## Moakley's book, article & now correspondence with Panofsky

### Re: Moakley's book: text and discussion

#121
Huck wrote:Again to the math problem "55 possibilities" for two 10-sided dice.

Two 2-sided dice have 3 possibilities
Two 3-sided dice have 6 possibilities
Two 4-sided dice have 10 possibilities
Two 5-sided dice have 15 possibilities
Two 6-sided dice have 21 possibilities
Two 7-sided dice have 28 possibilities
Two 8-sided dice have 36 possibilities
Two 9-sided dice have 45 possibilities
Two 10-sided dice have 55 possibilities
Two 11-sided dice have 66 possibilities
Two 12-sided dice have 78 possibilities

I think, you know the row (1)-3-6-10-15-21-28-36-45-55-66-78.

The 55 possibilities for two 10-sided dice are not very surprising.

"Tarot" a term a dice game term? Well, according to this French encyclopedia, 1775 it was (as well as usual, a type of cornet, type of card game) :

Tarot fm : dice player's term it is a species of ivory dice, each side of which carries a number of black holes from 1 up to and including 6, that are used for games -

NCYCLOPÉDIE, OU DICTIONNAIRE UNIVERSEL RAISONNÉ DES CONNOISSANCES HUMAINES . par Fortuné Barthélemy de Félice, 1775

Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

### Re: Moakley's book, article & now correspondence with Panofs

#122
Here is Panofsky's couplet about the library lions, which I get from The New York Public Library in Fiction, Poetry, and Children's literature, 1956, p. 26:
mitigat officium feritatem suave leonis;
Mitior officio redditur, ecce, lea!
I don't know what it means. Using Google Translate I arrive at :
good service mitigates a lion's ferocity;
Gentler surgical office, behold, lea!
Maybe "lea" is "lion" in some weird Latin case, I don't know. Perhaps it is Panofsky's way of thanking Moakley for her assistance in looking up the particular obscure member of the French nobility that she or someone there tracked down for him. But this is all a wild guess.

### Re: Moakley's book, article & now correspondence with Panofs

#123
An unanswered question, at least for me, from Moakley, is how much Durrieu, the only writer before her to talk in print about the Michelino deck, actually said. In particular, did he mention how the four orders of trumps linked to the four suits of birds? The reason I am asking is to be able to rule out Durrieu as a source for the idea, expressed on the Beinecke website, that the cards of the Cary-Yale do likewise, between its trumps and suits.

I looked online for the 1911 article that Moakley cited. It came up immediately, at http://www.persee.fr/doc/minf_0398-3609 ... _38_2_1596, on p. 376, just as Moakley said (continuing to the top of 377). The article appears to have been uploaded fairly recently, as the pdf version (http://www.persee.fr/docAsPDF/minf_0398 ... 2_1596.pdf) says "Document généré le 18/10/2016". Here is the relevant part, followed by my translation:
Je m'attacherai seulement, dans l'artiste milanais en son temps si célèbre, et depuis lors si complètement oublié, à ce qui concerne sa pratique de l'art de la miniature.

Il est venu jadis en France, en 1 4-49, envoyé d'Italie à la reine Isabelle de Lorraine, première femme du bon roi René d'Anjou, par un Vénitien tout dévoué à la cause de son mari, Jacopo Antonio Marcello, une très importante suite de miniatures de la main de Michelino da Besozzo. C'était un jeu de cartes allégorique pouvant servir au jeu des «Triomphes», que Michelino avait peint avec le plus grand luxe pour le troisième duc de Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti. Seize figures s'y trouvaient, divisées en 4 ordres : l'ordre des « Virtutes » (1), représenté par les figures de Jupiter, Apollon, Mercure et Hercule; l'ordre des Richesses, « Divitiae », comprenant Junon, Neptune, Mars et Eole; l'ordre de la Virginité ou Continence, formé par Pallas, Diane, Vesta et Daphné; l'ordre de la Volupté, composé de Vénus, Bacchus, Cérès et Cupidon. De semblables jeux de cartes avec figures, exécutés à lamain, paraissent avoir été au xve siècle une spécialité de certains peintres de l'Italie du Nord, et en particulier de peintres du Milanais. Il en subsiste quelques exemples remarquables conservés dans des collections particulières d'Italie (2), dans la Galerie de l'Académie Carrara à Bergame (3) et même au Cabinet des Estampes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris (4), Malheureusement, dans ce qui est parvenu jusqu'à nous,
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1) Le mot Virtus doit être pris au sens qu'avait l'italien Virtu, force, énergie, puissance d'action.
2) En 1903, dans les collections du duc Visconti, du comte Alessandro Colleoni et de M. Giovanni Brambilla,
3) Voir: Comte Emiliano di Parravicino, Three packs of Italian Tarocco Cards, dans le Burlington Magazine, t. III (n° de décembre 1903), p. 237-251.
(4) Je vise la fameuse série des cartes dites de Charles VI. Certains critiques ont estimé que ces cartes étaient plutôt vénitiennes que milanaises; mais elles proviennent bien, en tout cas, du Nord de l'Italie. Voir, pour la reproduction de tous ces curieux spécimens rappelés ici, outre l'article du comte di Parravicino dans le Burlington Magazine, mentionné à la note précédente: Henri-René d'Allemagne, Les Cartes à jouer (Paris, 1906, 2 vol. gr. in-4°), 1. 1, 2e, 5e et 6' parties du chapitre 1".

MICHELINO DA BESOZZO. 377
rien ne se rattache au jeu de cartes mythologique qu'avait peint Michelino. Ce jeu, fait par l'artiste pour le duc Filippo Maria Visconti, a complètement disparu. Nous n'avons que son souvenir dans une explication très ampoulée accompagnant la lettre d'envoi de ces cartes à la reine Isabelle de Lorraine (1).
...
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(1) Bibl. nationale de Paris, ms. latin 8745, fol. 1-3i. J'ai été le premier à signaler ce curieux texte dans une communication faite le 13 mars 1895 à la Société nationale des Antiquaires de France (Bulletin de cette Société pour 1895, p. 117). Cf. La Chronique des Arts , numéro du 23 mars 1895, p. 100, et mon travail sur Le Strabon du roi Rene, dans Le Manuscrit, .. II (1895), p. 18.
L'album de l'Exposition de Turin en 1880 (L'Arte antica alla IVa Esposizione nazionale di Belle Arti in Torino, nel 1880, in-folio) donne, sur le milieu de la planche LXXII, la reproduction d'une belle carte à jouer qui porte la représentation de deniers aux effigie et nom du duc Filippo Maria Visconti. Mais la disposition de cette carte ne correspond pas à la description du jeu qu'avait peint Michelino.

(...I shall concern myself only with the most famous Milanese artist of his time, since then completely forgotten, as regards his practice of the art of miniature.

A very important series of miniatures by Michelino da Besozzo came then, in 1449, to France, sent from Italy to Queen Isabella of Lorraine, first wife of good king Rene of Anjou, by a Venetian devoted to the cause of her husband, Jacopo Antonio Marcello. It was an allegorical pack of cards that could be used for the game of "triumphs", which Michelino had painted with the greatest luxury for the third Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti. Sixteen figures were there, divided into four orders: the order of Virtues, (1) represented by the figures of Jupiter, Apollo, Mercury, and Hercules; the rrder of Riches, "Divitiae," including Juno, Neptune, Mars, and Eolus; the order of Virginity or Continence, formed by Pallas, Diana, Vesta, and Daphne; the order of Pleasure, composed of Venus, Bacchus, Ceres, and Cupid. Similar card games with figures, executed in the fifteenth century, appear to have been a specialty in the fifteenth century of certain painters of northern Italy, and in particular of Milanese painters. There are still some remarkable examples preserved in private collections in Italy, (2) in the Gallery of the Academia Carrara in Bergamo, and also in the Cabinet des Estampes of the National Library of Paris. In what has come down to us,
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(1) The word Virtus must be taken in the sense that the Italian Virtu had: strength, energy, and the power of action.
(2) In 1903, in the collections of Duke Visconti, Count Alessandro Colleoni and M. Giovanni Brambilla,
(3) See: Count Emiliano di Parravicino, "Three packs of Italian Tarocco Cards", in Burlington Magazine, t. III (December, 1903), p. 237-251.
(4) I refer to the famous series of cards called of Charles VI. Some critics have believed that these cards were rather Venetian than Milanese; But they certainly come from the North of Italy. See, for the reproduction of all these curious specimens recalled here, besides the article of the Count of Parravicino in the Burlington Magazine mentioned in the preceding note: Henri-René d'Allemagne, Les Cartes à jouer (Paris, 1906, 2 vols. 1, 2, 5 and 6 of Chapter 1.

MICHELINO DA BESOZZO. 377
nothing is connected with the mythological pack of cards Michelino painted. This deck, made by the artist for the Duke Filippo Maria Visconti, has completely disappeared. We have only its memory in a very ample explanation accompanying the letter of dispatch of these cards to Queen Isabella of Lorraine.
...
_____________
(1) Bibl. de Paris, ms. Latin 8745, fol. 1-3i. I was the first to point out this curious text in a communication made on March 13, 1895, to the Société Nationale des Antiquaires de France (Bulletin of this Society for 1895, p. Cf. La Chronique des Arts, issue of March 23, 1895, p. 100, and my work on The Strabo of King Rene, in Le Manuscrit, II (1895), p. 18.
In the middle of plate LXXII, the album of the Turin Exhibition in 1880 (L'Arte antica alla IVa Esposizione nazionale di Belle Arti in Torino in 1880, in folio) reproduces a beautiful playing card which shows in the depictions of coins the likeness and name of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti. But the layout of this card does not correspond to the description of the game that Michelino painted.
As you can see, there is no mention of the suit to trump correspondences. Durrieu does not mention suits at all. It is just as Moakley reported it, with a few additional comments, mostly in the footnotes. He does not even mention Marziano, who wrote the book, as stated on its title page (http://trionfi.com/0/b/p/marc-text3.jpg) that Marcello sent along with the deck. That Michelino's deck and Marziano's deck were one and the same was Moakley's surmise. It is true that Marcello does not mention Marziano by name as the "most learned" author of the book he is sending with the deck. That is because the author is given on the title page. Is it possible that he only found the Marcello letter, and not the Marziano book? Either way, we owe Durrieu our gratitude for discovering the two texts.

In one of the footnotes, Durrieu says that he was the first to point out this text, in a communication published in the Bulletin of the Société nationale des antiquaires de France in 1895. That communication is also online, at https://archive.org/stream/bulletin12fr ... h/Durriere, and says only:
M. Durrieu, membre résident, communique le texte d'une lettre d'Antoine Marcello, de 1449, relative a une jeu de cartes que Michelino da Besozzo le plus célèbre des peintres milanais de son temps, avait peint pour Filippo Maria Visconti, et que Marcello envoya à France plus tard à la Reine Isabelle de Lorraine, première femme de Roi René

(M. Durrieu, resident member, communicated the text of a letter from Antonio Marcello, dated 1449, concerning a card game that Michelino da Besozzo, the most famous of the Milanese painters of his time, had painted for Filippo Maria Visconti and which Marcello sent to France later to Queen Isabella of Lorraine, first wife of King René.)
Durrieu also mentions, in the same footnote, that his discovery was also published in "La Chronique des Arts", March 23, 1895, p. 100. That note is also online (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6 ... .r=Durrieu), but on p. 110 rather than 100:
Durrieu communique le texte d'une lettre d'Antoine Marcello, de 1449, relative à un jeu de cartes que Michelino di Besozzo, peintre milanais, avait peint pour Filippo Maria Visconti
I have not found online the other work he cites, of the same year, the article on the Strabo for Rene. But since Durrieu cites just one page, I presume it is similar to the other two. If so, it would appear that nothing about the correspondence of suits to trumps in Marcello's letter appeared in print prior to Franco Pratesi's article in 1989 (http://www.naibi.net/A/25-FIRSTARO-Z.pdf), who as may be seen has quite a bit to say about the relationship of trumps to suits, not only reporting what Marziano says but going beyond the letter to what may be inferred, or plausibly inferred, from his statements. The section of his article entitled "Discussion and Conclusion", which deals precisely with that point, is as cogent today as it was in 1989 and is well worth re-reading, along with Dummett's seldom-cited reflections on that article (granting that in light of the Marziano, that the Cary-Yale had 16 trumps is a "real possibility"), at http://askalexander.org/display/22601/T ... arziano%22.

#124