Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#21
Well, maybe it's a good place to summarize a few things of the very interesting last 3-4 months.

Depaulis brought this new entry to our attention, but the actual research happened
by ..
See Nerida Newbigin, ed., "I "Giornali" di ser Giusto Giusti d'Anghiari (1437-1482)" in Letteratura Italiana Antica, III, 2002, pp. 41-246.
http://www.torrossa.it/resources/an/2193293
... Nerida Newbegin in 2002. A good example, that it often takes a long time till new discoveries reach the inner circle of Tarot history researchers. Similar it's in a good part of the following documents.

1. There was the detection of the work of Arnold Esch by Depaulis, which lead to some entries about Triunfi cards imported to Rome between 1474-1478 likely from Florence around 2007. Ross detected then a later work of Arnold Esch in the web in October 2011 ...
a longer discussion about google-book-snippets of the Esch book

.... between them this exciting statement:
"... fra cui bandiere230; fino al 1464, nei registri doganali viene menzionato ancora con ogni ben di Dio: «merce minute di Milano», tele di Costanza, stamigna francese, bonette, triunfi («para 309», «para 24») ed altre carte da giocare, ..." is before
Page 63
Image
.. which talks of numbers of "309" packs of Triunfi cards imported to Rome in a single action (likely from Florence) at the end of 1464. Such high numbers of Trionfi cards NEVER had occurred before in other Trionfi card documents. It was clearly a sign, that - at least - in this year 1464 some mass production of Triunfi cards had started.

Well, we got a few snippets, and it was recognizable, that Arnold Esch had found there some gigantic research material, which, if it would be researched in more detail, would offer a lot of explanations for the development of playing and Triunfi cards in Italy during 15th century, things, about which we in our research situation can only build theories.
For Esch himself, playing and Triunfi cards had been only a "minor point between many others". He indicates, that the material, that he presents of them, were only examples. The real treasure is this archive in Rome.
We noted, that we, not living in Italy, are rather limited in our approach. We needed assistance of Italian researchers.

We asked Franco Pratesi to help us. Franco lives in Florence, but not in Rome. But, as Franco was especially interested in Florentine playing card history, Franco promised to study the Esch book (which indicated, that at least a greater part of the imports came from Florence). Well, our snippets had indicated results since 1463, but Franco found an entry of 1453.

"1453. Giovanni da Pistoia:
'12 immagine di legnio e 8 paia de triunfi da giochare';
dog.: 36 bol. (=10 duc.); reg. 48, fol. 45v, luglio."

Franco wrote - with some technical help of Trionfi.com - his first article:
http://trionfi.com/triunfi-playing-cards-rome
1453 AN EARLY ARRIVAL OF TRIUMPHS INTO ROME, 3rd of November 2011

2.

But Franco recognized, that the archive in Rome in its gigantic dimensions would mean a few years full of work. Not possible in the moment from his side.
But he promised to take some further investigation in libraries of Florence. His first experiences gave an hopeless impression ... but, researcher's luck can turn quickly, he found a lot of rather important new documents. First he stumbled about a Sicilian journal "Kalós". This had an article of Francesco Lo Piccolo, written in the year 2002 and it contained the following dates ...
1482: Franco Olivier from Malta was fined because he had been found to play the forbidden game of naibi or carte.
1485: Death of Raimondo de Sezana, French. He had a factory of playing cards in Palermo.
1562: Vincenzo Siviglia produces playing cards in Palermo, San Francesco district.
1595: Francesco Bova becomes "arrendatore", namely he is officially charged as the responsible in the whole country of the production and trade of playing cards (with taxes going to the Regia Corte).
1630: Girolamo Sanna dies in Palermo and among the goods found at his factory there are "200 figuri di tarocchi tagliati et pinti" (200 figures [probably, but not certainly, the triumphal cards of the pack] of tarots cut and painted).
http://trionfi.com/kalos-tarocco-siciliano

... and between them the information "200 figuri di tarocchi tagliati et pinti" in 1630 in a Sicilian playing card factory. The earlier hypothesis about Tarocchi games in Sicily had been, that the game was brought to Sicily around 1662, stated by Michael Dummett, who had a special favor for the Tarocco Siciliano.
Well, this was only a sidepath.

3.

Franco made then a complex research which took 3 books ...

(1) Lorenz Böninger, Die deutsche Einwanderung nach Florenz im Spätmittelalter. Brill, Leiden-Boston 2006.
(2) Werner Jacobsen, Die Maler von Florenz zu Beginn der Renaissance, Dt. Kunstverl., München 2001.
(3) Gino Corti, Frederick Hartt, "New Documents...",The Art Bulletin, 44 (1962) 155-167.

... and the 3rd was then a successful finding, and this told us, that a Florentine painter "Filippo di Marco" had various Trionfi card commissions from a dealer of art objects, Bartolommeo di Paolo Serragli, between the years 1453-1458.
A [3]. Estranei 264, c. 226, left side
Bartolommeo di Paholo Seragli de’ dare...
E adì 10 di marzo [1452/53] f. otto, per lui a Pipo di Marcho portò contanti, sono per uno paio di trionfi richi ebe da lui. f. 8.

B [5] Estranei 264, c. 241, left side
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Seragli de’ dare...
E adì 21 di marzo f. uno largo, per lui a Filipo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti, sono per parte di lavoro gli à fato. f.1 s.4.

C [6]. Estranei 265, c. 27, left side
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Serragli de’ dare…
E adì 31 di marzo [1453] f. 5 larghi, per lui a Filippo di Marcho dipintore, portò e’ detto contanti, sono per resto di 2 paia di trio[n]fi fatogli, come dise Ghaspare da Ghiaceto. f. 5 s. 18 d. 4.

D [13]. Estranei 267, c. 35, left side
1455
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Seragli de’ dare…
E adì 29 di marzo f. quatro, portò e’ detto, sono per paghare a Filipo di Marcho, per 3 paia di trionfi e 2 paia di charte. f. 4

E [15]. Estranei 267, c. 98, left side
1455
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Seragli de’ dare…
E adì 6 di settembre f. due, per lui a Pipo dipintore, portò Giovanni di Domenicho contanti, per trionfi. f. 2.
….
E adì 20 detto f. uno, per lui a Pipo dipintore, portò Giovanni di Domenicho contanti, per trionfi. f. 1.

E adì 27 detto f. dua larghi, per lui a Pipo di Marcho dipintore, portò Giovanni di Domenicho contanti. f.2 s.6 d.7.
E adì 10 d’otobre f. uno largho, per lui a Filipo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti, per un paio di trionfi operati. f.2 s.6 d.7.
….
E adì 21 detto, L. trenta, per lui a Filipo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti: sono per resto di trionfi auti da lui insino a questo dì. f. 7 s.- d.8.

F [17] Estranei 267, c. 206
Bartolomeo di Pagolo Seragli de’ dare…
E adì 17 detto [April 1456] L. sedici piccioli, per lui a Filippo di Marcho dipintore, portò chontanti, e quali dise gli prestava per trionfi gli deve fare. f.3 s.20 d.6.

E adì 30 detto f. quatro larghi, per lui a Filippo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti, dise per parte di trionfi gl’àne a fare. f.4 s.26 d.7.

E adì 15 detto [May] L. dieci, per lui a Filippo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti, dise èrono per trionfi che da lui. f.2 s.9 d.8.

G [22]. Estranei 268, c. 217, left side
1457
Bartolomeo di Pagholo Seragli de’ dare…
E adì 17 detto [April 1, 1458] L. quatordici s. X piccioli, per lui a Filippo di Marcho dipintore, portò contanti, sono per 2 paia di trionfi. f. 3 s.10 d.6.
http://trionfi.com/filippo-di-marco
"1453-1458 Florentine triumphs by Filippo di Marco", Franco Pratesi 12th of January 2012

Well, the actual finding goes back to a research done in the 1950's and the researchers Gino Corti and Frederick Hartt, who didn't realize, that these objects were Trionfi playing cards. The article from 1962 is on the web, and it's available, if you've Jstor-access:
http://www.jstor.org/pss/3048011

Well, the Trionfi card painter Filippo di Marco, more or less unknown, made luxury Trionfi decks and from the now known number of his productions it's apparent, that he has to be evaluated as of similar rank as Iacopo Sagramoro (active as Trionfi card painter 1442-1456) and Gerardo de Andrea da Vicenza (active as Trionfi card painter 1457-1463), both working in Ferrara for Leonello and Borso d'Este. The scheme is different in Florence, Filippo works for the art dealer and this sells mainly to rather rich customers.

In older Tarot history research it was assumed, that Giovanni del Ponte alias Giovanni di Marco might have been the artist of the so-called Rothschild Tarocchi fragment.

Image


This hypothesis has formed on the basis of iconographic comparison with other known works of Giovanni del Ponte (alias Giovanni d Marco), in this case ...

Image


Now we have, that another "di Marco", Filippo di Marco, had been a real and for the moment the only full confirmed early Trionfi card painter in Florence in the years 1453-1458. If we assume, that Filippo di Marco (not much is known about him) had been a less known younger brother to the more famous Giovanni, the similarity to the works of Giovanni might reflect the "unknown condition", that Filippo had worked in the workshop of Giovanni or just imitated his brothers work.
Well, that's only suspicion ... but in this case we might suspect, that the Rothschild cards would be possibly a work of Filippo di Marco.

4.

The fourth great finding of Franco Pratesi had been in these 5 collections ...

Image


... of documentary material, which present difficult-to-read business reports ...

see:
http://trionfi.com/naibi-on-sale
1447-1449 - NAIBI ON SALE by Franco Pratesi, 27.01.2012

... of a Florentine merchant-family with the name "Puri". Between many other goods, the Puri family also sold playing cards and the records reach from September 1447 till March 1449. The number of records is considerable, there's a greater variety of different decks and further, there are some names of playing card producers known. Between the card makers is one famous name, Giovanni di Ser Giovanni nicknamed "Lo Scheggia", about which I wrote recently:
http://tarotforum.net/showthread.php?t=171021

There are some concrete points, which possibly indicate, that "Lo Scheggia" might have been possibly the artist or a related artist of the Charles VI Tarocchi deck and the similar Ursino cards:

Image

http://expositions.bnf.fr/renais/arret/3/index.htm
Charles VI: World

Image

Ursino cards: World

Here a "Lo Scheggia" Cassone painting:

Image

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: ... A20987.jpg

And here a detail from the unusual Temperance in the Ursino cards:

Image


The blond and locked hair, the facial expression and the rather special way to present the female breasts give the impression, that it might be from the same painter.

A further interesting point is the date: September 1447 - March 1449. Before Franco's new result my impression had been, that a period of stronger playing card prohibition reigned in 1440s and endured till c. 1450, when we get allowances for specific games in the rules.

Now it's the impression, that at least in the observable period since September 1447 the prohibition broke down.
I suspect a context to the death of Filippo Maria Visconti in August 1447, which was preceded by the death of pope Eugen IV in spring 1447 (Eugen had a strong relation to the Franciscans, and the Franciscans preached excessively against playing cards; Filippo Maria Visconti was the arch enemy of Florence, and it might be that the earlier prohibition was broken to a sort of amnesty according some general Florentine enjoyment about an expected better future with the following Ambrosian republic in Milan.

The statistic of the sales looks unusual and not very balanced, the big sales had been autumn and winter 1447/1448.

1447 Sep - 2 in dozen (cheap) - 12 single decks (much more expensive)
1447 Oct - 13 in dozen (cheap) - 11 single decks (much more expensive)
1447 Nov - 16 in dozen (cheap) - 16 single decks (much more expensive)
1447 Dec - 4 in dozen (cheap) - 2 single decks (much more expensive)
1448 Jan - 11 in dozen (cheap)
-
1448 Mar - 3 in dozen (cheap) - 8 single decks (much more expensive)
-
-
1448 Jun - 0.5 in dozen (cheap)
1448 Jul - 18 in dozen (cheap)
-
-
1448 Oct - 4 in dozen (cheap)
-
-
-
-
1449 March 0.5 in dozen (cheap)


***********************************

Franco published some more articles at ...

http://trionfi.com/es00

So there's a lot of revolutionary development just in the last months. As it could be seen, it often are not the very old documents, which bring the great success in research, but just the coordination of already existing researches, which just haven't reached the inner circle of Tarot and playing card researchers ... well, perhaps this has the reason, that there are not enough of them.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#22
From Treccani http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/giu ... ografico)/

I read :
quanto rimane delle sue memorie, pervenuteci in più copie parziali e riassuntive, databili tra il tardo XVI e il XIX secolo. Sono noti al momento cinque diversi manoscritti: Nuove Accessioni 982 (pp. 1-285) e il II.II.127 (cc. 33-140), i due testimoni più autorevoli, entrambi della Bibl. nazionale di Firenze; il II.III.88 (cc. 96-119), della stessa biblioteca; il Manoscritti 161 (fasc. 5), dell'Arch. di Stato di Firenze; e il Fonds lat. 11887 (cc. 273r-274v), della Bibliothèque nationale di Parigi.
what is left of his (Giusti's) memories, in several partial and recapitulatory copies, (are) datable from the late XVI and the XIX century. We know at the moment 5 differnt manuscripts : Nuove accessioni 982 (p.1-285) and the II.II127 (cc. 33-140), that are the two most authoritative witnesses, both at the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze - the II.III.88 (cc.96-119), from the same Biblioteca; manuscripts 161 (fasc.5) at the Archivio di Stato di Firenze; and the Fonds lat. 11887 (cc.273r-274v) at the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris.

It confirms my first feeling that the sentence about trionfi does not belong to mid XV century Tuscan. That sentence could be reported or transcribed or something.

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#24
Recently: a new articles of Franco Pratesi to the theme "Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot"
(including some reflection on this discussion)

1440 - STUDIES ON GIUSTO GIUSTI, 09.07.2012
http://trionfi.com/es47
*** about Giusto Giusti and the now oldest Trionfi document from September 1440

******************

Another new article from Michael J. Hurst (August 2013) to the same theme
http://pre-gebelin.blogspot.de/search?u ... results=13
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#25
An entry for 16 September, 1440, reads (p. 66):

Venerdì a dì 16 settembre donai al magnifico signore messer Gismondo un paio di naibi a trionfi, che io avevo fatto fare a posta a Fiorenza con l’armi sua, belli, che mi costaro ducati quattro e mezzo.

Friday 16 September, I gave to the magnificent lord sir Gismondo, a pack of triumph cards, that I had made expressly in Florence, with his arms, and beautifully done, which cost me four and a half ducats.

"Gismondo" is Sigismondo Malatesta.
When I read this, I tried to transport myself back to then, and wondered why at the time of the entry, someone would say that I had made expressly in Florence.
It indicates to me, that they were usually made elsewhere, but for this occassion (what ever it was) Florence was the choice over somewhere else.
The entry was not made for us some hundreds of years later.
Why choose Florence? Was it Political? Style? An indication of exclusivity? Where the artist lived? If so, the Artist- why not mention the name, as that might give extra Kudos? Was it that he would not get cards from say- a Sforza controlled area?
Then when Sforza asked his secretary to get cards of the best- he did not specify a particular type of Trionfi, and there implied the expectation the secretary would know what was meant. So that also impled a sort of Standard type.
This is why I am not sure that Florence is the place of origin.
~Rosanne
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#26
Lorredan wrote:
An entry for 16 September, 1440, reads (p. 66):

Venerdì a dì 16 settembre donai al magnifico signore messer Gismondo un paio di naibi a trionfi, che io avevo fatto fare a posta a Fiorenza con l’armi sua, belli, che mi costaro ducati quattro e mezzo.

Friday 16 September, I gave to the magnificent lord sir Gismondo, a pack of triumph cards, that I had made expressly in Florence, with his arms, and beautifully done, which cost me four and a half ducats.

"Gismondo" is Sigismondo Malatesta.
When I read this, I tried to transport myself back to then, and wondered why at the time of the entry, someone would say that I had made expressly in Florence.
It indicates to me, that they were usually made elsewhere, but for this occassion (what ever it was) Florence was the choice over somewhere else.
The entry was not made for us some hundreds of years later.
Why choose Florence? Was it Political? Style? An indication of exclusivity? Where the artist lived? If so, the Artist- why not mention the name, as that might give extra Kudos? Was it that he would not get cards from say- a Sforza controlled area?
Then when Sforza asked his secretary to get cards of the best- he did not specify a particular type of Trionfi, and there implied the expectation the secretary would know what was meant. So that also impled a sort of Standard type.
This is why I am not sure that Florence is the place of origin.
~Rosanne

He could have simply been showing pride in having commisioned something expensive in Florence proper instead of purchasing a deck from a reseller in a provincial town like nearby Arezzo (where in fact Pratesi has shown there was plenty of card trading activity for decades befoire Anghiari).

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#27
You could well be right Phaeded- but maybe I have another answer.
http://www.coinsweekly.com/en/Archive/8?&id=114&type=a
Somewhere in this thread it was suggested that Guisto worked for 'The Taglia'
Well that 'Taglia' appears to be Angelo D'Anghiari or Angelo Piero or Agnolo know as the Angel of Anghiari who was a Captain of the Florentines who participated in the Battle of Anghiari. He was sometimes called a native of the Tiber.
His nickname was 'size' which meant the red ribbon around a metal scepter? in the shape of an 'S' It was also on the Arms of the family Anghiari-Mazzoni- and on the Horse coat of Lorenzo Taglieschi (The Old Man) the Anghiarese. It is on Sigismondo's coin I linked above.
Agnolo/Angel was given by Sigismondo farms, houses and castles with share cropping because he had wins several times- especially against The Montefeltro, enemy of the Malatesta. Malatesta had on his Horse coat the double S for himself and his mistress, that appears in the temple at Rimini. At the time of the cards been made in Florence that "S" size belonged to Francesco Sforza for a brief time until 1442. (I do not know why- Sforza had won it?)
So I guess it maybe that Guisto had to go to Florence so the correct Arms would be on his beautiful gift rather than go to maybe Cremona where the 'size' would belong to Sforza at that time.Or maybe Florence was where he could get permission to use the 'size'. I do not understand heraldry very well- and how Coats of Arms could get swapped about- but that is why I am guessing the cards were made in Florence 'expressly'
~Lorredan
Whoops- I should have said why his nickname was 'size' In Italian size, ransom and a figure like 8 is called Taglia. Apparently this soldier was measured for a uniform with a ribbon and the ribbon was said to be two lengths went around the bottom of one man and around the tum of another-S shaped. So he was a big man- hence 'size' and ribbon in 'S' shape on sheild and other arms.
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#28
Further to my post above about the Angel of Anghiari.....
In 1438 this Captain renewed his contract for 302 horses (His Company) with Florence.
In the same year Guisto began to negotiate the passage of the Conduct of the 'size' from the Taglieschi Company to the Banner of Sigismondo's Company, which might encourage the creation of a small fief for Angelo D'Anghiari, but somhow it goes to Sforza, as I said until 1442.
Here is the Arms of Taglieschi
Arms figure.jpg
(1005.9 KiB) Not downloaded yet
Here is the Arms of Malatesta on a horse.
SI Malatesta.jpg
(83.03 KiB) Not downloaded yet
Now I said earlier that the SI was for Malatesta and his Lover/then wife Isolde, but I think that is wrong, for I found this- and the fact the relationship with Isolde apparently did not start until 1446?
According to prosecutors and romantic two intertwined letters mean Sigismondo and Isotta together. Among the former, contemporary Sigmund, of course, the same Pius II, who excommunicated him and declared that the monument "does not seem a Temple of Christ, but of faithful worshipers of the devil." Among others we sample the romantic Gabriele D'Annunzio, who, incidentally, was Martinist, according to which the S initial name of Sigismund gripping the iron grip the thread-like fragility of the name Isolde. But according to others, strong historical research, the monogram was used by Sigmund abbreviated as signature, from his youth, even before then that he was taken from the Acts of love for Isolde. The custom was among the princes of that time to use their monogram the first two letters of their name are KA for Carlo Malatesta Novello NO, brother Sigismund, FE Federico of Urbino.
So perhaps my idea has legs let alone arms.
~Lorredan
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#29
Lorredan wrote: At the time of the cards been made in Florence that "S" size belonged to Francesco Sforza for a brief time until 1442. (I do not know why- Sforza had won it?)
Hello Lorredan,
if your source for this is stemmieimprese.it I am afraid you are not interpreting it correctly.
Questi, dai documenti finora trovati, appare dal 1431 al 1433 alle dipendenze di Micheletto Attendolo con una condotta di 66 cavalli[13] , poi nessuna notizia fino al 1437 quando inizia la ferma sotto Firenze con 200 cavalli[14]. Nel 1438 rinnova il contratto per 302 cavalli[15] e un anno dopo per 312[16] sempre con Firenze.

Nello stesso anno il Giusti inizia a negoziare il passaggio della condotta del Taglia sotto le bandiere di Sigismondo il quale arriverà persino a favorire la creazione di un piccolo feudo del capitano. Quest’ultimo pochi mesi dopo la battaglia di Anghiari passerà sotto il Malatesta con 300 cavalli e 400 fanti trasferendo anche la sua residenza a Rimini[17]. Sigismondo dona ad Agnolo poderi, case, castelli in mezzadria, il capitano vince per il suo signore più volte ma specialmente sui Montefeltro ( storici nemici dei Malatesta ) a Montelocco nel 1441[18]. Infine il Taglia fa una breve ferma sotto Francesco Sforza fino al 1442,  poi più nulla fino alla morte, come racconta il Taglieschi, avvenuta a Rimini all’età di 52 anni[19] con esequie di gran pompa poco frequenti al periodo. Era il 1444 all’incirca l’anno della medaglia del Pisanello.
Angelo, from the documents we currently know, worked for Micheletto Attendolo, with an army of 66 horsemen, from 1431 to 1433. Then we have no news until 1437, when he begins working for Florence with 200 horsemen. In 1438 he renews his contract for 302 horseman and one year later for 312, always with Florence.

In the same year, Giusti begins to negotiate the passage of Taglia's army under the banners of Sigismondo, who will also favour the creation of a small fief for the captain. [Angelo], a few months after the battle of Anghiari, passes to Malatesta with 300 horsemen and 400 footmen, moving house to Rimini. Sigismondo donated to Angelo in sharecropping farms, houses and castles. The captain wins many battles for his lord, in particular on the Montefeltro (historical enemies of the Malatesta) in Montelocco in 1441. Finally, Taglia briefly works for Francesco Sfroza until 1442. Then nothing until his death, as told by Taglieschi, which occurred in Rimini, at the age of 52 years, with pompous funerals that were uncommon at the time. It was 1444, more or less the same year as Pisanello's medal.



I completely agree that it makes sense to interpret the “S-I” device as the initials of Sigismondo.

Re: Florence 1440 - New Earliest Reference to Tarot

#30
marco wrote: I am afraid you are not interpreting it correctly.
Good grief! I certainly got that wrong...someone told me it takes an age to learn Italian correctly. See what happens when I took a step to far for my ability! Thanks for putting me right.
I thought he (Guisto) was negiotiating the 'size' not route of the army...that is a big mistake :(
I could not understand the figure/size been with Sforza... instead the Taglia works for Sforza...Lol that is terrible.

I completely agree that it makes sense to interpret the “S-I” device as the initials of Sigismondo.
Well given this correction- does it hold water that Guisto would speak of Florence as the place he had the cards made, because of this muddle with the Arms and Sigismondo's Intials? The Angelo Captain with the similiar arms certainly was a Florentine employee.
Or does another fantasy bite the dust... :)
~Lorredan
The Universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.
Eden Phillpotts

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