15 Signs of last judgment

#1
from: http://www.palgrave-journals.com/pmed/j ... 1024a.html
The medieval eschatological tradition of the ‘15 Signs of the Last Judgment’ was enormously popular; more than 180 Latin examples survive, as do versions in English, French, German, Armenian, Spanish, Hebrew and Old Frisian, among other vernaculars (Nölle, 1879; Heist, 1952; Giliberto, 2007). William Heist's landmark study sorted the examples of the tradition into groups – the Damian, pseudo-Bede, Comestor, Anglo-Norman and Voragine – according to the sequence of the events they narrate, among other criteria, and traced them to several wellsprings: Ezekiel 38:20, 2 Esdras and the Irish Saltair na Rann, which expands on the eschatological list of the Apocalypse of Thomas. Whatever the differences between the groups, all describe the woes occurring on each of the last 15 days prior to God's destruction of the world and his final sorting of humans into the saved and the damned. In these days, all of creation dreads the end: ‘Tote rien serra en tristesce’ (‘everything will be in sadness’; l. 1102), as the French Le Mystère d’Adam has it (Aebischer, 1964). Stars fall from the sky and ‘run about the earth like lightning,’ stones do battle, humans panic, everyone dies, and then, on the last day, the humans resurrect.
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The following work seems to be one of the versions, in which the "15 signs of Last Judgment play a role.
http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/lu ... i=0&trs=78

In the text the antichrist appears and gets 4 pictures. Then the 15 signs are presented also with pictures, one for each. Then follows the Judgment scene ... with interest I note, that this is the picture No. 20, as the card Judgment in the Tarot has also Nr. 20. The following picture (21) shows a series of "Blessed and Damned" ... well, they look like Fools between 20 and 21, as the Tarot had it occasionally. At picture 22 (or 21, as Tarot has it) Jesus appears.

I've noted the descriptions of the informative texts of the modern presentation :
1. 001 the two-fold nature of Anti-Christ
2. 002 Antichrist arrives at Jerusalem, dressed as a pope
3. 003 Christians are persecuted by Antichrist. Scenes of torture.
4. 004 The death of Antichrist on Mount Olivet

5. sign 1: the sea rises to the mountain tops
6. sign 2: the sea descends out of sight
7. sign 3: the gathering together of the fish and the sea monsters
8. sign 4: the waters burn
9. sign 5: the trees and plants sweat blood
10. sign 6: buildings and towns fall to the ground
11. sign 7: the stones fight with each other
12. sign 8: the whole earth quakes
13. sign 9: the earth is made flat
14. sign 10: the people emerge from their hiding places
15. sign 11: the dead rise from their tombs
16. sign 12: the stars fall
17. sign 13: the living die, so that they can rise again with the dead
18. sign 14: earth and sky consumed by fire
19. sign 15: sun and moon await the coming of Christ

20. 005 The Last Judgment
21. 006 The Blessed and the Damned
22. 007 Christ's appearance at the Judgment, attended by Saints and Angels

... after this follow a lot of other pictures, sometimes with Christ and his court, but also with a very great number of hell scenes and somewhere an explicit super-devil.
Alright, maybe this captured your interest. Here the data of the text:
Collection: Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts
Shelfmark: MS. Douce 134
Type of object: Manuscript
Material: parchment
Title text: Livre de la Vigne nostre Seigneur.
Country or nationality of origin: French
Date: c. 1450-1470
I add a few Tarot remarks:
1. 001 the two-fold nature of Anti-Christ
2. 002 Antichrist arrives at Jerusalem, dressed as a pope
3. 003 Christians are persecuted by Antichrist. Scenes of torture.
4. 004 The death of Antichrist on Mount Olivet

5. sign 1: the sea rises to the mountain tops
6. sign 2: the sea descends out of sight
7. sign 3: the gathering together of the fish and the sea monsters
8. sign 4: the waters burn
9. sign 5: the trees and plants sweat blood
10. sign 6: buildings and towns fall to the ground
11. sign 7: the stones fight with each other
12. sign 8: the whole earth quakes
13. sign 9: the earth is made flat
... here the world looks light seen with the eyes of the Hanging Man
14. sign 10: the people emerge from their hiding places
15. sign 11: the dead rise from their tombs
one sees a the typical dead corpses in action
16. sign 12: the stars fall
Star symbol
17. sign 13: the living die, so that they can rise again with the dead
18. sign 14: earth and sky consumed by fire
Fire symbol
19. sign 15: sun and moon await the coming of Christ
Sun and Moon at one picture

20. 005 The Last Judgment
= 20 LAST JUGDMENT
21. 006 The Blessed and the Damned
= 20/21 FOOLS
22. 007 Christ's appearance at the Judgment, attended by Saints and Angels
= 21 WORLD or ETERNITY
So it's clear, that the common Tarot sequence isn't mirrored 1:1 (well, I don't know other versions, perhaps there were differences in others). But some Tarot symbols show up before 20-22, though mostly not at their common Tarot places.
But we have here a sort of sequence of 22 elements (though the text presents much more pictures), which existed clearly before the known start of the Trionfi decks.
The choice of "22" is not very special for an apocalyptic text, as the revelation had 22 chapters and this likely, cause the Hebrew alphabet had 22 letters.
Well, some attention should be given to the condition, that this is a French text. The Fool between 20 Judgment and 21 World appeared also in France (or is there anything from somewhere else ?).
In my article to "Temperance" and especially the "winged Temperance" from today ...
viewtopic.php?f=23&p=12578#p12578
... to some relations between Revelation text and Maerseille Tarot, and this again points to France.

Alright, here are the pictures, so everybody can come up with his own mind ...

Image

1. 001 the two-fold nature of Anti-Christ

Image

2. 002 Antichrist arrives at Jerusalem, dressed as a pope

Image

3. 003 Christians are persecuted by Antichrist. Scenes of torture.

Image

4. 004 The death of Antichrist on Mount Olivet

Image

5. sign 1: the sea rises to the mountain tops

Image

6. sign 2: the sea descends out of sight

Image

7. sign 3: the gathering together of the fish and the sea monsters

Image

8. sign 4: the waters burn

Image

9. sign 5: the trees and plants sweat blood

Image

10. sign 6: buildings and towns fall to the ground

Image

11. sign 7: the stones fight with each other

Image

... here the world looks light seen with the eyes of the Hanging Man
12. sign 8: the whole earth quakes

Image

... here the world looks like seen with the eyes of the Hanging Man
13. sign 9: the earth is made flat
... ... likely by the earth quake in No. 12. So things, which were high before, lie now buried in the ground.

Image

14. sign 10: the people emerge from their hiding places
... I would assume, they recover from the ground, where they were buried by the earth quake.

Image

15. sign 11: the dead rise from their tombs
Things, which were low or buried before the earth quake, might have come to the surface
... well, one sees the typical dead corpses in action ... Death symbol


Image

16. sign 12: the stars fall
Star symbol

Image

17. sign 13: the living die, so that they can rise again with the dead

Image

18. sign 14: earth and sky consumed by fire
Fire symbol

Image

19. sign 15: sun and moon await the coming of Christ
Sun and Moon at one picture

Image

20. 005 The Last Judgment
= 20 LAST JUGDMENT

Image

21. 006 The Blessed and the Damned
= 20/21 FOOLS ...
I had to smile, when I saw the most black person in the middle - likely considered the most sinful. There's one nude woman at the picture, and he can't take his eyes from here, although he pretends to protect his eyes against her nudity with his hand.


Image

22. 007 Christ's appearance at the Judgment, attended by Saints and Angels
= 21 WORLD or ETERNITY
... again this game with the most black man, now with a nude woman at the right


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In the follow-up appear various devils, which start to torture the sinners. This is the most remarkable between them:

Image


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I didn't know about the "15 signs of Last Judgment" before I saw this text. So this is a relative new theme for me.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 15 Signs of last judgment

#3
Lorredan wrote:The 10th Sign.....in alabaster
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/hi ... ement.aspx
~Lorredan
Yes, thanks, I saw it already. But generally alternative pictures seem rare ... for the moment.

http://www.uni-due.de/imperia/md/conten ... edicht.pdf
Die Herausgeber der
hier vorgestellten Edition haben bisher (inkl. Redaktionen und Fassungen1) 99 mittelhochdeutsche,
mittelniederdeutsche, frühneuhochdeutsche und mittelniederländische
Texte eruieren können
This text speaks of 99 texts in German and Dutch languages alone.
The research relates to CGM 717 in Munich ...
http://www.mr1314.de/3694
... and this webpage presents two versions in CGM 717 ...
...
Fünfzehn Vorzeichen des Jüngsten Gerichts' (Ava-Typ) [Bl. 12r-15r] ... [that's a poem]
...
'Fünfzehn Vorzeichen des Jüngsten Gerichts' (Fassung nach Petrus Comestor) [Bl. 68r-68v] ...[that's a prose text]
...
.. one with 7 pages and the other only 2. So these texts are occasionally rather short. Some texts contain only the 15 signs, some involve also the final Judgment.
From this I would assume, that not all texts contain something, in which the number 22 would have any meaning.

Cgm 717 is described as having further texts of similar topics.
The interesting part of this work is, that it is the oldest datable (German language only ?) presentation of the 15th signs.
At ...
http://www.manuscripta-mediaevalia.de/h ... 00_jpg.htm
... I find the date and the location: c. 1348 in Ostschwaben, so near to Munich.
[I remember from other researches, that the time before 1348 had a lot of catastrophes, not only the plague, which followed soon after. ]
The authors of the research to the Munich manuscript [they said somewhere, that they had worked on the project 15 years ... naturally this should mean "not always", but likely they spend a lot of work on it] note, that the poem contains details, which don't appear elsewhere. They point to earlier ideas, that the genre [or only this text ?] might have developed c. 1180, but also to a researcher Ingeborg Glier, who dated it to early 14th century and got then acceptance of others.
"Die Handschrift scheint den Beweis dafür zu bringen, daß die '15-Zeichen'-Thematik
um die Mitte des 14. Jahrhunderts in die private Andacht- und Gebetfrömmigkeit eines
Laien eingedrungen war."

It's spoken of an increased interest of private commissioners for 14th century (which might mean, that the genre is accepted for earlier, but more for 'official' presentations"). It's assumed, that the Munich edition had forerunners.

I don't know about earlier Latin or other language forerunners for he moment.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 15 Signs of last judgment

#4
Excellent finds, Huck. I have been wondering whether there were any series on the theme of the "last days" before tarot. All I knew before this thread was Bosch's "four last things" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Seven_ ... ast_Things), which is hardly enough. But you've got half the triumphs here--everything from 12 on, in the time before Temperance was 14. I am less convinced of your "Fool". Isn't the idea that it went between 21 and 22, and meant the damned, a 19th century idea? But there is a nice take on the Pope in that series, very traditional. It's nice to see images on that theme that predate Luther.

You could have had more tarot-related comments regarding your images. There are hanged people in the torture scene; andbuildings falling down is a typical aspect of what we call the Tower. On the other hand, although not likely, this particular series you have images of might have been influenced by the tarot, since it is 1450-1470.

Looking on the Web, I see that the "last days" are spoken of in many other places in the Bible besides Revelation. I guess I need to broaden my education. There are certainly enough places on the Web to help me!

Re: 15 Signs of last judgment

#5
mikeh wrote:Excellent finds, Huck. I have been wondering whether there were any series on the theme of the "last days" before tarot. All I knew before this thread was Bosch's "four last things" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Seven_ ... ast_Things), which is hardly enough. But you've got half the triumphs here--everything from 12 on, in the time before Temperance was 14. I am less convinced of your "Fool" here. Isn't the idea that it went between 21 and 22, and meant the damned, a 19th century idea? But there is a nice take on the Pope here.You could have had more tarot-related comments regarding your images. There are hanged people in the torture scene; and buildings falling down is a typical aspect of what we call the Tower. On the other hand, although not likely, this particular series you have images of might have been influenced by the tarot, since it is 1450-1470.
The whole series is much older, though I haven't seen pictures for the moment
.
If it would have been influenced by Trionfi cards, it would mean, that Trionfi cards had 22 cards then i 1450-1470 ... which I would doubt for enough reasons. 22 isn't a curious number in this context, if we recall, that the Revelation had 22 chapters.
"more than 180 Latin examples survive, as do versions in English, French, German, Armenian, Spanish, Hebrew and Old Frisian, among other vernaculars (Nölle, 1879; Heist, 1952; Giliberto, 2007).
... as one of my sources said. 99 German/Dutch versions are known to the researchers in Munich.

Italian vernacular versions are not especially mentioned ... but Spanish, Armenian and Hebrew versions. Could it have been distributed from the way by Spain to Northern countries? Possibly a special French interest?

another 15-signs-version of 1482, Lyon, again with rather similar pictures.
http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/1 ... B08A3.html

Image
... and other pictures of this edition are at google.com pictures with the relevant search keys
https://www.google.com/search?q=Jugemen ... 40&bih=811

I see from this research, that the antichrist scenes get some more (6 ?) pictures here, so with this edition I likely wouldn't have noted the Judgment scene as 20th scene ... but as Nr. 22 (if it are 6).
But I'm not sure about it. It might be well, that this belongs to another text part:
Image


Nonetheless some editions might have possessed these 22 starting pictures in the interesting order of the earlier shown text ... the Revelation text had this preference for the number 22.
We simply have to find some more editions to get some clarity, what's the major line.

The Trionfi cards included the judgment scene as early as the Cary-Yale Trionfi cards. But do we have much other references to the 15-signs-schemes in other 15th century Trionfi cards? I would say, not. The whole similarity might have been triggered, when Trionfi cards became assimilated to French ideas, and formed Tarot, especially in the Marseille style.

The position of Fool between 20 and 21 appeared only in 19th century ? Wasn't there something earlier? We discussed this recently, I remember, somewhere in the Etteilla threads. I don't remember, where.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 15 Signs of last judgment

#7
I've found this list ...
Der Antichrist und die fünfzehn Zeichen vor dem Jüngsten Gericht, Nürnberg, 1472 [d. i. 1470] (Schweinfurt, Bibliothek Otto Schäfer, OS 125 (vormals)) http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00039804-5 MDZ München

Der Antichrist und die fünfzehn Zeichen vor dem Jüngsten Gericht, Nürnberg, 1472 [d. i. 1470] (München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Xylogr. 2) http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00038192-8 MDZ München

Der Antichrist und die fünfzehn Zeichen vor dem Jüngsten Gericht, [Franken/Nürnberg?], [ca. 1450 (nicht nach 1467)] (Schweinfurt, Bibliothek Otto Schäfer, OS 372) http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00039823-0 MDZ München

Der Antichrist und die fünfzehn Zeichen vor dem Jüngsten Gericht, [Süddeutschland (Schwaben?)], [ca. 1465?, vor 1470] (München, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, 118325-118354. - Unvollständig) http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00047064-2 MDZ München

Der Antichrist und die fünfzehn Zeichen vor dem Jüngsten Gericht, [Süddeutschland (Schwaben?)], [ca. 1465?, vor 1470] (München, Universitätsbibliothek, Cim. 46 (= 2° Xylogr. 3)) http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00039972-3 MDZ München

Der Antichrist und die fünfzehn Zeichen vor dem Jüngsten Gericht, [Süddeutschland (Schwaben?)], [ca. 1465?, vor 1470] (München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Xylogr. 1) http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00038183-2 MDZ München

Der Antichrist und die fünfzehn Zeichen vor dem Jüngsten Gericht, [Süddeutschland (Schwaben?)], [ca. 1465?, vor 1470] (München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Xylogr. 1a) http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00038674-8 MDZ München
... possibly partly the same edition?
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 15 Signs of last judgment

#8
Huck wrote,
The position of Fool between 20 and 21 appeared only in 19th century ? Wasn't there something earlier? We discussed this recently, I remember, somewhere in the Etteilla threads. I don't remember, where.
Etteilla in his writings put the Fool between the majors and the minors, i.e. between number 21 (Dissension, his version of the Chariot card) and number 22, the King of Batons. Judgment was 16, and he interpreted it in a mostly secular way--legal judgments, etc.--despite the typical "Las Judgment" on his card. At some point his deck had it as number 78 (as both numbers were there), the last card. But again not in the sense of the damned, merely the most foolish of the foolish minors. His cards went from ignorant to wise, with the highest being card 2, not from sinful to saved or damned.

Poilly had the Fool as 29, apparently also no relation to the Last Judgment.
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=782#p11174

Re: 15 Signs of last judgment

#9
mikeh wrote:Huck wrote,
The position of Fool between 20 and 21 appeared only in 19th century ? Wasn't there something earlier? We discussed this recently, I remember, somewhere in the Etteilla threads. I don't remember, where.
Etteilla in his writings put the Fool between the majors and the minors, i.e. between number 21 (Dissension, his version of the Chariot card) and number 22, the King of Batons. Judgment was 16, and he interpreted it in a mostly secular way--legal judgments, etc.--despite the typical "Las Judgment" on his card. At some point his deck had it as number 78 (as both numbers were there), the last card. But again not in the sense of the damned, merely the most foolish of the foolish minors. His cards went from ignorant to wise, with the highest being card 2, not from sinful to saved or damned.

Poilly had the Fool as 29, apparently also no relation to the Last Judgment.
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=782#p11174
Momus was not numbered in the Poilly-22-version (though 16 was missing in this deck, and the Museum placed it to 16 ... but 16 should have been the element Air). In the 42-version he had 29, the last "before 30", and 31-42 were the months (or the zodiac). That's somehow similar to Fool between 20 and 21. In the 41-version (generally closer to the original Minchiate) Momus is again not numbered and Chaos (card 1 in the 42-version) is missing.

Well, that's strange. Position 29 might be interpreted as the last card "before end" or "before last card and zodiac (in the 42 version card 20 is Fortune) ... so that's somehow the Levi position of the Fool between 20-21.

Louis XIV was called the sun-king already in early youth. 12x30 = 360, that's somehow the "days of the year". The 42 version, likely made for Louis XIV, was structured 1-30 (30-elements-group ... days?) and 31-42 (12-elements ... clearly months).
A later French calendar (after revolution) got inspiration from the old Egyptian calendar (12x30+5 days) ... perhaps there were similar ideas already earlier?
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 15 Signs of last judgment

#10
I had a not-good-enough view on the new found German versions of the 15 signs.

Generally the antichrist story is expanded (much more pictures). Sun + Moon seem to miss generally.. At least in one case the Judgement scene appears at the 15th day. Something like the "Fools picture" seems to miss also.

All seem to be similar in this sorting. From this it looks again, as if the 22-picture version (as already earlier suggested) might be typical French, not German. A closer relation to the Tarot series is only noteworthy just with this possibly singular French version (for this moment of research).

But - as I said - I only took a provisional look. The versions are little chaotic. Some are not complete.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

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