I am impressed that the miniaturists' skill was such that they could create such detailed miniatures as the 6 PMB added cards, including preliminary sketches, in just a few hours. Perhaps they had a stamp of some kind with which to impress the tiny gold leaf patterns on the dresses. We don't know what the Ferrarese cards you cite looked like. Perhaps they were simpler, and ones the painters had done many times before in exactly the same way.A complete card deck did need about 10 days (in 1454 at Borso's court) ... so six cards might be not too much, especially if the card backgrounds possibly were already prepared. This might have been a matter of 1 day or few hours and some time to get dry colors.
I assume that the reason you brought in the Strozzi is that you are theorizing that the Moon card, along with the "Procession of the Magi" fresco, is the Medici's message of "let's bury the hatchet" to the Strozzi. If so, it is a rather obscure message. Is the woman then supposed to be the Medici, breaking their weapons? If so, why is she sad? One explanation that I have read for the similarity of imagery between the two paintings of magi processions is that the Medici meant to be showing how they could take over Strozzi initiatives for their own use and outdo them, similar to what they were doing with their legacy politically and economically.An alliance with the "Moon", Medici with Strozzi ..
You can find Ruhmer's book on Tura listed on Google by searching "Ruhmer Tura." The complete sentence in Ruhmer that Dummett (2007) quotes is (p. 27)Search for "Eberhard Ruhmer" and "Ferrara" or "Schifanoia" ... perhaps you're lucky.
For Cicognara, Ruhmer footnotes Longhi 1934, although making it clear that Longhi attributes only August to Cicognara, somehing Ruhmer disagrees with, attributing to him sections of June and July, and the ceiling and two side panels, as well (footnote 71, p. 57; he also cites his own Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte 1957, I, p. 94f.) He is of course mistaken in assigning any of the Schifanoia to Cicognara, according to today's consensus.On the north wall [of the Schifanoia] the style of a not very talented painter is predominant; the coarse mannerism which is his particular characteristic and his preference for squinting eyes in the human faces point clearly to Antonio Cicognara of Cremona.
I noticed in Roettgen's Italian Frescoes: The Early Renaissance another fresco cycle that seemed to me to reflect the same style as the six cards and the ladies at the top of the August panel at the Schifanoia: namely, the Griselda cycle originally at the Roccabianca, done for one of Francesco's condittiere, Pier Maria Rossi. Here is the scene I have in mind:
There are a few pursed lips and many high foreheads--admittedly a generic Milanese feature--that we saw in the cards and the "Triumph of Ceres" at the Schifanoia. There is also the Bembo gracefulness.
Roetggen does not say who might have painted this cycle. My Google search brought up a 1985 article by Kristen Lippincott on the astrological ceiling that is included with these frescoes. She doesn't make an attribution, but she does have an interesting footnote on the attributions that have been made (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 48 (1985) p. 44):
When Lippincott talks about "Rossi's patronage of Benedetto Bembo," she means the altarpiece signed and dated by him in 1462, originally in Rossi's Torrechiara castle. Rossi's mother Giovanna Cavalcabo, was from Cremona, and he himself became a citizen in 1466 (Roetggen p. 365). Roettgen speculates that Benedetto also did Rossi's other fresco cycle in the Torrechiara. Roetggen also speculates thatboth Benedetto and Bonifacio may have been involved. The romantic couple portrayed there is indeed reminiscent of the CY, the Brera-Brambilla, and the PMB original cards. Whether Bonifacio, as opposed to some other Bembo, was the painter is another issue.Ragghanti, "Studi [sulla pittura lombarda del Quattrocento," Critica del Arte VIII, 4, 1949], pp. 288ff, suggests the Milanese painter and designer of stained-glass windows, Niccolo da Varallo. Quintavalle (I castella del Parmense, Parma 1955, p. 49) thinks the artist might be a Lombard who combined his International Gothic tatstes with elements from Mantegna, Jacopo Bellini and the "rough style" (scabra pittura) of the Ferrarese artists of the Schifanoia frescoes. M. L. Ferrari, Giovan Pietro da Cemmo, pp. 127-28, suggests it is an Emilian, possibly Ferrarese. G. C. Sciolla ("Ipotesi per Niccolo da Varallo," Critica d'arte, n.s. XII (misprinted XIV) fasc. 78, 1966, pp. 27-36 and n.s. XIII [misprinted XII] fasc. 79, 1966, pp. 29-39) stresses the Paduan-Ferrarese elements and believes, on stylistic grounds, that the same artist painted the scenes for the month of August in the Palazzo Schifanoia--the Cremonese Antonio Cicognara. Mulazzani, Corti, pp. 155-156, agrees with this attribution. Whereas there certainly seems to be a Cremonese flavour to the Roccabianca frescoes and Rossi's patronage of Benedetto Bembo, [comma in original] is evidence of an interest in Cremonese art, the invocation of the elusive artistic personality of Cicognara only complicates matters. Cicognara's authorship of the Morgan Tarocchi is problematic, his participation in the Palazzo Schifanoia is unlikely, and any relation between these diverse works and the Roccabianca frescoes is purely generic.
On the other hand, the putti are reminiscent of the PMB Sun and World card.
If Rossi had the Bembos do one fresco cycle, then most likely he had them do the other, the Griselda, at another of his castles nearby. Benedetto is a reasonable candidate. The astrological ceiling, in that respect like the Schifanoia, might have appealed to him.
Thus all three of these works dubiously assigned to Cigognara are more credibly, although not certainly, assigned to Benedetto Bembo.
It is another question whether Bonifacio was involved in any of the works that are reminiscent of the tarot cards--or indeed whether he himself did any of the decks.
Even the attribution of the PMB original cards is uncertain. E. S. Welch, in his entry on Bonifacio Bembo in Dictionary of Art, Vol. 3 (1996), refers to a sketch on the cover of an accounts book "in the master's hand," meaning the artist who did the Lancelot illustrations and many other works in the style of the tarot decks, works attributed in Kaplan to Bonifacio. One of the first entries in the account book, on 9 April 1450, is a payment to "Magistro Ambroxo de Bembi," i.e. another member of the Bembo clan, Ambrogio. Welch adds:
A mention of Ambrogia is in the "Bembo family" entry at answers.com (taken from the Dictionary of Art). There is also a lengthy footnote about him in La pittura e la miniatura del Quattrocento a Brescia, by Marco Rossi, p. 41, in Google Books. Tolfo talks about him, too, and reproduces what I assume is the sketch (http://www.storiadimilano.it/Arte/miniatori.htm):Thus this body of highly stylized work may indeed by associated with this previously unknown member of the Bembo family. Characterizing Bonifacio's work becomes, therefore, increasingly problematic.
It looks to me like the sketch for a "Madonna of Humility." According to Kaplan (Vol 2 p. 136), there is a "Madonna of Humility" attributed to Bonifacio, now in the Museo Civico in Cremona. I have not seen a reproduction.
So it looks like all we can say about the PMB original cards is "Bembo workshop."
And I think that the same should be said for the CY. There is of course the similarity to the Lancelot illustrations, already discussed. Another example in the style of the "master" (whoever he is) is an "Adoration of the Magi" which Welch says, agreeing with Longhi, is part of a "coronation" triptych from the Cavalcobo Chapel of the St. Augustino Church in Cremona. ( Edith W. Kirsch has reputedly contested Longhi's reconstruction (“Bonifacio Bembo’s Saint Agostino Altarpiece,” in Studi di storia dell'arte in onore di Mina Gregori, Milano: Silvana Editoriale, 1994, pp. 47-50, 5 ill.). I have not seen Kirsch's article. It was Giovanna Cavalcabo-- the mother of Pier Rossi of the Roccabianca--who donated the land for the Sant'Augustino convent in return for the completion of the family chapel in the church (Kaplan Vol. 11, p. 129).
This painting has several details suggestive of the CY. The soldier's shield is a red cross on a white background, the exact reverse of the Love card. (I know the colors because the Denver Art Museum sent me a color image; but it is for my "personal use" only. So I am reproducing here Kaplan's black and white reproduction, vol. 2 p. 132.)
The cup carried by the young king is very much like the cup offered to the CY King of Cups, and the pose of the young king is similar to that of the boy offering the cup on the card.
As Kaplan points out (p. 132), the face of the young king is similar to the face of the Knight of Cups, whose cup is also similar to that of the young king.
Kaplan points out other tarot motifs in the two other paintings of the triptych, relating to both the CY and the PMB.
Another detail of this "Adoration" is noteworthy. In the background are the three kings again, this time looking for the star that will guide them. The figure in the middle is red, like the old king in the adoration scene. Two of them look one way and one the other.
This is similar to the way the figures look or point in different directions on the d'Este (Ferrara) and "Rothschild" (i.e. Bologna) cards.
This feature suggests to me that when the painting was done, the workshop was familiar with such Star cards, and probably such Moon and Sun cards as well. Perhaps the original PMB, done around the same time as the painting, had the three luminaries in the Bologna/Ferrara manner. And then later they were redone. This detail seems to support Ross's idea of Bolognese style decks pre-existing the luxury decks, at least for the Star card.