Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#31
Huck wrote:Letter from Filippo Maria Visconti, 25th of November 1427, installing a Chess and Table salon probably at the ducal palace Arengo "near the Cathedral" in Milan in a sort of official act ("Franciscus" at the end of the letter likely refers to the writer).

The letter was published for an exhibition in 1957. Franco Pratesi reported it to Edizione Scacco S.a.s in June 1993, anno 24, numero 6, p. 298-299. At the end of the article Franco reports an event with a master chess player at 8th of June, 1429.

Letter:

Dux Mediolani etc. Papie Anglerieque comes ac Ianue dominus. De fide et sufitientia dilecti nostri Socini de Seregnio ad nutrituram cantantum avicularum nostrarum deputati confidentis, eundem Socinum offitialem et custodem pusterle Nove syte intus portam Novam et per portam Horientalem huius urbis Mediolanum huius urbis Mediolani et ulterius tabulleriorum quorumcum tam videlicet a schachis quam a tabullis que in curia nostra Arengi teneri consueverunt, ita quod nemini liceat in dicta curia ludere ad schachos nec ad tabullas sine sui licentia nec consensu cum auctoritate, balia, arbitrio, salario, utilitatibus, commoditabibus et prerogativis ordinatis et huiusmodi officii legiptime spectantibus et pertinentibus ac per Comasinum de Catis nuper defunctum, qui dictum presidebat offitium, licite habitis et perceptis a die obitus ipsius Comasini in antea usque ad beneplacitum nostrum harum serie constituemus, deputamus et facimus, mandantes universis et singulis ad quos spectat possitque spectare quatenus dictum Socinum in possessionem dicti offitii ponant et inducant positumque manuteneant et deffendant sibique ad ipsum exercendum offitium auxilium prebeant et faverem necmimus de dictis salario, utilitatibus, comoditatibus et prerogativis cum integritate respondant et fatiant responderi et quia dictus Socinus habens cure avicularum nostrarum et aliis servitiis nobis gratis intendere dictum offitium personaliter exercere non possit, contentamur dictoque Socino concedimus ut loco sui deputare possit (?)ad(?)que deputet personam idoneam que dictum offitium exerceat loco sui. In quorum testimonium presentes fieri et registrari iussimus nostrique sigilli munimime roborari . Datum mediolani, die xx quinto novembri MCCCC vigesimoseptimo, sexta indictione.

Franciscus
Thank you VERY much Huck! Excellent. I'll try to lodge this information somewhere in my theatre of memory, which is a good deal more orderly than my physical study.

Can you tell us what the 1957 exhibition was called, and what the name of the catalogue is? (the publication of the exhibition I mean)
Image

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#32
"Giochi e passatempi nei secoli passata" (name of exhibition and of catalog), organised by "Direzione dell'Archivio Storico Civico e della Bibliotheca Trivulziana in collaboration with "l'Ente Manifestazioni milanesi". Catarina Santaro was curator of the catalog, a Raccolta Barratelli more for the exhibition, as far I get it.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#33
Huck wrote:"Giochi e passatempi nei secoli passata" (name of exhibition and of catalog), organised by "Direzione dell'Archivio Storico Civico e della Bibliotheca Trivulziana in collaboration with "l'Ente Manifestazioni milanesi". Catarina Santaro was curator of the catalog, a Raccolta Barratelli more for the exhibition, as far I get it.
Okay, thanks. I knew this one from Berti; it also has the quote of Filippo's prohibitions. I should get it.

The title should be spelled "Giuochi e passatempi"; the editor is Santoro.
Image

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#34
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:
Huck wrote:"Giochi e passatempi nei secoli passata" (name of exhibition and of catalog), organised by "Direzione dell'Archivio Storico Civico e della Bibliotheca Trivulziana in collaboration with "l'Ente Manifestazioni milanesi". Catarina Santaro was curator of the catalog, a Raccolta Barratelli more for the exhibition, as far I get it.
Okay, thanks. I knew this one from Berti; it also has the quote of Filippo's prohibitions. I should get it.

The title should be spelled "Giuochi e passatempi"; the editor is Santoro.
Franco has the title as I gave it, Santaro was my typo, Santoro is correct.

The English wiki article to Bianca Maria Visconti, likely written at least partly by Kleio.org (Mona-Lisa-theory, many pictures, author Maike Vogt-Lüerssen ) notes Santoro with "Here the version by Caterina Santoro (see References, who had access to original documents of the time in the Trivulzio Library in Milan, has been preferred" and refers to ...

Caterina Santoro, Gli Sforza. La casata nobiliare che resse il Ducato di Milano dal 1450 al 1535, Lampi di Stampa 1999
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#35
For the date of 25th of November 1427 (foundation of the chess club) it's of interest to have a look, what else happened in Milan around this time:

Storia di Milano
http://www.storiadimilano.it/cron/dal1426al1450.htm
1427 7 aprile
Muore a Treviglio Uberto Decembrio, viene sepolto a Milano in S. Ambrogio. L'epitaffio in greco e latino viene dettato dal figlio Pier Candido. I Decembrio risiedevano in via Caminadella.

1427 20 maggio
Nella guerra contro Venezia i Milanesi sono sconfitti a Brescello.

1427 7 agosto
La flotta viscontea sul Po è distrutta dai Veneziani.

1427 12 ottobre
Battaglia di Maclodio. Il Carmagnola e Niccolò da Tolentino sbaragliano l'esercito milanese, al comando di Carlo Malatesta. Niccolò Piccinino, Guido Torelli e Francesco Sforza fuggono rompendo l'accerchiamento. Vengono fatti diecimila prigionieri su diciottomila uomini, ma il Carmagnola si limita a spogliarli delle armi, rimettendoli in libertà.

1427 2 dicembre
Filippo Maria Visconti, stretto tra due fuochi, è costretto a fare la pace con Amedeo VIII di Savoia. Promette di sposare Maria di Savoia. Vercelli passa ai Savoia.
Visconti had some disappointments at the battlefields.
Further one has to observe the battles of Visconti in Italy in context, so, as condottieridiventura.it gives them

1421: 1 Milanese victory
1422: 1 victory
1423: 2 victories
1424: 1 victory
1425: 4 victories
1426: 2 victories
1427: 2 victories,

then in July 1427 the first loss since many years at the battle of CREMONA/PIZZIGHETTONE/CASTELSECCO (leading general at the other side Carmagnola, who earlier had worked for Filippo)
"Veneziani: 8000 fanti. Durata: 4/8 ore. Attacco visconteo ad un campo fortificato, respinto dai veneziani dopo alcune perdite iniziali. Mischia confusa senza vinti e vincitori. Polvere fitta che impedisce ai soldati di riconoscersi. Fra i viscontei sono catturati 500/700 cavalli. Molti i morti d’ambo le parti."

and in October 1427 the second loss in the battle of MACLODIO (oppsing general: again Carmagnola)
"Veneziani: 12000 cavalli, 6000 fanti; viscontei: 18000 cavalli, 8000 fanti. Durata: 6 ore. I viscontei sono attirati su una strada elevata a guisa di argine, intorno alla quale, tra le paludi circostanti, si alzano qua e là delle macchie poste su un terreno più sodo dove il Carmagnola pone in agguato arcieri e balestrieri. La via della ritirata è, da ultimo, preclusa da una colonna di 2000 uomini che ha in precedenza occupapa la strada. I veneziani fanno 10000 prigionieri (fra i quali 4000 cavalli); tutti sono subito liberati secondo il costume dei tempi. Nelle mani dei vincitori cadono anche tutti i carriaggi."

and in November 1427 the battle of Pontoglio, another loss against Carmagnola
and in December 1427 a loss against Genova

****************************************************************

In this series of bad adventures (especially the experience of Maclodio: 10.000 Milanese prisoners) in 1427 Filippo Maria Visconti might have thought, that his condottieri should learn a little basic of the strategies of war and he offered chess lessons in Milan ... that might be the context of the document.
Interesting is also, that the decision for the marriage with the Savoy princess was born in this difficult situation.

Also one starts to wonder, if the experienced Martiano da Tortona and Uberto Decembrio (both dead at the begin of the losses) had any "wise" influences on Visconti's battle luck before.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#36
http://books.google.com/books?id=t65ydR ... ae&f=false
Page 1

Image


Dutch wikipedia
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walewein_en_het_schaakbord

Dutch edition with Dutch comments
http://books.google.com/books?id=M09jmO ... &q&f=false

jstor-article
http://www.jstor.org/pss/1253647

Walewein is Dutch for Gawain
http://www.let.uu.nl/alw/ARTHUR/College ... rch%29.htm

Gawain-page
http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/gawmenu.htm#med

The Walewein story might be meant ironic.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#37
Short list of historic chess events
http://www.logicalchess.com/info/history/0-1799.html

I've reduced the collection considerably and kept that, what I thought interesting enough in the moment. The list is only a spotlight and occasionally rather wrong with the dates. Nonetheless it creates a sort of overview.
I'm astonished, that even in 14th century Chess had a lot to do with prohibitions, especially for the clergy. Perhaps there is a sort of explanation, wy Petrarca didn't mention chess in his wok (he belonged to the clergy). Perhaps the entry: "1420 German king (= Sigismondo) abandons the prohibition of chess." had been a greater signal, after this time chess prohibition seems to have stopped.

Interesting is also, that Charles the Bold of Burgundy (-1477) was called the best chess player of his time. Dito, that a Bolognese manuscript ca. 1440 gained some fame as a good chess book and my attention, however, at other place it's said, tha t it was made in 13th century.


0531 INDIA; Chess introduced into Persia from India during reign of Khusrau Nushirwan. (531-578).

0550 Chaturanga, earliest chess precursor, created in the Punjab.

0570 CHINA; Form of chess being played in China with dice.

0630 Chatrang (old Persian word for chess) developed from chaturanga.

0638 Islamic conquest of Persia changes chatrang to shatranj.

0651 Arabic conquest of Persia completed; shatranj popular.

0655 TALIB; Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib, son-in-law of Muhammad, disapproves of chess for Muslims.

0680 CANONS; 50th rule of the canons forbids chess.

0690 JAPAN; Chess prohibited in Japan by the Emperor Jito.

0735 Living chess introduced in Europe by Charles Martel (688-741).

0770 WOMEN; 1st mention of women chessplayers.

0790 CHESS PIECE; Earliest known chess piece dates to this period.

0795 CHINA; 1st reference to Chinese chess in the HUAN KWAI LU (Book of Marvels).

0800 Moors bring chess to Spain. Chess reaches Italy.

0801 Charlemagne (742-814) introduced to chess.

0820 RUSSIA; Chess introduced in Russia thru the Caspian-Volga trade route..

0850 Decimal chess invented. Board is 10 x 10. 1st use of dice in chess.

0895 GREEKS; Chess introduced to the Greeks; call it zatrikion.

0900 EUROPE; Chess introduced into Europe.

0900 INDIA; Chessplayers in india wages their fingers in chess matches.

0910 al-lajlaj (the stammerer) is the first to publish openings.

0920 Chess pieces are given Persian names.

0988 Ibn an-Nadim writes on a whole succession of leading players and chessbooks.

0999 EINSIEDELIN; Earlist known literary account of chess in Europe, the Einsiedeln Verses, Switzerland.

0999 Versus de scachis is a 98-line poem describing the game & its rules.

1000 EUROPE; Chess is widely known throughout Europe.

1000 OTTO II; The daughter of Otto II (955-983) was "won" from a chess match.

1000 RUSSIA; Chess reaches Russia from Byzantium and from the the Vikings.

1005 AL-HAKIM; Chess is banned in Egypt by al-Hakim; and all chess sets were burned.

1008.07.28 ERMENGUAD; 1st written reference to chess in Europe, from a will of Ermengaud I, Count of Urgel.

1050 GERMAN; Earliest reference of chess in the German literature, the Latin epic Ruodlieb.

1055 POEM; Chess poem, Ludus scacorum or Elgia de Ludo Scachorum, written.

1060 William the Conqueror breaks board over head of Prince of France.

1061.12 DAMIANI; Cardinal Damiani of Ostin forbids the clergy to play chess.

1066 BRITIAN; Chess introduced into Britain.

1078 ALFONSO; King Alfonso VI of Castile played chess with B. Ammar.

1078 Seville was spared from siege due to a chess game.

1080 Normans name the financial departments exchequer.

1081 ALEXIUS; Emperor Alexius I comes to power. Plays chess with his court.

1082 PERSIA; Regulations of chess in persia are published.

1090 Boards with alternating light and dark squares are introduced.

1092 IBN-EZRA; Abraham Ben Ibn-Ezra b. in Tudela, Spain. Author of Hebrew chess works.

1093 CHURCH; Chess is condemned by the eastern orthodox church.

1097 FRENCH; 1st French reference to chess.

1100 Chess becomes accepted as a regular featue of noble life.

1100 EUROPE; 1st Central European reference to chess.

1100 POLAND; Chess introduced in Poland.

1100 Shogi played in Japan.

1110 ZONARES; John Zonares, Eastern Church monk, excommunicated chessplayers.

1115 BYZANTINE; The emperor of the Byzantine empire is a chess addict.

1120 LEWIS; Oldest known chess set, the Lewis chessmen, from this period.

1125 BYZANTINE; Chess is banned in some byzantine churches.

1128 St. Bernard (1090-1153) forbids the knights templars from chess.

1130 Draughts, a variant of chess, invented in the south of France using backgammon pieces.

1150 Draughts (checkers) started in France.

1167 SPAIN; Earliest spanish reference to chess.

1190 NECKAM; Alexander Neckam devotes a chapter to chess in his treatise, On the Nature of Things.

1190 Neckam condemns chess for being frivolous.

1190 RICHARD I; King Richard I (1157-99) learns chess while on the crusades.

1195 MAIMONIDES; The rabbi Maimonides includes chess among the forbidden games.

1199 LACKLAND; John Lackland, King of England, was a keen chess player.

1200 Courier chess, played on a 12x8 board, introduced.

1200 Great chess, played on a 100 square board, introduced.

1208 SULLY; The bishop of Paris, Odo Sully, bans chess from the clergy.

1210 Morality of chess according to Pope Innocent III (1160-1216) written.

1220 DICE; Chess is no longer played with dice to determine moves.

1230 Astronomical chess introduced.

1230 Icelandic ST OLAF'S SAGA contains a chess incident. 1st appearance of chess in the Norse lands.

1240 FORBID; Chess forbidden to the clergy in Worcester, England.

1252 JOHN; THE INNOCENT MORALITY chess allegory written by John of Wales.

1254.12 St Louis IX of France restricts chess to laymen.

1255.05.08 FRANCE; Provincial Council of Beziers in France forbids chess.

1258 Mongols sacked Baghdad.

1260 HENRY; King Henry III (1207-72) instructs the clergy to leave chess alone.

1262 Russian word for chess (shakmatny) is introduced.

1273 Cotton MS is the earliest English collection of chess problems.

1275 PAWN; Option of pawn double move on the 1st move introduced in Italy.

1279 Chinese introduce new pieces to Chinese chess (siang ki)

1283 Alfonso manuscript completed. Compiled for Alfonso X, Castile King. Called Libro del Acedrex.

1290 Lombard lawyer, Guido de Baysio, formulate rules to govern chess.

1291 PECKMAN; The Archbishop of Cantebury, John Peckman, forbids chess.

1295 BONUS SOCIUS is 1st European MS using a coordinate notation.

1299 Priests were forbidden from playing chess.

1300 Cessole writes 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles'. Chess morales. (liber de moribus)

1309 HUGO; Ponce Hugo, Count of Ampurias, donates chessmen to the cathedral of Gerona.

1310 FORBID; Chess forbidden to the clergy in Germany (Council of Trier).

1320 CARDS; Playing cards introduced.

1322 KALONYMOS; Jewish rabbi, Kalonymos Ben Kalonymos, condemns chess in his Eben Hohan.

1323 CHATRANG-NAMAK written; oldest of Pahlawi works

1329 FORBID; Synod of Wurzburg, Germany forbids chess.

1330 Citadel chess invented. Extra square at each corner.

1335 Robert, King of Hungary, sent John, King of Bohemia, a chess set.

1337 Ammenhausen writes about courier chess.

1340 persian 'treasury of sciences' includes 3 chapters on chess.

1347 CESSOLIS; 1st translation of the Cessolis morality into French.

1350 Margiolano of Florence is recognized as the leading blindfold player.

1360 Les Amoureux Eschecs written. Best example of romantic allegory.

1369 Chaucer (1343-1400) writes about chess in his poem The Book of the Duchess.

1370 ARRANGEMENT; Earlist known chess puzzle called arrangement.

1370 GREGORY; Pope Gregory xi (1329-1378) is an avid chessplayer.

1374 Timur names his son shah-rukh after playing chess

1375 Charles V (1337-80) of France prohibits chess.

1380 William of Wykeleham, founder of Oxford, forbids chess.

1392 Charles VI (1368-1422) forbids chess.

1397.02.05 Louis, Duke of Orleans, purchased an elaborate chessboard.

1405 TIMUR; Mongol emperor Timur died.

1407 Louis, Duke of Orleans, died. Chessplayer.

1408 MOHAMMED; The Sultan Mohammed plays live chess in Grenada, Spain.

1410 Martin of Aragon is an avid collector of chess sets and books.

1416 Jews of Forli banned all games of chance except chess.

1420 German king abandons the prohibition of chess.

1422 Cracow manuscript states that stalemate is a draw.

1422 Cracow poem attributes the invention of chess to Ulysses.

1425 ROYAL; 1st reference to chess as 'the royal game' in Lydgates translation.

1430 Charles VII (1403-61), King of France, is a chess addict.

1437 JAMES I; King James I of Scotland was playing chess when he was murdered.

1440 CIVIS BONONIAI, collection of chess problems, incorporated in Florentine manuscript.

1450 PROBLEM; Custom of attaching to each problem an author.

1454 CIVIS; Best copy of Civis Bononiae's manuscript made. Now in Modena.

1454 Living chess played in Morostica, Italy for the hand of a lady.

1457.05 Charles, Duke of Orleans, wins a rare chess manuscript.

1460 Charles the Bold (1433-77) considered the best player of his time.

1464 statute included chessmen in a list of goods which were no onger to be imported.

1465 Charles D'Orleans d. Chess player and father of Louis XII.

1465 Orleans, Charles d' died. French prince and chessplyer.

1467 BALLET; Colonna's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili describes chess balet.

1470 INNOCENT MORALITY published. 1st printed reference to chess.

1471 Gottingen manuscript published. 1st work devoted to modern chess.

1472 HARDBACK; 1st hardback book dealing with chess published.

1472 MORALITY; 1st printing of the Gesta Romanorum morality, in Latin.

1474 Caxton (1422-1491) publishes 'the game and playe of chesse.'

1474.12 Gottingen manuscript in the hands of King Alfonso V of Portugal.

1475 CHESS; Beginning of modern chess starts in southern Europe.

1476 CHARLES; At Louvaine, Charles the Bold forbids cards & dice, but not chess.

1477 Charles the Bold died.

1480 ? Damiano, Pedro born in Odemira, Portugal. Wrote 1st chess book in Italian.

1485 GAME; 1st known modern chess game recorded.

1490 En passant is introduced.

1490 PAINTING; 1st chess painting 'the chess players,' by a Venetian artist.

1490 VIDA; Marco Girolamo Vida born.

1492 Ferdinand played chess while Columbus negotiated.

1495 BOOK; 1st practical chess book printed, by the Catalan Vicent treatise on openings.

1495 INQUISITION; During the Inquisition, living chess was played.

1495 Vicent publishes his Catalan chess book, 1st practical chess book to be printed.

1496 BOOK; Oldest surviving book dealing with practical play printed by Lucena; Repeticion de Amores.

1497 Lucena writes 1st printed book on chess playing; dedicated to Prince Juan.

1498 Mennel presents manuscript to Emperor Maximilian I that chess is a game of skill.

1500 FIRDEWSI; World's longest poem, by Firdewsi, recounts how chess was invented.

1500 JEWS; Chess becomes a recognized pastime for Jews on the Sabbath.

1500 SCACHS; The Catalan Scachs d'amor chess poem written.

1503 Firdewsi completes a chess book which includes Dilaram's mate.

1509 JAVA; 1st Portuguese expedition off Malacca. The Javans recognized chess

1510 Vida writes his poem, Scacchia Ludus, the 1st mention of a goddess of chess.

1512 BOOK; 1st chess book to be published in Italy, by Damiano in Rome. 2nd extant chess book.

1512 Damiano doesn't mention medieval chess.

1512 Damiano says chess was invented by Xerxes (Axedrez is Sp for chess).

1512 Manuscript copied by Guarini at Rome was last Italian collection of medieval chess.

1513 Vida writes chess poem Scacchia Ludus.

1516 CASTIGLIONE; Book of the Courtier written by Castiglione. Mentions chess.

1518 DAMIANO; 2nd printing of Damiano's book, Questo libro, printed in Rome.

1520 LEYDEN; Lucas von Leyden paints THE CHESSPLAYERS, showing Courier chess.

1522 VASSILI; Clergy ordered not to play chess by Vassili III.

1524 DAMIANO; 3rd printing of Damiano's book.

1525 SCACCHORUM; Unauthorized version of SCACCHORUM LIBER published in Florence.

1525 VIDA; Scacchia ludus by Vida published in Lyons; pirate version.

1527 Vida published SCACCHIA LUDUS, a famous poem on chess, Rome.


***************************

Addition to the 1440 entry CIVIS BONONIAI
http://pagesperso-orange.fr/bckg/englis ... noniae.htm
Boncampagno da Signa /disputed author
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boncompagno_da_Signa
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#38
Cusanus in "De Ludo Globi" 1462 ...

Image


... according
http://books.google.com/books?id=SNM2tj ... al&f=false

The philosophers' game: Rithmomachia in medieval and Renaissance Europe ...
By Ann Elizabeth Moyer, William Fulke, Ralph Lever (2001)

Further relations between chess and Rithnomachia

http://books.google.com/books?id=SNM2tj ... 20&f=false

... between them this (and it's really a surprize) ...

Image

Image


Image


.. cause this picture with a 14x8 board would show a game on a Rithmomachia board.



And the Courier Chess (12x8) would also be played at a Rithmomachia board.



And Courier chess and Rithmomachia seem to have both their origin in Germany. Rithmomachia was also played at a 8x16 board (two chess boards could be used)

Image


Rithmomachia board (16x8) with figures
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Chess variants 14th/15th century

#39
http://aritmomachia.blogspot.com/2004/0 ... -game.html
2. The History of Rithmomachia

In many old records Boethius or Pythagoras were presumed as the inventors of Rithmomachia, however, they only created the mathematical basis of this game.

It is certain, that the oldest written evidence of Rithmomachia was found in Wurzburg around 1030. At a competition between the cathedral schools of Worms and W?rzburg, both well-known for their leading position at arithmetics, a disputational text was written with arithmetical sequences of numbers based on 'De institutione arithmetica' of Boethius.

On the basis of these writings a monk by the name Asilo created a game - Rithmomachia - which illustrated the number theory of Boethius for the students of monastery schools.
The first outline was adapted by other scholars.

Hermannus Contractus, respected monk in Reichenau, checked the rules of the game written by Asilo, enlarged them and added music theoretical remarks. At a school in Li?ge, they worked out a way of realising the game practically not only to enhance the game itself, but also to improve the training of the students in arithmetics. (Borst 1987).

In the 11th and 12th century Rithmomachia spread through monastery schools in southern Germany and France. There the rules were collected, ordered and summarised. The rules became more extensive, and sufficient enough to be played without a teacher.

Rithmomachia was an excellent teaching aid. Gradually it was also played by intellectuals just for pleasure. In the 13th century Rithmomachia spread through France and swept over into England. The mathematician Bradwardine and some of his colleagues wrote a text about Rithmomachia, and even in the pseudo-ovidian poem 'De vetula', Rithmomachia was highly praised.

Rithmomachia reached the greatest expansion at the time of book printing. The books written about Rithmomachia had various intentions. Faber (1496) and Boissi?re (1554/56), both professors of mathematics, wrote their treatises for their students at the university of Paris.
With more details a similar evaluation of the origin of the game is given by German wikipedia:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zahlenkampfspiel

This article behaves more decisive, that Rithnomachia has its origin in Würzburg, ca. 1030 invented by Asilo, a monk, who might possible identical to Adelbero, bishop of Würzburg since 1045. According this n c. 1070 the game reached Liege and found a new established form (by an anonymous) with 8x16 fields and fixed start position, as it became standard later. The game was named "numerorum conflictus" (number fight). Some number tables were added, how this game might be won.
A further fixation took place by Odo von Tournai in 1090 - in this form it found its way to 16th century.

The article was written with much references to Arno Borst: Das mittelalterliche Zahlenkampfspiel. (Supplemente zu den Sitzungsberichten der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse 5). Winter, Heidelberg 1986.

Arno Borst (+ 2007) had been a far accepted German historian
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arno_Borst

*****************
Nonetheless we've this picture ...



... from ca. 1470-75, and a board with 14x8 fields. The players sit, as if the game is played with the 8-fields-side as the bottom (as in Rithnomachia), and chess players, who claimed the game as a chess game, wondered, why all figures seems to have the same color. However, the figures look not like Rithnomachia figures.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: sandyh and 7 guests

cron