tarocchi, that moment of inspiration has proved an abundant source of quarrels ever since among the Milanese, and fair grounds for scandal in the eyes of such vain and mettlesome Frenchmen as deign to visit the city. I met one of the latter breed this evening, in whose opinion the Italians were the unmanliest of creatures for failing to draw swords a score of times at least in the course of a game of tarocchi. And indeed, having been created, in an evil hour, almost totally bereft of vanity, the Milanese set no bounds to the uninhibited ferocity of the quarrels which arise among them over cards. In other words, they enjoy tarocchi as the occasion for the liveliest outbursts of emotion. This very evening, there came an instant when I was convinced that four players in the box where I sat were about to grab handfuls of each other’s hair; as it was, the game came to a standstill for a full ten minutes. The pit began to lose patience, calling out: "Zitti! zitti!”, and to tell the truth, since the box was no further than the second tier, the whole performance on the stage was, to all intents and purposes, being interrupted by the quarrel.. "Va a farti buzzarare!" shouted one of the card-players. "Ti te sei un gran cojononon!" retorted another, his eyes afire with fury and screaming at the top of his voice. The twist of inflection which fell upon the word cojononon sruck me as a masterpiece of comic realism. Such storms of anger may seem excessive, yet they leave so little trace of their passage that I noticed, as we all left the box, that none of the parties to the quarrel seemed to feel the slightest need to apologize, or to smooth the matter over with his erstwhile antagonists. If the truth were told, the Italian who is genuinely angry is, so I believe, silent and self-controlled; and whatever tonight’s manifestation may have implied it was assuredly not anger. Rather call it impatience—the essential, comic, whirlwind impatience of two staid citizens quarrelling over a toy, and delighted to recapture a fleeting instant of childhood in the process.
Against the background of this lying and hypocritical generation (‘this age of cant,’ says Lord Byron), such wild displays of primitive and unsophistocated behavior [cet excès de franchise et de bonhomie: this excess of frankness and good-naturedness] in the midst of the wealthiest and most aristocratic élite of Milanese society left so indelible an impression on my mind, that I conceived the notion of coming to settle in Italy for good. Happiness is contagious.
My compatriot, devil take him! [Le maudit Français: The cursed Frenchman], whom I could devoutly have wished at the bottom of the sea, came to pester me at the Café dell’Accademia in front of La Scala: "The vulgarity of it!” he exclaimed. “Cojononon! And the shouting! Come now, can you honestly claim that such a race has any refinement of sensibility? Or that their musical ear is offended by the slightest of discords?” Obviously, I deserved to see all my ideas desecrated by the tongue of a fool; it was my own fault for having talked unguardedly to him in the first place.)
I am not sure what "cojononon" means. There is the similar Spanish "cojones", but such attribution is not usually considered an insult, just the lack of them. The issue of Michelangelo's invention has been discussed elsewhere on THF. (There seems to have been a 16th century cardmaker with that first name.) Here I want to make a few comments related to the three places where I put things in brackets.

First, Stendhal does not say that the deck he used had 52 cards. It had no less than 52 cards. I expect that he encountered a variety of decks, including one of 54 cards, from which the same suit cards would have been removed as in Piquet, which has 32, the deuce through six of each suit being absent, as well as the Knights.

The second thing is Stendhal’s title for the Popess card: it is not even “Pope-Joan”, as the translation has it, but “papesse Jeanne”, i.e. Popess Joan. Like all the other historical written references to this card I know of that say more than “Papessa”, the reference is to the woman who disguised herself as a man, and whom we see depicted much like the card in a 15th century edition of Boccaccio (the one of Ferrara 1497 shown at http://www.angelfire.com/space/tarot/papessa.html). It is the same that the preacher of Steele Sermon is referring to when he says of this figure “O miseri quod negat Christiana fides”, as translated on Tarotpedia (http://www.tarotpedia.com/wiki/Sermones ... _Cum_Aliis), "O wretches! That which the Christian Faith denies"--namely, a woman as pope. She is also the same that Aretino refers to in his Carte Parlante (see Andrea’s essay “Theater of Brains”, http://www.associazioneletarot.it/page. ... 63&lng=ENG) and in his Dialogue between the two prostitutes Nana and Pipa (which I quoted at viewtopic.php?f=23&t=385&p=8528&hilit=Nana#p8528).

You can say, if you wish, that these sources have all, innocently or maliciously, misinterpreted the card. I myself see no need to choose one interpretation over a few others that have historical merit, at least for the time period they are seen, and especially if they can also serve as an early part of an allegorical interpretation of the tarot sequence. The allegorical meaning, quite consistent with Petrarch’s view of popes and emperors in De Remediis, would be that that tricksters may be found in high positions as well as low. The card would in this interpretation most naturally have been placed in the number 2 position initially (next to the bagatella), although it still works at number 4, where the preacher has it. Let me also be clear that I am not holding up Popess Joan as the original meaning of the card, just one it acquired rather early in its history and continued to have.

There are two other instances where I find Coe’s translation misleading. One is the narrator’s account of why he wishes to move to Italy. He admires the directness he has seen, both in frankness and in warmth, even when excessive, in contrast to the artificial gentility of more northern lands. Coe’s translation makes Stendhal admire Italians for their “primitive and unsophistocated behavior”; that is the very mistake that Stendhal rails against in the last paragraph I quoted.

Stendhal seems to be observing that the rancor is confined to the game, as it were part of it. That makes me wonder whether tarot was particularly known for that qualty, in comparison to other card games, i.e. whether a certain permitted madness was associated with it.

In this last paragraph. Coe makes Stendhal’s French nemesis a “compatriot” of the narrator. Stendhal, the alleged German, does not say that there. This is not so bad, however, because Stendhal does use such terminology in the very next paragraph (which I have not given here), expounding futher on why he must avoid his French compatriots. It is only page 34, and already he is abandoning his German persona.

Re: Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#2
mikeh wrote: I am not sure what "cojononon" means. There is the similar Spanish "cojones", but such attribution is not usually considered an insult, just the lack of them.
erm, perhaps similar to the english expression 'load of balls' or 'very ballsy'... or "you've got 'some/a lot' of balls'

Perhaps related to the spanish cojonudo - in respect of its meaning of fool/fucker* (you're a big fool/fucker/shit - perhaps the insults relate to the cards played, eg one plays the devil, to which the other plays the fool saying 'Go get/catch yourself Devil! (buzzarare'*) - to which the other player responds 'you yourself are a big fool/fucker' (cojonon)) (though its more common meaning is 'great, cool, amazing'').

SteveM

*lit; 'ballsy' but when used idiomatically as an insult better understood/translated in English as 'fool, fucker or shit' according to context. In the context of the game one would need to get in the relationship to the card - one needs 'fool', but to translate fully the extremity of the foul language (and double meaning) would need something like 'You're a big fucking fool yourself'.

re: buzzarare as devil, e.g., “Cosa m’importa questa maledetta isola? Che la mandano a buzzarare!” (What care I for this accursed island? Let it go to the devil!) - Talks with Napolean by Dr. O'Meara.
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#3
Very nice quote from Stendahl, Mike. Thanks for sharing it.

The attribution of Tarot to Michelangelo is unique, as far as a I know (which is not much in this case). It is sometimes Minchiate that is attributed to him. It seems to be an old legend, although the earliest I can account of it I can find is from Charles de Brosses, about 1740.

"Charles de Brosses (1709-1777), writing from Rome in 1739-40, is the earliest witness I have found to the legend, sometimes met, that Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) invented the game of Minchiate:

Ce jeu [Minchiate] a été inventé à Sienne, par Michel-Ange, à ce qu’on prétend, pour apprendre aux enfants à supputer de toutes sortes de manières :en effet, c’est une arithmétique perpétuelle. Il faut que ce jeu ne se soit mis en vogue à Rome qu’au temps du pape Innocent X, Panfili ; car le pape des minchiate ressemble comme deux gouttes d’eau au portrait de ce grand pontife.

(L’Italie il y a cent ans, ou Lettres écrites d’Italie à quelques amis en 1739 et 1740 ; par Charles de Brosses (1st edition (posthumous), M. R. Colomb, ed, Paris, 1836), p. 209 (Lettre XLIV, to Madame Cortois de Quincey; De Brosses’ description of the game of Minchiate occupies pp. 207-210).

[This game (Minchiate) was invented in Siena, by Michelangelo, it is supposed, in order to teach children to calculate in every kind of way; indeed, it is a perpetual arithmetic. This game could not have been in fashion in Rome until the time of Pope Innnocent X,Panfili; for the Pope of the Minchiate is the spitting image of this great pontiff.]"

(This is the entry number 30 from my paper "The Proto-Historiography of Playing Cards", published in The Playing Card in 2009 -
http://fr.scribd.com/doc/90381102/Precursors )
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Re: Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#4
I also like Stendhal's "papesse Jeanne" identification. You say you know other references - can you list them, without too much trouble?

I agree it is difficult to believe that Pope Joan was the inventor's intended meaning, although some support for it might come from early depictions of the Triumph of Love in Petrarch's Trionfi. There is at least one, from 1488, and possibly another, from 1480, as I note here
http://ludustriumphorum.blogspot.fr/200 ... -love.html
- and Michael discusses here (at the end - read the comments too)
http://pre-gebelin.blogspot.fr/2012/08/ ... opess.html

For the Popess to be a captive of Love fits perfectly with Moakley's thesis. But if so, then Tarot is the earliest iconographic witness to it, although Boccaccio's description of her makes her essentially the same thing (we might also wonder why a Pope is included in the those trumps ostensibly captives of Love, and which Emperor and Empress are meant).
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Re: Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#5
Steve, I suspect "idiot" etc., rather than "ballsy" (which is a compliment), because (a) it fits the context better, and (b) at http://www.wordreference.com/iten/coglione we get a negative meaning for that word, which seems similar.

It is interesting that "coglione", referring to the two male apparati, has a negative meaning, whereas "minchie", referring to the one male apparatus, has a positive meaning. That's clear in de Brosses, where he writes:
L'autre jour, Legouz, qui est sujet aux quiproquo, s'approchant de madame Bentivoglio, lui fit compliment sur ce qu'elle excellait à manier les minchie, il voulait dire les minchiate. Cet autre mot est un terme de plaisanterie, qui signifie ce qui manque à ces jeunes gens de théâtre, dont je vous parlois il n'y a qu'un moment. L'éclat de rire fut général dans l'assemblée; mais vous savez qu'il ne se diffère pas aisément.
And my translation:
The other day Legouz, who is given to misunderstandings, approaching Madame Bentivoglio, complimented her on how she excelled in managing the minchie, meaning minchiate. The other word is a joking word, which means what is lacking to these young theater people of whom I spoke to you only a moment ago. The laugh was general in the gathering, but you know he does not defer easily.
But in English it tends to be the other way around!

Ross: I gave four references that seem to be to a female pope, as opposed to an abstraction like the Church or the Faith. One was the Steele Sermon, about which I said what I have to say, and likewise for the illustration to Boccaccio, 1497, on your website, which seems to be copying an image of the tarot Popess.

The other two are from Aretino, for which I merely gave links. In Carte Parlante, we have, in the context of other tarot triumphs:
CARTE: La papessa è per l’astuzia di quegli che defraudano il nostro essere con le falsità che ci falsificano.
PADOVANO: Forse che trasandate.
which I translate as:
CAR: The Popess means the shrewdness of those who defraud our being with falsehoods that falsify us.
PAD: Maybe they’re neglected.
Andrea in his essay (see http://www.associazioneletarot.it/page. ... 63&lng=ENG) interprets this as a reference to Popess Joan, and I agree:
Interessante la valutazione della Papessa da cui risulta un rapporto inequivocabile con la Papessa Giovanna. Scrive infatti l’Aretino che essa “è (posta, n.d.r) per l’astuzia di quegli che defraudano il nostro essere con le falsità che ci falsificano”. Anche se oggi attribuiamo alla carta della Papessa il significato di fede cristiana, in riferimento alla Scala Mistica che connota l’insieme dei 22 Trionfi, risulta evidente come il mito della Papessa Giovanna fosse ben presente nell’immaginario collettivo degli uomini del Rinascimento.

(Of interest also is the evaluation of the Popess, from which results an unequivocal relation with Popess Joan. Aretino actually writes that she "is there for the shrewdness of those who defraud our being with falsehoods that falsify us". Even if nowadays we give to the Popess card the meaning of Christian faith, referring to the Mystical Staircase that the whole 22 Trumps signify, it is evident how much the myth of Popess Joan was present in the collective imagination of the Renaissance.)
.
Aretino's second reference is in another part of the Dialogues (I ragionamenti, this one between an experienced prostitute, Nana, and a beginner, Antonia. Nana is setting her straight on how to manipulate men. At the moment I have only the English translation, in Aretino's Dialogues, trans. Rosenthal, Stein & Day 1971, p. 143:
NANA: I had all the haughty airs and manners of an empress, which would barely suit her and are in any case a swindle. I took as my example a certain noblewoman who always carried a silken pillow around with her and made whoever spoke to her kneel on it.

ANTONIA: Oh, you mean the female Pope?

NANA: The lady Pope, or so I am told, did not put on such high and mighty airs; by my oath, she did not. Nor did she give herself so bright a title as those whores did. One woman, for example, called herself the daughter of Duke Valentine and another the daughter of Cardinal Scanio.

That "lady Pope" is Rosenthal's translation of the Italian "papessa". can be seen by looking at the snippet at http://books.google.com/books?id=ssQIAQ ... rch_anchor

All of these references are from NE Italy. I don't know if that's a coincidence or not.

In relation to Stendhal, one issue is whether he was told (in Italian) that the card was Papesse Jeanne, or whether that was his inference. He could have read about Papesse Jeanne in de Brosses, a work he occasionally recommends to travelers (for de Brosses' discussion, see books.google.com/books?id=rAM4AAAAcAAJ& ... se&f=false). Likewise he could have gotten the bit about Michelangelo from de Brosses. On the other hand, why did de Brosses write about Papesse Jeanne at all from Milan? Perhaps it is enough that the books he quotes from on the subject are in a Milanese library. But why is he interested, and when did he start being interested?

Re: Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#6
mikeh wrote:Steve, I suspect "idiot" etc., rather than "ballsy" (which is a compliment), because (a) it fits the context better, and (b) at http://www.wordreference.com/iten/coglione we get a negative meaning for that word, which seems similar.
Literally 'ballsy' but it is used idiomatically and thus one has to translate its idiomatic rather than literal meaning. In Spanish too it is most commonly used idiomatically in a complimentary sense (brave, gutsy, awesome, cool) but can also be used as an insult to mean stupid/idiot/fool/shit/fucker - which I agree, if the Italian sense is similar then the most obvious meaning here in context of this exchange is : "go get yourself you devil" to which the other responds "you yourself are a big idiot/fool" - an exchange which as I said could relate to the actual cards played. There is a negative sense re: balls in English too, as in 'What a load of balls/bollocks", i.e., bullshit.
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#7
mikeh wrote: In relation to Stendhal, one issue is whether he was told (in Italian) that the card was Papesse Jeanne, or whether that was his inference. He could have read about Papesse Jeanne in de Brosses, a work he occasionally recommends to travelers (for de Brosses' discussion, see books.google.com/books?id=rAM4AAAAcAAJ& ... se&f=false). Likewise he could have gotten the bit about Michelangelo from de Brosses. On the other hand, why did de Brosses write about Papesse Jeanne at all from Milan? Perhaps it is enough that the books he quotes from on the subject are in a Milanese library. But why is he interested, and when did he start being interested?
Stendhal probably saw a pack with French names on the trumps. Dummett explains the situation in Milan at this time briefly in History of Games Played with the Tarot Pack, pp. 113-114 -

"Although the Milanese form of Tarot goes back to the very beginning of the game in the early XV century, we have no account of it from before the XVIII century. In his travel book of 1768, Joseph Baretti wrote of Tarot being played in Lombardy, principally in four-handed forms. The manufacture of playing cards in Lombardy died out towards the end of the XVII century, and players subsequently used Tarot de Marseille packs imported from France; Bolognese cardmakers began in about 1740 to produce packs for use in Lombardy, in a slight variation of the Tarot de Marseille; as the economy of Lombardy revived in the mid-century, cardmakers there produced packs in this 'Lombard variant' form, at first with backs on which were the trade-signs of Bolognese cardmakers. The French practice of having the name of each of the trumps and court cards inscribed at the bottom of the card had no previously prevailed in Italy, but in the Lombard variant these names were copied, in French, from the prototypes; from 1810 onwards, Italian equivalents were substituted."
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Re: Stendhal, "papesse Jeanne", and the "cojononon"

#10
Wouldn't the French influence, bringing along the Marseilles deck adaptation of the local Milanese product, account for a Popess Joan in Milan, rather than it being a local appellation? And of course Ross is right in that we have to account for the lens through which a Frenchman saw things (I wonder if he mentions tarot in his Charterhouse of Parma? Will have to reread….)

As for the original Papess, the oldest we know is the Franciscan nun of the PMB and it otherwise looks like a straight transformation of Faith from the CY (again, I do not see how both cards could be in the same deck as they hold the same symbol of a cross topped staff). I’m not going to rehash our Holy Ghost/Guglielma arguments – in fact I’m quite willing to walk away from that theory now. Why? It was unhistorical and focused too much on Sforza's need to assimilate the Visconti tradition while ignoring the changing papal realty: Sforza and Pope Eugene were embattled (papal-backed armies forced Sforza from Ancona/Jesi) and so a critique of the pope made sense in light of that relationship , but the latter was dead by 1450 – the soonest the PMB could have been made. The new pope in 1447 was essentially pro-Sforza and explicitly pro-Franciscan and thus a natural reason to depict Mother Church/Faith as such….particularly in a war-savaged, plague-ravaged, starved city, which Milan was in 1450/2 (it was expedient to hold up faith as Franciscan poverty as an ideal to mitigate expectations from the new regime).

The only historical footnote that sticks in my craw is that the remnant of Holy Ghost movement believers, the Fraticelli (a radical sect of Franciscans), were concentrated around Jesi, Sforza’s final holdout in the Marche…Pope Eugene had them reduced and Sforza pushed out at the same time in the mid '40s.


PS info on “pro-Sforza/pro-Franciscan” Pope Nicholas V, nee Tommaso Parentucelli:

SFORZA: a tutor, in Florence, to the families of the Strozzi and Albizzi, whose cause was most vociferously put forward by Fiellfo after their ouster in 1434; Filelfo was also Tommaso’s fellow student at Padua and fellow teacher at Bologna. Sforza had an immediate “in” with the new pope through his leading humanist. This pope brokered the Peace of Lodi that secured Milan for Sforza. Pope Nicholas V also made Filelfo a papal scriptor with a stipend in 1453.

FRANCISCANS (from this link: http://www.franciscan-sfo.org/hland/histfranmov2.pdf )
Almost immediately upon becoming Pope Nicholas V he issued the Franciscan targeted Bulla Pastoralis officii (July 20, 1447) which had the aim of responding to the requests of the “friars of the Third Order living in Italy, by giving
them the right to possess “houses, oratories, and other places” (domus, oratoria atque
loca), together with the right to found other houses “with the permission of the diocesan
bishop” … Since the first Regular Tertiaries seem to have been hermits, Nicholas V
invited them to adopt a habit which would distinguish them from simple hermits, and at
the same time from other religious Orders….The problem regarding the link of the Regular Tertiaries with the Clareni and Fraticelli still constituted a problem. In the General Chapter held at Montefalco in 1448,
the first Visitator General was a Fraticello, namely brother Benamati of Perugia. This
election prompted Pope Nicholas V to revoke the Pastoralis officii of 1447 with another
Bulla, Romanus Pontifex (September 18, 1449). This Bulla sealed the definitive
separation of the newly established Regular Tertiaries from the Clareni. The Bulla
placed the new Order as an autonomous family from all other communities belonging to
the First Order. The pope commanded those friars who wanted to live a way of life
different from that contained in the new Bulla, to leave the Third Order Regular and join
the Order of friars Minor in order to observe the Franciscan Rule professed by the other
friars.”

My emphasis/underline above: did the new habit, particularly in regard to the tertiary Clareni, reflect that worn by the PMB Papess, who notably does not have the normal black veil of a poor clare?

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