Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#11
Nürnberg collection:

Gütle and Hechtel don't stand alone, they are part of the rich Nürnberger tradition, which is made often by innovations and specific "game culture". So I start to collect a little bit to get the background. Maybe I make another article about it.

1346: Emperor Charles IV is elected. As Charles is King of the near Bohemia, Nürnberg develops the state of a second capital with the time.

1350: Early Carnivals customs in Nürnberg.
viewtopic.php?f=11&t=703&p=10358&hilit= ... auf#p10358

1354: Hübsch 1850 knows about a Nürnberger playing card producer in Prague, Jonathan Kraysel, which is documented for 1354. This would be the oldest known playing card producer known, if the text of Hübsch would be accepted as a solid document.
http://trionfi.com/0/p/95/

1380/84: The oldest Nürnberger playing card documents

1390: In Nürnberg a paper mill is installed and has the fame of "oldest paper mill" in Germany. There is some doubt about this "oldest", nonetheless the paper mill has much meaning for the development of the city and its playing card fame.
http://trionfi.com/0/p/21

1414: An anonymous "Kartenmaler" is recorded as the oldest known card producer. 38 card producers are counted by Schreiber (1938) for 15th century, meanwhile there might have been more counted by other researches. This might be taken as the "most" in Europe, although Lyon might have overcome this record, and - if Franco Pratesi proceeds with some energy his researches - Florence might overcome it, too.
http://trionfi.com/0/p/20/

1493: Schedelsche Weltchronik
viewtopic.php?f=14&t=638&p=9470&hilit=schedel#p9470
Some motifs of this book developed to playing cards, from which some were presented by "Castello dei Tarocchi"
http://trionfi.com/il-castello-dei-tarocchi
viewtopic.php?f=14&t=638&p=9470&hilit=schedel#p9470



The state of this deck is not clear. It might be from 1493 or a little later. It might be the oldest known Nürnberg playing card production. It might be a form of "oldest German Tarot" deck, as the used dices on the motifs necessarily should have 21 (or 22) motifs.
Schedel, the author, is known as a sort of playing card collector, who decorated with them some of his personal books.

since 1493: The Danhausen project showed interest in the Mantegna Tarocchi. The Mantegna Tarocchi took considerable influence on early German engraving.
http://trionfi.com/0/m/10

1495: Dürer painted parts of the Mantegna Tarocchi

16th century: Clas Oth since 1507, Hans Sebald Beham since 1523, Bernhard Merkle since 1527, Erhard Schön c. 1530, Hans Leonhard Schön c. 1535, eter Flötner c. 1540, Vigil Solis c. 1544, Jost Amman 1588 are old great names in the history of cards, all working for some time in Nürnberg.

17th century: Nürnberger teaching decks develop with the end of of the 30-years-war (1648). Nürnberg became famous for the "Nürnberger Trichter", which was a synonym for "learning through games"
I made a longer excursion (which also presents Nürnberg examples) here:
viewtopic.php?f=14&t=646&p=9636&hilit=praetorius#p9636
A great name of this development is Praetorius.

1689: The Backofen dynasty started to produce playing cards. The family stayed active till begin of 19th century.

Late 18th century, so important for Hechtel and Gütle:

Around 1785-1800 Backofen made also Tarock decks.
http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/WWPCM/germany/backofen.htm
Daniel Nikolaus Chodowiecki, popular Prussian painter and engraver of the 18th century, worked some time for Backofen (1785-92 ?):
http://www.christies.com/LotFinder/lot_ ... ID=4740267

Image


Andreas Haupold made also Tarock decks:
http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/WWPCM/germany/haupold.htm

John.Hein. Schenk made a German Cucu deck (Hexen- oder Vogelspiel)
http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/WWPCM/germany/schenk.htm

Kaplan II notes the names Johann Eberhardt, Johann Jobst Forster, Christ. Heinr. Reuter as active cardmakers around this time.

Each of them might have been the maker of the cards for the "Spiel der Hoffnung".

***********************

This book might be of interest:
It contains a list of French and German playing card meanings in cartomancy ... actually the author is interested to show, how one can cheat with "speaking machines" ... and he wants the public not to be cheated. So he has a similar orientation as Gütle.
The author is also from Nürnberg, seems to know Gütle, and speaks about Gütle (Guttle) in a short note (p. 137).

Image


The book was written 1798, so very near to 1799.
I didn't get anything else about the author.

Ausführliche Beschreibung der Sprachmaschinen oder sprechenden Figuren:
mit unterhaltenden Erzählungen und Geschichten erläutert
Heinrich Maximilian Brunner
Zeh, 1798 - 154 Seiten
books.google.de/books?id=ZL85AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA142

Here's the list with card meanings or French and Bavarian cards:

Image

Image

Image

Image

Image
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#12
This is very interesting Huck! :ymapplause:

You may also be interested in Johann Heinrich Meynier who was a contemporary of Hechtel and also published by Bieling. I looked into him first before I found Hechtel hiding in plain sight in your post. :-o

Meynier, who used many aliases, is also listed separately a few pages down in the original Google Books link you posted here.

Here is a directory such of aliases in case you need it. :-B

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#13
Helen wrote:This is very interesting Huck! :ymapplause:

You may also be interested in Johann Heinrich Meynier who was a contemporary of Hechtel and also published by Bieling. I looked into him first before I found Hechtel hiding in plain sight in your post. :-o

Meynier, who used many aliases, is also listed separately a few pages down in the original Google Books link you posted here.

Here is a directory such of aliases in case you need it. :-B
Image


... very interesting ...

This looks like a game-authors web around Bieling, whose family made the printing business already since c. 1760.

My own hypothetical fiction ...
Gütle, a "Hans-Dampf-in-allen-Gassen starts to publish with intensity in 1790 with some pedagogical intentions, focused on that, what he already earlier made, in the time, when he traveled in a little bit dubious activities. In 1795 he finds to the production of games. A game maker needs a painter.
Meynier is a painter by his own love, but has not much experience with publication. So Meynier possibly designs the games for Gütle ... and then he starts to change from French language teacher to "Zeichenlehrer" (1797) and in the same year he publishes his first own game (in 1802 he stops his French language teachings, but proceeds with "Zeichenlehrer") ... it seems he earns enough with his publications.
The young Hechtel seems to be a typical idealist, possibly a little bit naive and romantic, and with enough money. People like Gütle and Meynier with lots of ideas to publish always need money to finish their projects, so they help Hechtel to become a real author, and perhaps Meynier painted the figures of the "Spiel der Hoffnung", which would have been an easy task for him. But unluckily Hechtel died soon.
As a teacher of French language Meynier could also "translate" French ideas to German contexts. In a time, when French influence was strong, he had with his abilities good chances. Bavaria behaved French-friendly and this had the consequence, that the kingdom of Bavaria was founded in 1806 and the territory was enlarged. Quick enough Bavaria changed the side in the fall of Napoleon.

Image


It's said, that Meynier wrote 250 works ...and possibly painted a lot of pictures as illustrations. That's really much and sounds a little bit "too much", so, as if one has to calculate the work of various cooperators in this process. Perhaps one has given him too much pseudonyms?

Well, perhaps one should look around a little bit more in Nürnberg 1795-1800. But Meynier would make a good designer for the "Spiel der Hoffnung".
Perhaps one should also look, what Bieling made in his biography.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#15
Helen wrote:During my research I came across some artwork by Meynier which was very good, it made me realize it was unlikely that he was responsible for the images for Das Spiel der Hoffnung.
Well, this might be true. But some artists are rather variable. And Meynier made a lot of children books between his productions, which likely demand a variable style.
But I agree: the style of Spiel der Hoffnung, as given by British library, isn't so, that one MUST conclude the hands of a great master. But is it clear, that the British library game is indeed the oldest edition? Hoffmann talked from c. 1800, we know, that it must have existed in 1799. The British library edition likely has no date. I know from observed advertisements, that the game was offered variously before the Petit Lenormand.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#16
I collected a few things around the publisher Bieling mainly. Once I saw, that the firm was in the book trade around 1760, now I saw, that a firm Dietz-Bieling still existed in 1930. So with 170 years a long time for a book producing business.

**************

Anweisung, wie Silhouetten auf eine leichte Art ... zu verfertigen sind
Johann Heinrich Meynier
1791 Bieling

http://books.google.de/books?id=97k-AAA ... rg&f=false

Further Meynier texts made by Bieling
1791: http://books.google.de/books?id=LTo0cgA ... edir_esc=y
1800: Neues Würfel- oder Zauber-Buch zur angenehmen Unterhaltung munterer Gesellschaften
http://books.google.de/books?id=4P8JcgA ... edir_esc=y

The relation between Meynier and Bieling is older than before assumed and started already 1791. This relation should be older than the relation Gütle-Bieling. But these earlier produtions were not games.

****************
Materialien zur Nürnbergischen Geschichte
, Band 4
Johann Christian Siebenkees, Johann Carl Sigmund Kiefhaber
Schneider, 1795 - 738 Seiten
http://books.google.de/books?id=AIAAAAA ... le&f=false

Gütle is heavily attacked as showing "unbelievable" arrogance. In this year Gütle seems to have made his first game. And it might have been Bieling's first game.

******************

Neue allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek
, Band 4
C. E. Bohn, 1797 ?
http://books.google.de/books?id=O2I5AAA ... le&f=false

Image


An announcement for "Gesellschaftsspiele" (3. Band) and coffeereading is part of the show. So actually "divination" is done by Gütle.
*******************

Neue allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek
, Band 39
Carl Ernst Bohn, 1798
http://books.google.de/books?id=mawEAAA ... le&f=false

Image


A "Pfarrer Schlez zu Ippesheim" (interested in "didactic games") is the fourth game-inventor beside Gütle, Hechtel and Meynier in the publishing house of Bieling.

*****************

Neue allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek
, Band 67
Carl Ernst Bohn, 1801
http://books.google.de/books?id=N5g5AAA ... le&f=false

Image


Description of a game of Meynier with 191 cards with historical question. Maybe that' an idea for the "Do you know Tarot History game" ... :-)

*****************

Kaiserlich-privilegirte allgemeine Handlungs-Zeitung und Anzeigen
, Band 10
Contor der Handelszeitung, 1803
http://books.google.de/books?id=0kk7AAA ... le&f=false

Image


Announcement for Bieling's Game collection

******************

1808:
Various games
http://books.google.de/books?id=DWJNAAA ... ng&f=false

Bieling has now a greater collection of games. Names of authors are usually not mentioned. There are more educative than fun games.

*******************

Later:
Chess history researcher and author Antonio van der Linde searched for a Chess with dice version, apparently produced once by Bieling.
http://books.google.de/books?id=T0sCAAA ... pxw&edge=0

Image
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#17
Huck wrote:Well, I think, that the research of the content of the Spiel der Hoffnung should start with knowledge about the first edition. DDD give only some short explanations. It's a racing game, and the cells (or at least a part of them) should have been defined by an accompanying text. The racing game is the major game, and the divination is only second use and one has to use 32 cards only ...
For those who are interested, the original German game instructions ("Zweite verbesserte Auflage", i.e. second improved edition) are now downloadable from the British Museum website here.

I will respond to the new posts when I have had time to read them properly. :)

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#18
Helen wrote: For those who are interested, the original German game instructions ("Zweite verbesserte Auflage", i.e. second improved edition) are now downloadable from the British Museum website here.

I will respond to the new posts when I have had time to read them properly. :)
Thanks, Helen, good work.

I've read the "Zweite verbesserte Auflage" (second improved edition). I can't see anything of "divination".
It's not clear to me, if this is the complete text, or if there's some text following the 3 pages ... maybe, that which follows, contains something about "divination".
Well, it might be, that this second edition differs in its text from the first edition. In this case one of the improvements might have been, that the text, which contained an indication of divination, was killed and considered not appropriate.

Ah, ... I see my error, this is from an only 4 pages text, and one has to see all 4 pages and it reads in this row:

page 04-01 (first view at British library) and page 02-03 (second view)

Well, this is the "divination" text:

Image


It's easy to recognize, that this is not much, and if one can read German, then it's a proposal to have "fun with divination" and "imitation of divination" and not "real divination".
DDD understood, that one has to use only 32 cards of 36, but this is NOT written in the text. It's suggested to make a sheet with 4x8 cards and to add below 4 cards (and that's the divination with 36 cards; well, it's the second improved Auflage, perhaps the earlier text had the idea with 32 cards). Then one shall take card 29 as starting point, if the "reading" is for a woman, and card 28 instead, if it is for a man.
And then it is suggested to use some phantasy in the interpretation of the pictures.

So this is "no real content" and some complicated ideas, which have led me to search for influences of the side of Gütle, are superfluous. This - as text - is somehow "nothing". I smell a little irony on card reading in this little text.

Okay, there are some "card-definitions" for some of the cards in the text pages 02-03, but naturally that's typical for race games.
I've analyzed:
It operates with 2 dice.

3 ship ---> 12 (+ 9 fields / good)
4 house (- 2 chips / bad)
6 dark clouds ---> 2 (- 4 fields / bad)
7 viper (- 3 chips / bad)
8 coffin - needs another player to come to this field or a Pasch to proceed (bad)
11 rod ---> 13 (- 2 chips / + 2 fields / mixed bad/good)
14 fox ---> 5 (- 9 fields / bad)
16 star (+ 6 chips / good)
19 tower (- 2 chips / bad)
21 mountain - (needs another player to come to this field or a Pasch to proceed / bad)
22 way ---> 20 (- 2 fields / bad)
24 heart ---> 28 or 29 (if the player is female + 4 fields / if the player is male + 5 fields / good)
25 ring (+ 3 chips / good)
26 sorcerer book ---> 20 (- 6 / bad)
27 letter (- 1 chip / bad)
28 young man ---> 31 (+ 3 fields; only, if the player didn't come to 28 by the rule of 24 / good)
29 girl ---> 32 (+ 3 fields; only, if the player didn't come to 29 by the rule of 24 / good)
33 key ---> (+ 2 chips / good)
34 fishes ---> (- 2 chips / bad)
35 picture of hope ---> you've won the game and you may take all chips
36 cross (needs another player to come to this field or a Pasch to proceed (bad)

Somehow it is forgotten to tell, what happens next, if somebody is freed from field 36. Has he to restart the game or to go back with his Pasch result? Or has he won the game?
Well, there's this rule ...When a player would reach with his result field 37, 38, 39 etc., he has to use his result to proceed till 36 and go back with the rest of the result (so a result +10 at field 34 would lead to + 2 till 36 and - 8 for the rest = field 28)
So likely a released player at field 36 has to use his next throw to go back.
**********************

Somehow some of the pictures seem to have descended from coffee reading.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#19
I wrote ...
Somehow some of the pictures seem to have descended from coffee reading.
... and opened the thread ...
viewtopic.php?f=11&p=12107

In the text of 1763 the number of the known coffee reading figures were 35, the "Spiel der Hoffnung" had 36 pictures, but the 36th field was "outside of the system" - 35 stood for "winning the race game" and showed the Anchor, the symbol of Hope.

As the "Spiel der Hoffnung" likely was invented in today Bavaria, it might have imitated 36-cards-Schafkopf-deck (the cards are also at the 36 Spiel-der-Hoffnung pictures).

The Anchor appeared also in the Coffee reading figures.
coffee
*******

1. open ways ... lucky progress
2. closed ways ... blocked conditions, anger
3. birds ... good friends
4. dog or dogs ... good news
5. fox or foxes ... treacherous persons
6. vipers ... not favorable foes
7. trees ... favorable friends
8. four leaf cloves ... luck
9. flag ... also luck
10. point ... one has gotten a letter
11. various points together ... a present will arrive
12. key (upside) ... a work or position will do well
13. key (downside) ... opposition of 12.
14. coffin
15. leaning person ... sickness, "black points" indicate the position of sickness
16. grapes ... special luck and inner enjoyment
17. black point ... coming accident
18. double eagle ... if high or near to "Näpfgen" (?) it means lucky near marriage
19. double eagle ... if low or near to bottom of "Näpfgen" (?) it means not reasonable hope
20. messenger on foot, who brings a letter ... bad news
21. rose ... honor and good hop on future luck
22. cross ... trouble, sickness, danger and occasionally death
23. garden ... pleasant conditions
24. bouquet of flowers ... love of a good friend
25. dove ... good luck in games
26. fishes ... others tell bad stories about oneself
27. worms ... disrespect and slander by others
28. anchor ... hope
29. small child ... fatherhood
30. stork ... shifting, locomotion, travel
31. ships ... richness and good income
32. heart, within an apple ... noble character
33. heart, within many points ... changing character
34. high tower ... long life and happy age
35. if the signs are higher ... the things announced will arrive in near future
(35.) if the signs are near bottom, there are occasionally numbers (of days or months)


In the game "Spiel der Hoffnung" the position 24 (heart) is related to 28 (young man) and 29 (girl), which can be recognized as the "love story" in the game of hope.
In the "coffee reading" scheme appears here the word "love" (24 - which has a single appearance in my analyzed text) and the anchor as the sign of hope (that's the hope of the young man for a girl ... position 28) and fatherhood (that's what the girl - position 29 - is good for).

In the rules given by British library ...
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/s ... search_the
... relevant passage 24-29 looks this way:

Image


I translate:
24. Who gets this HEART [in other words: whose playing figures stops at position 24] will offer it to the young man (28), or to the young girl (29). If the person, who had reached this field (24), is a "Frauenzimmer" (if she is female), so she moves to 28 (the young man), if it is a "Mannsperson" (if he is male), he will move to 29 (the young girl).
...
28. This young man leads to the sun of Hope (= 31). But if one had come to 28 by the heart, one doesn't move, but has to wait the next dice throw.
29. This girl leads to No. 32. But if one had come to 29 by the heart, one doesn't move, but has to wait for the next dice throw.
Well, the major detail of the game is, that when you reach No. 35, that you have won the game. And a detail of general dice throws is, that you have with two dice more often a 7 (chance 6 : 36) than a 6 (chance 5:36), and cause 35 - 7 = 28 and 35 - 6 = 29, it's evident, that female players get here a small advantage ... so that's the meaning of the rule. The positions at 31 (you need a 4 to reach 35 ... chance 3 : 36) and 32 (chance 2 : 36) are less good. So it's indeed of value, when you come to position 24, especially, when you're female.

From this arrangement one might perceive, that early coffee reading rules influenced the Spiel der Hoffnung.

***************

Another influence might have been the game of Minchiate, which was known in Germany, as it appeared in the Tarock rules books of 1756.

Minchiate finishes it's number system at position 35 (Gemini) and above these are only the not-numbered Aries (Star-Moon-Son-World-Fame).
The general Minchiate as a 15-20-5 structure ...

No. 1-15 : usual Tarot cards
No. 16-35 : Minchiate cards (which appear not in Tarot)
Above : 5 Aries, not numbered

The middle block starts with 16 Hope ... which also has a good meaning in the Spiel der Hoffnung:

Image

You get 6 chips with this lucky star. Hope is often presented with a Star.

So it starts with Hope and three virtues (16-19). Then follow 4 elements (20-23). The follow the 12 zodiac signs (24-35): 24 (the important HEART in the Spiel der Hoffnung) belongs to zodiac sign Libra (which usually stands for partnership and "marriage" in astrology).
28 stands for Capricorn (good begins in astrology), 29 for Sagitarius (good ends ?)

****************

So maybe both had some influence.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: German Lenormand 1846 / Spiel der Hoffnung 1799

#20
Well, I've to add to the last post, that beside ...

1. 35/36 elements in the "Spiel der Hoffnung"
2. 35 elements in the Coffee reading system of 1763
3. 35 numbered elements in the Minchiate

... there is a 4th system, in which the number 35 has a specific role:

"Pratesi's Cartomancer" became a word, which refers to a Bolognese list of 35 Cartomancy expressions, which was presented by Franco Pratesi in 1989 in an IPCS article "TAROT IN BOLOGNA: DOCUMENTS FROM THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY". This was recently presented by us at a webpage:

http://trionfi.com/pratesi-cartomancer

The list is the following (I added the numbers, the numbers naturally present NOT an intentional row of the original finding ... as far I know it; I only use the numbers to show, that the total number of the mentioned items indeed is 35):
CARTOMANCY LIST

1. RD = L’uomo,
2. CD = Pensier dell’Uomo,
3. FC = La Donna,
4. FB = Pensiere della Donna,
5. AC = La Casa,
6. La Stella = Regalo,
7. AB = Baronate,
8. AS = Lettera,
9. AD = Tavola,
10. Angelo = Sposalizio e Accomodamento,
11. Carro = Viaggio,
12. Mondo = Viaggio lungo,
13. CB = Martello della porta,
14. Traditore = Tradimento,
15. Diavolo = Rabbia,
16. Luna = Notte,
17. Sole = Giorno,
18. Bagattino = Uomo maritato,
19. Matto = Pazzia,
20. Amore = Amore,
21. CC = Accomodamento,
22. 10S = Lagrime,
23. 10D = Denari,
24. FD = Denari,
25. Forza = Violenza,
26. FD = Signorina,
27. QB = P...na,
28. QC = Donna Maritata,
29. Morte = Morte,
30. QD = Verità,
31. Tempra = Tempo,
32. RS = Mala lingua,
33. RC = Un Vecchio,
34. RB = Un signore non ammogliato,
35. Il Vecchio = Un vecchio
Huck
http://trionfi.com

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