Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#321
Phaeded wrote:
19 Jun 2020, 05:27
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote: Phaeded or Mike, do you have Edith Kirsch's Five Illuminated Manuscripts of Giangaleazzo Visconti? Pages 78-86 include a discussion of Castelletto's genealogy, which would be pertinent here.
Attached.
Wow, thanks Phaeded! This is very helpful indeed. I wish we could see the British Library manuscript she notes in note 20 on p. 75.

Added - she apparently illustrates from Add. 26814 in figure 100. Is it interesting?
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Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#322
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote: I wish we could see the British Library manuscript she notes in note 20 on p. 75.

Added - she apparently illustrates from Add. 26814 in figure 100. Is it interesting?
Sort of interesting - but too damaged - Filippo's own pendant image to the whole thing is missing. The problem is the new aspect are the collateral cadet branches on either side of the main stemmata and that none of them have a title - it would be really interesting to know, for instance, if the likes of Ettore Visconti was there.


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A thought I've been pursuing, that I've just touched on previously, is that Marziano's work is a reaction or alternative to the French preoccupation with the Nine Worthies, which were clearly created under their auspices as the Worthies are book-ended by the Valois dynastic founder and the Frenchman who was the first crusading king of Jerusalem - Hector and Godfrey of Bouillon. Filippo's last "genealogical threat" was a Hector - Ettore (Kirsch's comments on p. 79 are especially relevant in this context). Pizan's Othea was written in the guise of a letter to this first Worthy, Hector, but actually dedicated to Filippo's brother-in-law, the Duke of Orleans, assassinated just five years before your date for Marziano. And I will also point out the obvious - if Marziano dates from 1412 then there is no corpus of Filippo commissions since he just took over; everything must be in context of Giangaleazzo and establishing Filippo's link to his father...and the father's commissions (hence the importance of Kirsch's work); The Visconti Hours in particular, in my opinion (more on that another time).

You need this book and you can get it as cheap as $13 here (no idea why comparable publications would be upwards of a $100): https://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing ... tion=used

Phaeded

Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#323
Phaeded wrote:
19 Jun 2020, 14:28

You need this book and you can get it as cheap as $13 here (no idea why comparable publications would be upwards of a $100): https://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing ... tion=used
Thanks, I will. Not so easy for me to get it so cheaply, though. The cheapest is a UK Ebay seller, the book is €8.34, the shipping is €11.37. Still worth it, obviously.

The first amazon.fr item ships from the US, and is listed for €26.84. I'm not terribly political about Amazon, but I'll use Ebay where possible because they take Paypal.
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Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#324
The Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze has put up both volumes in a viewer with a high magnification function. Just in case you didn't know. Meiss and Kirsch's book on the Visconti Hours is at archive.org as well - not downloadable, but "borrowable."

“The portrait of Filippo Maria (by Belbello da Pavia) on LF (Landau Finaly) 57v, though more youthful than his likeness on the Pisanello medal of about 1441, might represent him in his twenties or thirties, and therefore may have been painted at any time between 1412 and the early 1430s.”
Millard Meiss, Edith W. Kirsch, eds., The Visconti Hours (George Braziller, New York, 1972), p. 27.
https://archive.org/details/viscontihou ... 6/mode/2up

BNCF Landau Finaly 22
https://teca.bncf.firenze.sbn.it/ImageV ... 0000020835

BNCF Banco Rari 397 (Giovanni da Grassi and workshop, before 1399)
https://teca.bncf.firenze.sbn.it/ImageV ... 0000021184


http://www.rosscaldwell.com/marzianotex ... ay57v2.jpg
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Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#325
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:
19 Jun 2020, 15:52

BNCF Landau Finaly 22
https://teca.bncf.firenze.sbn.it/ImageV ... 0000020835

BNCF Banco Rari 397 (Giovanni da Grassi and workshop, before 1399)
https://teca.bncf.firenze.sbn.it/ImageV ... 0000021184

Awesome! I scored a copy of Kirsch/Meiss some years ago for 10 bucks, but I'm tired of taking pictures of their facsimiles (for what is not readily available on-line). The resolution at BNCF, OTOH, is insanely nice (and might even help clarify on the water damaged leaves in the Giangaleazzo portion). Time to redo some collaged images I've yet to post on....

Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#326
Phaeded wrote:
19 Jun 2020, 16:13
Awesome! I scored a copy of Kirsch/Meiss some years ago for 10 bucks, but I'm tired of taking pictures of their facsimiles (for what is not readily available on-line).
I need to get that one, too. But now I'm torn between the original 1972 slipcase, and the later blue-covered hardback. The latter appears to be the same size and overall quality, but the slipcase black leather looks soooo good. Price difference can vary widely. Any thoughts before I go ahead and buy either edition?
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Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#327
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:
22 Jun 2020, 12:55
Phaeded wrote:
19 Jun 2020, 16:13
Awesome! I scored a copy of Kirsch/Meiss some years ago for 10 bucks, but I'm tired of taking pictures of their facsimiles (for what is not readily available on-line).
I need to get that one, too. But now I'm torn between the original 1972 slipcase, and the later blue-covered hardback. The latter appears to be the same size and overall quality, but the slipcase black leather looks soooo good. Price difference can vary widely. Any thoughts before I go ahead and buy either edition?
I own the '72 slipcase but its navy and imitation leather (not even that - faux leather texture printed and glued to board); have not seen the other. Its fine, but like any facsimile it suffers from the high gloss of the pages (but with the new on-line images all you want are their comments, which are exceedingly helpful). Same for glossy reproductions of the PMB, for instance; when I saw them at the Morgan in NYC some 9(?) years ago I was struck by how flat the color paint was (that and how barrel-rolled, vertically, the cards had become due to age - they looked too brittle to flatten for photos, but apparently they did just that).

Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#328
Phaeded wrote:
23 Jun 2020, 15:02

I own the '72 slipcase but its navy and imitation leather (not even that - faux leather texture printed and glued to board); have not seen the other. Its fine, but like any facsimile it suffers from the high gloss of the pages (but with the new on-line images all you want are their comments, which are exceedingly helpful). Same for glossy reproductions of the PMB, for instance; when I saw them at the Morgan in NYC some 9(?) years ago I was struck by how flat the color paint was (that and how barrel-rolled, vertically, the cards had become due to age - they looked too brittle to flatten for photos, but apparently they did just that).
Okay, I'll just go for the non-slipcase reprint. I'm not made of money.

I saw the Brambilla at the Brera in 2008. They were not on display, but we got a private viewing, had to walk through a maze of corridors in the back, Except for the Issy chariot, which is still flat, I had not seen any such cards in the flesh. The first thing that struck me was the brightness of the gold and other colors, and then the CURL of the cards, it was shocking, really. I think that Bandera and others must have somehow flattened them - maybe a plate of glass? - rather than manipulated the photographs to flatten them. But the curl was really outstanding. They had not been kept in optimum conditions for 600 years, obviously, and understandably.
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Re: Marziano, the canonical virtues and "Virtues/Virginities"

#329
With Ross providing the links to hi-res scans of the BR and LF sections of the Visconti Hours I wanted to revisit this speculative post of mine regarding Marziano and the Virtues. Only Ross responded by pointing out the funeral oration/eulogy illumination of Giangaleazzo shows him surrounded by 12 virtues (some courtly ones in addition to the canonical 7 + humility; indeed the included genealogy comes in the eulogy's expansion on the virtue of magnificence). However, the 12 virtues never appear in the Visconti Hours - only the canonical one seven plus humility, in either the Giangaleazzo/BR or Filippo/LF portions.

What is clear is that the 12 virtues were Giangaleazzo's ticket to heaven - seemingly "returning" to his heavenly place, sans purgatory, as "good right" apparently extended into the post-mortem condition. I've also argued previously that the Sun trump in the PMB is partialy a curative for what Filelfo described as Filippo's neglected "funeral rites", and that that many rayed red solar head carried aloft by a cherub is Filippo's soul (the radiant sun being the Visconti symbol after all - the winged dove replaced by a cherub here), the entire ensemble being an approximation of Giangaleazzo's own 'deification' ritual in his eulogy.

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But the growing influence of Ciceronian studies (who popularized the Cardinal virtues) in the early Renaissance along with the influence of Aquinas's Summa, the seven canonical virtues took center stage even in courtly cultures such as the Visconti or Robert the Wise (Angevin) of Naples, and the courtly virtues are seldom found in favor as much as the canonical seven, especially as courtly rulers likened themselves to classical heroes and emperors as classical literature became available in translation. I presume one can already see that influence in the Visconti Hours as there are no courtly virtues. Humility, once literally depicted as the root of all virtues (in the numerous Tree of Virtues in frescoes and manuscripts), herself falls away as Aquinas decides she is merely an aspect of Temperance, except for one exception in the Visconti Hours to be discussed shortly.

I originally proposed a Florentine influence on Marziano, as a conspicuous representation of Humility with the canonical seven was found there:
Phaeded wrote:
23 Apr 2020, 00:56
Consider the possible influence of Florence on Marziano in this regard - when he was in Florence Ghiberti's "gates of paradise" on the St. John Baptistery did not yet exist; instead the Andrea di Pizano's bronze doors faced the duomo before getting relocated in 1452. Completed in 1336, these proto-Renaissance doors consist of 28 quatrefoil panels, with the twenty top panels depicting scenes from the life of St. John the Baptist, the eight lower panels depict the eight virtues of hope, faith, charity, humility, fortitude, temperance, justice and prudence. Oddly enough Filippo Visconti was interested enough in this St. John (due to his deceased namesake older brother Giovanni Maria?) to have Filelfo write a life of St. John some years later (Francesco Filelfo, “Prose e poesie volgari di Francesco Filelfo.” Atti e memorie della Reale deputazione di storia patria per le province delle Marche 5, 1901: 1–261). So perhaps the pivotal location of the Florentine doors and their relationship to a saint of some interest to Filippo contributed to Marziano's idea in overlaying the idea of the virtues, based on Marziano's earlier visit to that cultured city.

While Marziano would have been exposed to that prominent example, I did not consider equally prominent examples closer to home: Two Trecento monumental sculptures - one in Milan dedicated to St. Peter Martyr in the Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio and one in Pavia dedicated to St. Augustine - both have their Gothic edifices supported by the seven virtues plus Humility. They are essentially the same format, with the Pavia virtues attached to engaged pilasters and the Milan one using the virtues as caryatid-like pillars, reproduced below (hard to find the Theos/Humility on-line, below/right is taken from a pic of their casts in London):

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The Pavia version:
All fine and well, but did Trecento sculptures - no matter how monumental - mean anything to Filippo? In fact the only appearance of all 8 virtues on the same leaf of the Visconti Hours was on one produced in the section for Filippo by Belbello - what Kirsh/Mesiss call "Celestial Court" which features God holding the keys to heaven while "the angels implore the Deity to allow man to rise from misery to his heavenly home" (Kirsch/Meiss, no #). The virtues, to say it again, are one's "ticket" to salvation (and of course it is the Visconti who exemplify the virtues, nevermind any other account of them). Meiss/Kirsch also caveat the bottom virtue with "may" represent Humility, but she holds the same book in the crowning of Giangaleazzo in his Eulogy (back bottom right virtue), so there is no ambiguity here. I'll also point out she is placed at the bottom of the Hours leaf just as when she was the root in the Tree of Virtues, and sure enough she sits on a leafy limb, on which the other virtues sit as it branches in either direction (albeit vegetation becomes architectural - as it does throughout these hours).

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Despite Aquinas, Humility included with seven canonical virtues had not become passe' in Milan by c. 1412, perhaps due to the prominence of such religious orders as the Franciscans.

With the new hi-res images of the Visconti Hours we can view the individual virtues with more detail - Prudence's three faces are now easily recognizable, traces of St. George's red cross on Fortitude's shield can be gleaned, etc. (only Temperance's vessels have been abraded away for the most part):

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Regarding Marziano, I had tentatively linked his eight "good" Virtues/Virginities heroum per this schema (versus the flawed Riches/Pleasures -the antitheses of chaste virtue):

Marziano virtues-virginities heroum matrix.JPG
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The specific arguments for each virtue can be found further back in this thread in that original post of mine (see time stamp of first quote), but I'd like to revisit the problematic argument made for Pallas:

Pallas - Humility. Relying strictly on Marziano's text, we read "She restrained with remarkable viguor the movements of all sensate pleasures and charms" (35), which is certainly fitting with the modest virtue of Humility. Moreover, all her gifts can be attributed to someone else ("God"), the ultimate act of humility: "...they assert her birth from the head of of Jupiter. And it is right and very fittingly written, because every mode of duty, or political work, and civil business, would seem to have the beginning and birth from Jupiter himself" (ibid). Not much else to go on here and quite frankly humility fell to her because the other three had stronger claims on the Theologicals proper. This seemingly negligible virtue attached to the highest female of the heroum, needs to be put into context: the presence of humility speaks to the older tradition where that virtue actually was the root of all virtues in Trees of Life - springing from a pot labeled humilitas, of which Jupiter's head would be the cognate for Pallas (Wisdom, from which all other gifts proceeded), as in this Tree of Life (Beinecke MS 416)
http://brbl-archive.library.yale.edu/ex ... ges/3v.jpg MS 416 begins with a diagram of the Tower of Wisdom, which again points to why Pallas may have been associated with this genre. One might also note Trees of Life, while providing a stemma of the virtues, would parallel the genealogical line also depicted as tree-like, with oak leaves in the case of the Eulogy version of the Visconti line.

What I left out from Marziano, however, perfectly accords with the image of Humility in the hours' leaf: "She is described with covered head, since the thoughts of philosophers are not readily apparent"(Caldwell/Ponzi, 35). Both Prudence and Justice wear nun-like wimples (Justice's is sheer), perhaps since they are the closest to God, but only Humility has her mantle pulled up over her head. And what is truly unusual here is Pallas is not depicted with a mantle pulled over her head (and blue like Mary's) in the Trecento through the early Quattrocento, as evidenced below in the c. 1340 "Judgement of Paris" produced in the Regia Carmina by Convenevole da Prato for King Robert of Naples, or in Pizan's Othea, where the goddess is bifurcated into Minerva and Pallas (as in this luxury manuscript version produced for Queen Isabeau of France in c. 1412):

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Finally, I'd point to what seems like a personal connection of Filippo to the virtue of Humility. Ross posted the hi-res detail of Filippo's portrait in the hours, but opposite that leaf, when the book is open, is a continuation of the transference of blame (original sin/generation) to Eve - she holds leaves to her womb out of what might be called humility. What has always bothered me is the pendant image, a child about to stab a lion. Meiss/Kirsch lamely offer the meaning as "power of the duke." I'd rather connect it to the image directly above, which, if Humility, would mean Humility's primary antagonist: Superbia/Pride. The Tree of Virtues are almost always complemented by a Tree of Vices, and just as Humility is the root of the Virtues, Superbia is the root of Vices. In the Bestiaries that became equally popular, the Lion came to stand for superbia (and note the smug, smiling face of the Hours' lion). The child then, just like the warrior virtues in Prudentius, is defeating vice, the arch-vice of pride. The enigmatic cape, I would argue, goes hand in hand with the theme of Humility above, now a garment instead of a primitive bunch of leaves. The nude child will be covered after his battle (and arguably the child, whose cape string is red like the coral sometimes hung about the neck of infant Jesus and the cherub of the PMB Sun, is the Christ child offering immortality via Virtue over Vice). The flanking doves as well as the miniature suns with doves would reflect the Holy Spirit, one of which is directly above the child, so all three of the Trinity are represented here.

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My conclusion then is that Marziano is making his description of Pallas conform with the imagery of Humility in Milan (not necessarily the specific "Celestial Court" leaf LF11v, but at least a copybook used in Milan artist workshops, which Belbello had recourse to and exemplars of which Marziano had seen; this leaf does come early in the Filippo section so possibly completed early when Marziano was writing so hard to even rule the leaf out as inspiration) .

Phaeded

Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#330
Excellent observations and insights, Phaeded. Thank you.

I too thought Meiss and Kirsch were pretty lazy in their interpretation of the child stabbing the lion. It is obviously redolent with specific symbolism. One thought that occurred to (not to disregard yours, but just to put it out there) is that it might be topical, i.e. it might date the manuscript to the wars with Venice, so only as early as 1424. But maybe that is too topical an interpretation.

Also, I must have overlooked your interpretation of the sun-face held by the cherub in the card; I really like it.

I'll have to consider your views on the virtues as models for the "good" heroes.
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