Automated translation of March + December 14221422 Feb. Lombardia
Rientra a Milano per assumere il comando dell’esercito contro gli svizzeri. Il governo di Genova viene affidato a Urbano di San Luigi.
E’ presente alla cerimonia in cui 24 ambasciatori genovesi cedono la città al duca di Milano senza condizioni.
Apr. mag. Milano Cantoni Svizzeri Capitano g.le 500 lance Svizzera
Il duca di Milano propone agli abitanti dei cantoni di Uri e di Untterwalden di rivendergli la città e la fortezza di Bellinzona che questi ultimi hanno acquistato nel 1419 dai signori De Sacco. Il Carmagnola occupa con un colpo di mano Bellinzona (di cui è eletto governatore); un po’ con le armi ed un po’ con gli accordi recupera la Val d’Ossola, la Maggia, Verzasca, la Riviera e la parte meridionale della Val Levantina. Si spinge sino al San Gottardo. Gli svizzeri iniziano dei negoziati perché sia loro restituita Bellinzona; non se ne dà per inteso e continua nella sua politica espansiva.
Le milizie di Uri e di Unterwalden (4000 uomini) invadono buona parte della Val Levantina giungendo a Bellinzona. Sono seguiti dalle truppe di Zug e di Lucerna: tutti insieme, infine, collocano i loro alloggiamenti davanti alla città agli ordini di Ulrico Welker. Il Carmagnola attraversa i monti che dividono la Moesa dal Ticino, sorprende gli avversari e toglie loro le salmerie; al comando di 2000 lance e 3000 fanti li affronta con Angelo della Pergola nel piano di Arbedo. Gli svizzeri fronteggiano i viscontei con il quadrato di picche e respingono la prima schiera milanese; Carmagnola fa allora scendere da cavallo i suoi uomini d’arme, come era solito fare Giovanni Acuto, e li lancia sugli avversari. Non dà loro quartiere anche quando gli svizzeri si dispongono alla resa: aggredito all’improvviso alle spalle da 600 fanti rimasti nella valle di Mesocco alla ricerca di foraggio, ordina la ritirata su Bellinzona. Rimangono sul terreno 3000 svizzeri e 1000 viscontei, di cui 400 cavalli della compagnia di Angelo della Pergola e 600 delle altre tre schiere. Di 7 barche che hanno trasportato il contingente svizzero fino a Fluelen, non ne ritornano che 2 con le bandiere non cadute nelle mani dei viscontei. A fine mese rientra a Milano. Risulta come teste nel palazzo del consiglio segreto, sito a Porta Vercellina, all’ infeudazione di Caorso a favore degli eredi di Ottone da Mandello.
Il suo invio nel capoluogo ligure è interpretato come una punizione, una specie di esilio imposto dalòla cerchia di cortigiani come Zanino Riccio, Oldrado Lampugnani, Sperone da Pietrasanta e, forse, Guido Torelli, tutti invidiosi della fortuna del condottiero.
A Genova: i 4 governatori viscontei (il Torelli, il vescovo di Novara Pietro de Giorgi, il Pietrasanta e Franchino Castiglione) si allontanano dalla città senza attendere il suo arrivo. Si fa subito aumentare le sue prebende di altre 5500 lire genovine, oltre le 8000 che gli sono già state assegnate.
So it seems, that the militarical activities of 1422 didn't find approval from the Visconti side. A little bit strange: English Wikipedia describes the history of Bellinzona.March Lombardy
He is present at the ceremony in which 24 Genoese ambassadors surrender the city to the Duke of Milan without conditions.
April May Milan Swiss Cantons Captain of 500 Swiss lances
The Duke of Milan proposes to the inhabitants of the cantons of Uri and Untterwalden to sell him the city and the fortress of Bellinzona which they bought in 1419 from the De Sacco lords. Carmagnola takes Bellinzona (of which he is elected governor) with a coup de hand; partly with weapons and partly with agreements he recovers Val d’Ossola, Maggia, Verzasca, the Riviera and the southern part of Val Levantina. It goes as far as the San Gottardo. The Swiss begin negotiations to have Bellinzona returned to them; it does not take this for granted and continues its expansionary policy.
The militias of Uri and Unterwalden (4000 men) invade a large part of the Val Levantina reaching Bellinzona. They are followed by the troops of Zug and Lucerne: all together, finally, they place their quarters in front of the city under the orders of Ulrico Welker. The Carmagnola crosses the mountains that divide the Moesa from the Ticino, surprises the opponents and removes their baggage; under the command of 2000 spears and 3000 infantrymen he confronts them with Angelo della Pergola in the Arbedo plain. The Swiss face the Visconti with the square of spades and repel the first Milanese group; Carmagnola then gets his men-at-arms off their horses, as Giovanni Acuto used to do, and throws them on his opponents. He doesn't give them any quarter even when the Swiss are ready to surrender: suddenly attacked from behind by 600 infantrymen left in the Mesocco valley looking for fodder, he orders a retreat to Bellinzona. 3000 Swiss and 1000 viscounts remain on the ground, including 400 horses from the company of Angelo della Pergola and 600 from the other three ranks. Of 7 boats that transported the Swiss contingent to Fluelen, only 2 return with the flags not fallen into the hands of the Visconti. At the end of the month he returns to Milan. It appears as witnesses in the palace of the secret council, located in Porta Vercellina, at the feuding of Caorso in favor of the heirs of Ottone da Mandello.
Stay in Milan for the period July-August.
At the end of the month it is always reported in Milan. With Francesco della Mirandola he assists as a witness in the headquarters of the secret council at the act of feuding Mulazzo and Rocchetta di Vara in favor of Tommaso Malaspina.
September Lombardy and Liguria
In the middle of the month he leaves Milan and goes to Liguria to take up the post of sole governor of Genoa. During the period his income in the duchy rose to 40,000, 50,000 florins a year.
His sending to the Ligurian capital is interpreted as a punishment, a kind of exile imposed by the circle of courtiers such as Zanino Riccio, Oldrado Lampugnani, Sperone da Pietrasanta and, perhaps, Guido Torelli, all envious of the leader's fortune.
In Genoa: the 4 Visconti governors (Torelli, the bishop of Novara Pietro de Giorgi, Pietrasanta and Franchino Castiglione) leave the city without waiting for his arrival. He immediately increased his prebends by another 5,500 Genoese lire, over the 8000 that have already been assigned to him.
It seems, as if Carmagnola's action was successful. Possibly his losses in the battle were perceived as too heavy ("suddenly attacked from behind by 600 infantrymen left in the Mesocco valley looking for fodder, he orders a retreat to Bellinzona. 3000 Swiss and 1000 viscounts remain on the ground, including 400 horses from the company of Angelo della Pergola and 600 from the other three ranks. "Expansion of Bellinzona under Milan
The Murata or town wall of Bellinzona
Under the control of the Visconti, trade flourished and Bellinzona grew. When an alternative route over the Alps, the Schöllenen bridge opened, traffic in the St. Gotthard increased to the highest levels ever. During the second half of the 14th century a long wall, the Murata, was built across the Tessin valley, allowing Milan to protect and tax the trade route over the St. Gotthard Pass. While the town was controlled by Milan through the Visconti after 1340, the Visconti did not have a formal title and feudal rights until 1396 when they were granted by King Wenceslaus. However, the orderly growth of Bellinzona was threatened in 1402 when Duke Gian Galeazzo Visconti died. In 1403 Bellinzona came under the control of Alberto di Sacco of Val Mesolcina, who held it until 1419 before it was taken over by Uri and Obwalden, which expanded into the Leventina Valley. Milan attacked the town three years later in 1422 after an offer to buy the town was rejected by the Swiss Confederation. The troops from Uri and Obwalden were quickly driven from the town and later defeated at the Battle of Arbedo on 30 June 1422. This defeat discouraged the expansionist intentions of Uri and its allies towards Lake Maggiore for a time.
During the period of unrest following Gian Galeazzo Visconti's death, a tower which would become the nucleus of the third castle, Sasso Corbaro, was built outside the town.
While the border between Uri and Milan was fixed in the peace treaty of 1426, in 1439 Uri invaded again. While they were unable to take Bellinzona, the victories of the Swiss troops led to Milan granting all of the Leventina Valley to Pollegio to Uri in 1441. Following the death of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447, Bellinzona was in the middle of the succession crisis between Franchino Rusca of Locarno and Heinrich of Val Mesolcina, who were allied with Uri and the Ambrosian Republic in Milan. The war following the succession crisis lasted nearly three years until Francesco I Sforza seized power in Milan. Bellinzona quickly accepted the new Sforza dynasty and the peace and stability that followed.
The peace was broken again in 1478 when the Swiss once again attacked Bellinzona unsuccessfully. However Swiss pride was restored by the Battle of Giornico which followed, where a force of 600 Swiss soldiers defeated 10,000 Milanese troops. Following the attack, Milan built the Sasso Corbaro either on the site of a tower which had been built nearly a century before. The other two castles were strengthened and the Murata wall across the valley was rebuilt. Much of the modern castles and fortifications date from this period of construction in the late 15th century.