Re: Trento: Casa Rella and Casa

#21
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:I find these two triumphal scenes to be good formal or structural analogues to how I imagine the Tarot trump sequence was intended to be read. I like to think that the Tarot's creator also wrote a verse explaining the choice of cards in the sequence.
Hello Ross,
I would like to know more of what you think of the parallel between these triumphs and Tarot. Here are my fuzzy considerations about the subject:

The structure of the 3 Trento triumphs seems to be something like:
* the first figures are preconditions for the manifestation of the main concept of the allegory
* the chariot is driven by a concept closely related to the main one: possibly the main cause of its prominence
* the main concept of the allegory is something desirable, represented as the king/queen of the chariot
* the last figures are consequences or events that necessarily follow the prominence of the main concept

The moral is something like: all good/pleasant things are followed by bad/unpleasant things. I agree that the structure and the moral is similar to that of the second, central section of the trump cycle, in which Fortune and Time play an important role (as is these frescos). The second section begins with the pleasures of Love and Triumph and end with Treason and Death. But in the central section of Tarot there is no single desirable thing that could be labelled the Main Concept: the main concepts are the "neutral" powers of Fortune and Time.

I also like the idea of verses explaining the tarot allegory. I think such a complex allegory must have had a written form, and poetry is so closely interwoven with the history of early Tarot that it is a very tempting idea :)

Re: Trento: Casa Rella and Casa

#22
Here are my complete transcriptions and translations. The allegories are referenced according to this image that Michael Hurst sent to me a while ago (from “Trento Città del Concilio” by Aldo Gorfer).
rella.jpg
rella.jpg (63.05 KiB) Viewed 15995 times
image of the whole house from a previous post

1. Triumph of Love

Divitiae ducunt et forma et gratia currum.
Segnities regit has regi astant saevities et
suspitio rex ipse amor est quem tempore serus
et dolor et tristis pudor et mors atra sequuntur.

Riches, Beauty and Grace lead the chariot.
Sluggishness drives, before the king there are
Anger and Suspect, the king is Love himself who is followed by
slow Time, Pain, sad Shame and dark Death.

2. Triumph of Truth

verum longa dies atq experientia clara
luce vehunt. harum est virtus quae flectat habenas
addunt se hostile, his odium, ignorantia vulgus

Long days and experience carry truth with a bright
light. It is virtue who stirs their reins.
Hostile hatred against them, ignorance and vulgarity follow.

3. Triumph of Abundance

vecta triumpha[n]ti rerum est hoc copia curru.
quam vitae antevenit discrimen dexteristasq
et labor haecq regens fortuna, hanc tempus, aegestas,
invidia et diro sequitur discordia bello

This is the abundance of things, carried on a triumphal chariot.
She is preceded by the discernment of life, dexterity
and labor. Those are ruled by fortune. She is followed by time, poverty,
envy and discord with dire war.

4. Time (a man eating a knife)

"Omnia consumo muto mortale quod … humana impello singula tempus edax".

“I devour everythng, I change all mortal things. voracious time, overthrowing all human affairs”

5. Experience (a woman holding two babies)

“Cuncta docens ego sum rerum experientia. Fictum aut mendax quod sit sola probare oveo”

Teacher of everything, I am the experience of things. I am the only one who attends to proving if something is false or lying.

6. Ladder of virtue (a man climbing a ladder)

“celsa animus petere est teneat nisi foemina saeva pauperies premat hinc hinc libidina(?) trahat”

The soul would desire the highest things, if it was not held by the cruel woman,oppressed by poverty on one side, pushed by desire on the other.

7. Conscience (a woman faced by the head of an angel)

“Quicquid agis volvisq animo pravisq [bonisq?] tibi tunc testem semper adesse puta”

Whatever of good or bad you wish in your soul, at that time remember that there always is a witness with you.

8. Justice (woman hitting an ass-headed man)

“... mala qui peragit ivet hic me vindicare(?) … bona qui meritum hic me tribuent”

Who accomplishes bad deeds helps me in giving a punishment, those who accomplish good deeds will give me credit

9. Obedience (woman with a yoke)

this one is missing...
“.... ecce dies”

10. Temperance (woman with two purses)

“... cives (?) nimis hic auro nimis incubat ille … medium prudens inter utrumque tene[t]”

“Here one [spends] too much, there another sits on too much gold. The prudent man stays in the middle between the two”

11. Fate? (a bearded man holding a dish)

“divitias tribuoq adimoq huius(?) … deferor hic persto longius …. no ...“

“I assign and withdraw riches, … here I transfer, I last longer ….”

12. Woman, man and child

“qui mercator eram dives nunc dicor egenus
dum nec quod tulit hic pr[a]estat et ille negat”

“I was a rich merchant, now they call me poor
until what took away does not give back and that one denies”

13. Devotion (two men offering incense to Jupiter)

“nubila discutiunt data dona et fulminis iram
iratos flectunt et data dona deos”

“offered gifts dissipate both the clouds and the anger of lightning
offered gifts also soften the angry gods”

14. Prudence (a standing woman)

“...re quae fatum possum prudentia c...
..ccunq voles me duce c... viam”

“I am prudence … and [I know?] fate
… if you want so, I will lead you [on your?] way”


15 Suspicion (woman with cornucopia)

“cuncta mihi suspecta toto ..ecunq dol[osa?]
materiam qu[a]ero hinc in mea damna sagax”

“All things are suspicious to me, everything and everyone is deceitful.
I am smart at my own damage when I look for proofs”

16. Freedom and happiness (a man holding two symbols in his hands)

“altera letitiam libertatem altera monstro
conveniunt placido huic utraq dona deo”

“I show happiness in one hand and freedom in the other.
Both gifts come together with the favour of god”

17. Fortune (naked woman with sail)

“[il]la ego sum ex alto qu[a?] nunc evertam[?] regna
…. soleo ex imo tollere multa gradus”

“I am she who destroys(?) kingdoms.
I use to rise very high the things that were at the bottom”

The best cognate for the middle section?

#23
Thanks for those translations, and for bringing the Casa Rella frescoes to our notice, Marco.

I've been thinking about this "Triumph of Love" (so-called; it IS Love's chariot, although Death is the final image).


http://www.rosscaldwell.com/images/triu ... foamor.jpg

(Although the scene moves from right to left, the caption reads it from left to right, as if it were a procession passing by.)

The images on the Chariot puzzled me:


http://www.rosscaldwell.com/images/triu ... fo1det.jpg

The figure driving the chariot, holding the reins, with his chin on his hand, is obviously "sluggishness" or "sloth".

The text then says that "saevities" (saevitia; rage, cruelty) and "suspitio" (suspicio) are in front of the King, and that the King is Love himself.

So provisionally, I identified Cupid as the King. Then, the standing woman who appears to be pulling a baby's hair and even biting it must be saevitia. But where is suspicio? The reclining woman with two flaming cornucopiae seems to be sitting in the place of the King... so I went looking for iconography of suspicio, without finding anything.

More and more, it seemed that the reclining woman has to be Venus, the mother of Cupid, and that together they are rex ipse amor, the King, Love himself. So two personifications become one.

But, there is no one else on the car who can answer to suspicio. I have to think then that the standing woman, in contrast to the Venus-Cupid pair, is one image standing for two. She is both rage and jealousy. I think this is the only plausible reading of the chariot scene. What do you (or anyone else) think?

The reason I retitled the post is because I still find this sequence to be the best cognate for Tarot's "middle section", Love to Death. It is a century later and obviously telling a different story, but it is telling it in the same manner - single personfications - and with many of the same images, as the Tarot trumps. For Riches, Beauty and Grace, let us say some of the gifts of a good life, the Tarot instead uses the three virtues to remind us of the rewards they bring. Tarot also inserts Fortune (which is present elsewhere on the Casa Rella wall), to show that none of these "possessions" can be relied on; Fortune can and probably will take them, either by Time (or Old Age) or Treachery.

Another interesting thing about the fresco is the personification of "tristis pudor", which you have translated, properly I think, as "sad shame." Pudor is indeed modesty or shame (as in bashfulness), but with the adjective tristis added, and the aspect of the visual image as being full of regret, I think the stronger sense of "shame" is very strongly implied. "Sad modesty" makes no sense, either conceptually or in light of the iconography. This brought to my mind Moakley's interpretation of the Hanged Man as a Shame Painting.

To me the juxtaposition of Time and Shame or Disgrace of some sort in both this fresco and in Tarot, is very striking. And in both they are followed immediately by Death.

The accompanying inscription makes me think that Tarot had something like that too. A skeletal narrative, with a few fixed points. Some of the details, like the exact order of Riches, Beauty and Grace, or even Time and Shame, are not important; what is important is that they are in that section - leading, or following, the chariot. And in my theory of the Ur-Tarot, I think it is important that the Virtues are before the Wheel of Fortune, but I don't think it is important what order they appear in.

The position of the Chariot is arguable, even from an A or Southern perspective, since both before and after the virtues is known (and even, in Florence, after Fortune). I think eveyrone knows that I favour the Bolognese order, which is the same as the Tarot de Marseille - Love-Chariot-Virtue(s).
Image

Re: The best cognate for the middle section?

#24
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote: The images on the Chariot puzzled me:


http://www.rosscaldwell.com/images/triu ... fo1det.jpg

The figure driving the chariot, holding the reins, with his chin on his hand, is obviously "sluggishness" or "sloth".

The text then says that "saevities" (saevitia; rage, cruelty) and "suspitio" (suspicio) are in front of the King, and that the King is Love himself.

So provisionally, I identified Cupid as the King. Then, the standing woman who appears to be pulling a baby's hair and even biting it must be saevitia. But where is suspicio? The reclining woman with two flaming cornucopiae seems to be sitting in the place of the King... so I went looking for iconography of suspicio, without finding anything.

More and more, it seemed that the reclining woman has to be Venus, the mother of Cupid, and that together they are rex ipse amor, the King, Love himself. So two personifications become one.

But, there is no one else on the car who can answer to suspicio. I have to think then that the standing woman, in contrast to the Venus-Cupid pair, is one image standing for two. She is both rage and jealousy. I think this is the only plausible reading of the chariot scene. What do you (or anyone else) think?

The reason I retitled the post is because I still find this sequence to be the best cognate for Tarot's "middle section", Love to Death. It is a century later and obviously telling a different story, but it is telling it in the same manner - single personfications - and with many of the same images, as the Tarot trumps. For Riches, Beauty and Grace, let us say some of the gifts of a good life, the Tarot instead uses the three virtues to remind us of the rewards they bring. Tarot also inserts Fortune (which is present elsewhere on the Casa Rella wall), to show that none of these "possessions" can be relied on; Fortune can and probably will take them, either by Time (or Old Age) or Treachery.
Hello Ross,
I agree with the interpretation you propose: the woman on the throne makes part, together with Cupid, of the allegory of Love. This is consistent with what we see in the other two triumphs: the main subject of the allegory sits on the throne.
We are left with the missing "jealousy", which maybe is just missing, or could have been conflated with cruelty. Being “devoured by jealousy” or suspicion is a common metaphor in Italian.

A couple of years ago, I exchanged a few emails about this fresco with Michael J. Hurst. Among the images we discussed as analogues of the naked woman sitting on the throne, there was this Allegory of Happiness by Bronzino, which also includes other elements that appear in the tarot Trumps.

Image
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Re: Trento: Casa Rella and Casa

#25
Thanks for the Bronzino picture, Marco.

I can see its attraction as a vague Tarot trump parallel. Where the trump sequence is read sequentially, "horizontally", this is read from all directions, toward the center.

Below the personfication of Happiness, various vices have been subordinated. I see folly, perhaps gluttony and sloth. Then a "misfortune", perhaps the bald old man is Old Age. Fortune and Opportunity are conflated (as often appears), and is also subordinated.

On either side of Happiness are two cardinal Virtues - Prudence (holding a globe) on her right, Justice on her left. Little Cupid appears harmless enough, and also seems to point to an identification of Happiness with a "good" Venus, Love. Perhaps we can read Charity into it. Happiness is holding the Caduceus, which should mean wisdom, I suppose. In the other the Cornucopia.

She is being crowned with the triumphal wreath, accompanied by an angel trumpeting her glory.
Image

Re: Trento: Casa Rella and Casa

#26
hm ...
Bronzino worked for the Medici, mid 16th century .... and he was in Florence
The Caduceus was also the symbol of the "Medici" (physicians).
In early 16th century Florence had a special favor for a special type of Caritas, which was presented with a sort of Cornucopia. There was a column with her on a central place, as far I remember. It had an own virtue name, but my mind avoids to give the Latin name ... :-)
Maybe Bronzino attempted to merge more than one virtue content in this figure.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Trento: Casa Rella and Casa

#27
Huck wrote:hm ...
Bronzino worked for the Medici, mid 16th century .... and he was in Florence
The Caduceus was also the symbol of the "Medici" (physicians).
In early 16th century Florence had a special favor for a special type of Caritas, which was presented with a sort of Cornucopia. There was a column with her on a central place, as far I remember. It had an own virtue name, but my mind avoids to give the Latin name ... :-)
Maybe Bronzino attempted to merge more than one virtue content in this figure.
Right. The caduceus may then be a direct allusion to the ruling family, indicating the benefices that flowed from their government.

I know nothing of the painting or its circumstances beyond what is written on this thread.
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Re: Trento: Casa Rella and Casa

#28
I found "Felicity" as a name for this figure here ...

http://www.abcgallery.com/B/bronzino/bronzino125.html

... and indeed Felicitas was a Roman goddess and their attributes are as given at the picture: Caduceus and the Füllhorn.
As described here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felicitas

And I learned, that they have a church with this name in Florence. The "2nd oldest".

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Felicita,_Florence

And here I read: "In 1565, as recorded by Vasari himself, Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici decided to build the long corridor which would connect the old Priors’ Palace in Piazza della Signoria with the new Medici residence, previously property of the Pitti family; as this would pass through the church of Santa Felicita, the church began to play a very important role in the life of the Medici court. "

I saw, that the picture is dated 1565-67.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Trento: Casa Rella and Casa

#29
Recently I read a longer article to the corridor in the web and this was indeed a larger and impressive project. It still exists.

Maybe more interesting for our specific interest is the condition, that we have joined here a Prudentia with World ... :-) ... the 5x14 theory smiles. Do we have at another place a globe united with Prudentia before 1565?
Huck
http://trionfi.com

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