Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#11
Of interest, regarding the woodblocks, they are perhaps mentioned after all in the contract. Orioli says:
In questo contratto, oltre il prezzo pattuito, si stabiliva anche il modo come le carte dovessero essere lavorate, secondo un modello preparato e da conservarsi presso una terza persona; cbe se non fossero identiche o riuscissero eseguitite malamente, Pietro Bonozzi era obbligato a farle rifare; non dovevano avere sul dorso alcun disegno ma essere perfettamente bianche.

(This contract, besides the agreed price, also established the way the cards were to be processed, according to a model [modello] prepared and kept by a third person; that if they were not identical or proved to be executed badly, Pietro Bonozzi was obliged to do them over; they must not have any design on the back but be perfectly white.)
So perhaps the woodblock is the "modello" kept by a third person, to which the cards could be compared in case of a a dispute about their quality. "Modello" can be used in the sense of "mold".

The contract says on this point, in the first paragraph (check to see if my transcription is accurate; here I give in parentheses the modern spelling that might correspond to what is there):
Chel dicto maestro Piero sia obligato fare e operare che el prefato suo figliolo durante el tempo e termine de sei misi proximi che viranno, incomenzando dal di soprascriptoe finendo como segue, fara al prefato ser Roberto per zascuno mese almanco para de carte da giugare doxento cinquanta ben lavorate ben netto ben coperte a custodite ad arbitrio de beno homo, segondo che sera la prima mostra che lui glie dara la quale se debia observare apresso d’uno terzo e debiano esser tutte a similitudine di quella, de la quale 250 para sia tenuto darne omne volia para 50 stenchite de fuora e alcune con le arme segondo la volonta di esso maestro Piero tutte bianche de fuora.

(That said master Piero is obligated to operate and work so that the aforesaid son during the time and term of six months next [prossimi] beginning [che varano], beginning from above ending as follows, will make the aforesaid ser Roberto for some [alcuno?] month at least [almeno] two hundred fifty packs of playing cards well worked well very clean, well protected in custody at the will of a good man, according [secondo] that he at the first showing that he gives must be observed afterwards [appresso] by a third and must all be in the likeness of that, of which 250 packs are kept giving all desire [voglia?] 50 packs dried [stecchite?[ outside and some with arms according to [secondo] the will of this master Piero, all of them white outside.)
The modello here might simply be a proofsheet to which the cards must correspond; but it would seem rather unfair to expect a woodblock to correspond exactly to a pre-formed proofsheet. Perhaps the third party keeps a proofsheet made from the pre-existing woodblock, which we still don't know about.

"De fuoro" might mean the backs (exteriors) of the cards, as Oriole assumes; I don't know, but he conveniently leaves out the part about the coats of arms. What the part about the 250 packs and 50 packs is saying exactly I don't know.

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#12
There is one more part of the contract that might be referring to woodblocks.
Item che el prefato ser Robert sia obligato durante el tempo di prefati sei misi mantenere el prefato figliolo de maestro Piero in continno lavoriero in forma che mai non li manchi de fare, ...

(Item, that the aforesaid Mr. Robert is obligated during the time of the aforesaid six months to maintain the aforesaid son of master Piero in continuous work in form that he never lack making
This is the beginning of a very long paragraph that seems to be all one sentence. The "forma" might be the woodblock, owned by Roberto. However it might depend on what the rest of the sentence means, and I haven't figured it out.

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#13
mikeh wrote:There is one more part of the contract that might be referring to woodblocks.
Item che el prefato ser Robert sia obligato durante el tempo di prefati sei misi mantenere el prefato figliolo de maestro Piero in continno lavoriero in forma che mai non li manchi de fare, ...

(Item, that the aforesaid Mr. Robert is obligated during the time of the aforesaid six months to maintain the aforesaid son of master Piero in continuous work in form that he never lack making
This is the beginning of a very long paragraph that seems to be all one sentence. The "forma" might be the woodblock, owned by Roberto. However it might depend on what the rest of the sentence means, and I haven't figured it out.
One interpretation solution should be, that Robert delivers printed paper, and the paid work (5 Lira + 18 soldi for material for 125 decks) is just for giving colors to the cards. Each deck would then take 118/125 soldi for this part of the production process, something between 11 and 12 denari (0.944 Soldi).

The terminus "cartoni" might possibly mean "stencil" ... ? (I see that the text contains the word "stenchite", which otherwise is not used)

Robert seems to fear, that the son of Piero doesn't work all the time. Piero's interest seems to be, that the son has a work to do. Robert's objective is, that he gets his cards painted, and he doesn't know, if the son is reliable. Robert will avoid, that the son suddenly works for somebody else, who pays better, when he had learnt the job. The son is likely not very experienced, so for the first 125 decks he will need a longer time than later.

The son shall make 250 decks in one month? This would mean 10 Lira in a month for the son. This sounds too much. More plausible looks possibly "in 6 months" . Well, I don't know, how to evaluate the Bolognese money.

250 and 50 "according the will of Master Pietro".
Hm ... perhaps there is subcontract, that Pietro might keep 50 packs for his own use, which he sells himself, and on this he can place his own arms (his personal design) with a stinchite (stencil ?). That would be an additional income for Pietro's family.
Possibly the perfect white (at the backside) cards for Roberto are in the production process at the backside attached to a printed additional paper, which contains arms of the production house of Robert. As we know it, this additional paper goes over the edges and gives additional stability.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#14
OT but I was wondeering about the colours. Verzino* is brazilwood dye, which can be used to make pink (when mixed with white chalk), red, purple and black (when mixed with Alum), vederamo is possibly a variant spelling of verderamo - "to make green", so not a specified ingredient but some sort of mix to make green (for example copper foil can produce green with vinegar, Roman vitriol and alum; or buckthorn berries and alum), more probably a variant spelling of verderame (verdigris, green-copper). No idea what agiuro is? colla is glue, not exactly sure of what Alume di roza is but it is listed in old ingredient books as an alternative to Alume di Rocca (Potassium alum), i.e., it is a mordant (a fixative for dyes). So we have ingredients for pink, red, purple and black (brazilwood), green (verdigris), glue, dye fixative and ink -- plus agiuro, I would make a guess that agiuro is some blue forming dye (possibly agiuro a variant for azzuro/azure?).

SteveM

One old Bolognese document advises that it is best to obtain Verzino "from young ladies" - Verzimo was used in cosmetics such as lipstick, and that used in ladies cosmetics was presumed to be of the best quality - so 'from young ladies' is equivalent to saying 'brazilwood dye of cosmetic (the best) quality'.
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#15
I learned about the following ...

Image


Image


Bonozzi and Bianchelli and the year 1477 ... in a somewhat different context
https://books.google.de/books?id=OOAOAQ ... Bianchelli
Un'antica stamperia di carte da giuoco
Gutenberg-Jahrbuch / Zeitschriftenband (1940) / Zeitschriftenteil / Artikel / 189 - 197
http://www.digizeitschriften.de/dms/img ... N000469017

Image


Image


Further:
Da ultimo il Disserente fa cenno di maestro Pietro Bonozzo, di
Alessandro Salandi da Reggio, e di Andrea Mezzovillani, che, dal 1477
al 1488 fabbricavano e spacciavano carte da giuoco comuni e di ta-
rocchi.
But this seems to be only a reference to the notes of Orioli.
short note at ... https://archive.org/stream/attiememorie ... g_djvu.txt

Bonozzi, family heraldry

Image

http://badigit.comune.bologna.it/caneto ... ?Cod=a3571

btw. the webpage ...
http://badigit.comune.bologna.it/caneto ... ognese.htm
... offers a lot of Bologna family heraldry, between them also that of the Fibbia family

Image
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#16
SteveM wrote:... I would make a guess that agiuro is some blue forming dye (possibly agiuro a variant for azzuro/azure?)...
d' agiuro oltramarino = d'azzurro (di Lappis Lazoli perfar agiuro oltramarino; andare per l'agiuro oltramarino; seicento scudi di moneta Bolognesa , significandoli che la spesa qual dovrà. andare per l'agiuro oltramarino, dovrà ancor esser a spese di chi fa fare l'opera,) -

So I think my guess, agiuro = azure (or something to make blue), is on or close to the ball (though not neccesarily ultra-marine, which was very expensive, or at least, one of the most expensive, unless it was used very sparingly? Possibly the cheaper blue pigment azurite {which was nonetheless more expensive than verzino or ver{r}deramo}?).

["verzino, vederamo, agiuro, colla, alume de roza, inchiostro per fare dicte carte o triumphi" = "brazilwood (to make reds), verdigris (to make greens), azure (to make blues), glue, potash (a mordant, colour fixative), ink to make said cards or triumphs".]

Verzino, a red dye, was a relatively cheap dye used from at least the 12th century and could be used in varying mixtures of chalk and alum to make a range of colours from pink- red- purple -black; verdigris was more expensive that verzino; if the agiuro/azure (blue making colour) was ultramarine then it was the most expensive, relatively very expensive. If trumps used more of the expensive colours, then there would be more additional costs to take into account that just the extra number of cards, it is not just the cost of paper/card involved. The equation that one trump card = the cost of one normal card doesn't work, because of the possible cost of the more expensive pigments/colours that may be involved, that in the case of agiure/azure was of a significant amount that no business could just 'write off'. My guess would be that the red and green (verzino & ve{r}deramo) would be used on the normal playing cards, with the addition of the the more expensive pigment (agiuro, sparingly) for a more extensive range of colours on the trump cards...(?)

cheap - verzino (pinks, reds, purple, black)
more expenive - verdigris (copper based greens), azurite (commom medieval copper based blue, unstable over time with a tendency to turn green)
very expensive - azure (ultramarine)
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#17
I remember,, that in the calculation of the color costs of Ferrara for a few decks only (inclusive gold; I guess, that this number was noted for the production of 1454) were much higher than the 18 soldi for 125 decks.
1454 [3 August - payment to Obizo the Saracen for gold and silver leaf for trionfi and playing cards]

Obizo spiciale al Saraxino in Ferara de avere adi III de agosto lire tre, soldi quatro de marchesani per lo precio de infrascrite robe per dito date a dum Messore per dipinzere carte da trinoffi et da zugare per la guardaroba de lo Signore:
Per peze zento de oro fino batudo…………………….. …………L. 2.10.
Per peze zento de arzento batudo fino ……………………………L. 0. 8.
Per onze una de verde azuro ………………………………………L. 0. 6.
Dato per mandato no. _____………………………………………L. III. IIII.

[Franceschini 1993 n. 728s (p. 414) ; Ortalli, 1996a: 163-169 (an essay on the workshop run by Don Messore, begun in 1454); Ortalli 1996a:188]
http://trionfi.com/etx-three-producers-ferrara#0b

Also in the Petrocino production 1457
1457 [2 August – payment to Gerardo di Andrea da Vicenza for the costs of colours for Petrecino]

Maestro Girardo de Andrea da Vizenza dipinturo per los costo de tanti coluri li quali hano adoperato Petrecino pagio de lo Signore in avere dipinto uno paio de cartexele da trionfi per lo Signore ; domanda lire 3, et Galioto li tasa lire 1, soldi 10 ; se ne abate soldi 3, resta…………………………………L. 1. 7.

[Franceschini 1993 n. 823s (p. 486) ; cf. Ortalli 1996b:189 and note 70]
http://trionfi.com/0/e/18/
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#18
Here is as much as I can figure out of the contract. I post this only because it needs to be done. I hope it will prompt others to improve it. I tied to think of alternate spellings for words I couldn't find and also looked in Florio's dictionary in such cases. I think it is fairly intelligible except the last sentence of the contract. For convenience in discussion, I will number the paragraphs in the contract and give the original plus translation of each. Comments in brackets are mine; frequently they are to give the modern word that I assume corresponds to the spelling in the contract. I left the honorific "ser" as in the original, as the meaning does not quite have a modern equivalent; it does not imply knighthood, but it is more honorific than either the English "Mr.", or "sir" as said to a presumed superior. I decided that "o vero", which I translated as "or true", probably is just an old way of saying "ovvero", which means the same as "o" by itself, i.e. "or".
1. In nomine Domini amen Rogiti di Alberto Argelatta, Filza 4a, n. 113

Questi sono certi patti a conventione le quali ser Roberto Blanchelli di Arimino habitador in Bologna in la capella s. Maria del Tempio e maestro Pietro Bonozo maziero de li nostri magnifici Signori e conservadori de Bologna hanno facto inseime sopra el mestiero de la carte e triumphi da zugare, le quale esso ser Roberto fa fare al figliolo del dicto maestro Piero Bonozo con li capituli e conventione infrascripte; zoe e primo. Chel dicto maestro Piero sia obligato fare e operare che el prefato suo figliolo durante el tempo e termine de sei misi proximi che viranno, incomenzando dal di soprascripto finendo como segue, fara al prefato ser Roberto per zascuno mese almanco para de carte da giugare doxento cinquanta ben lavorate ben netto ben coperte a custodite ad arbitrio de beno homo, segondo che sera la prima mostra che lui glie dara la quale se debia observare apresso d’uno terzo e debiano esser tutte a similitudine di quella, de la quale 250 para sia tenuto darne omne volta para 50 stenchite de fuora e alcune con le arme segondo la volonta di esso maestro Piero tutte bianche de fuora. E cosi facte le debia tutte consignare a esso Roberto o tutte insieme o a parte a parte secondo la volontà di Roberto.

(1. In the name of God, amen Requested of Alberto Argelatta, File 4a, no. 113

These are certain pacts of agreement, which ser Roberto Blanchelli of Arimino living in Bologna in the parish of S. Maria of the Temple and master Pietro de Bonozo craftsman to our magnificent Signori and the conservators of Bologna have made together on the craft of cards and triumphs for playing, which this ser Roberto makes to the son of said master Piero Bonozo with the sections [capitoli]] and agreement made below; zoe [?] and first. That said master Piero is obligated to operate and work so that the aforesaid son during the time and term of six months [mesi] next [prossimi] beginning [che varano], beginning from above ending as follows, will make the aforesaid ser Roberto for some [alcuno?] month at least [almeno] two hundred fifty packs of playing cards well worked well very clean, well protected in custody at the will of a good man, according [secondo] that he at the first showing that he gives must be observed afterwards [appresso] by a third [person] and must all be in the likeness of that, of which 250 packs are kept to give every time 50 packs dried [stenchite = stecchite? or perhaps something etymologically related to "stenciled"] outside and some with arms according to [secondo] the will of this master Piero, all of them white outside. So done he must consign all for Roberto, either all together, or apart according to the will of Roberto.
You can see here that Pietro is already of some note, being card-maker to the Signoria of the cit of Bologna.

I have no idea what "zoe e primo" means. "Zio" is "uncle", so it might be "uncle and cousin". A "son" is not necessarily a blood relative, but could just be an apprentice, I remember reading somewhere.

The words "zascuno mese" are both in the singular, yet the context would seem to imply not "any month" (much less "every month") but rather, "any months", as it is speaking about the first 250 common packs' worth of cards. Oddly our notary has the plural of "mese" as "misi", as though two i's were better than one.

I tried to trace "stencil" back to 15th century Italian but have not been successful. The only 15th century meaning that the Oxford English Dictionary has is as a verb, meaning "To ornament with bright colours or pieces of precious metal", a meaning now obsolete. It derives from the Old French estanceler, estenceler, and the popular Latin "stincilla metathesis of scintilla spark". "Stincilla" (noun) is perhaps not far from "stenchite" (participle). The 1420 English example, "stanseld" (i.e. "stenciled"), is from an Arthurian romance, describing the attire of a knight and his horse. The Middle English noun meaning the same, the ornamentation, is stansel. With the modern meaning, its first use is 1707, describing precisely the making of playing cards. No additional explanation of how the word got applied to that context, but I presume it was because bright colors were added as ornamentation. "Stecchita", meaning "dried up", also fits the context. Andrea Vitali has an essay transcribing an 18th century article on card-making, http://www.associazioneletarot.it/page.aspx?id=228. The modern word he uses for the stencil (there is even a picture) is "Mascherina", but with the word "trasforo" in parentheses, which is the word used in the document.

Checking my transcription of the contract, I see that earlier I misread "volta" as "volia". "Volta" is much better. I continue:
2. Item che se qualche volta esso Roberto volesse che lui glie fesse fare di triumphi che alhora el prefato maestro Piero sia obligato fargliene fare nel modo proprio che le obligato a le carte ma a rasone de carta per carta debia essere pagato come de la carte e non piu.

(Item that if sometimes it Roberto wants them to make triumphs, that then the aforesaid master Piero is obligated to make them in the proper way, but rightfully paid card by card and not more.)

3. Item che quando li glie fesse fare o carte o triumphi che non stessero bene a fussero mal facti chel sia obligato farglieli refare a tutte sue spese.

(Item, that when they make cards or triumphs that are not good and are poorly made that he is obligated to redo them at all his own expense.)

4. Item chel prefato maestro Piero sia obligato fare e operare si che ne el prefato suo figliolo ne alcuno di suoi o altri con suo conscentimento non lavoranno ne faranno lavorare ne daranno ad altri ne adiuto ne consiglio de dicto mestiere de carte o triumphi ne le venderanno o faranno vendere ne insigneranno el mestieri ad altri sotto pena di L. cinque de bolognini, ne le quale sia obligato de rato e sia licito ad esso ser Roberto retenergliele omne volte e tante volte quante lui glie podesse provare che lui o alcuno di suoi fessero o consentessero alcuna de le predicte de le salarii che esso ser prefato ser Roberto le sera obligato per li lavori le fara suo figliuolo, comuno di sotto appare.

(4. Item, that the aforesaid master Piero is obligated to do and work that the aforesaid his son nor any of his or other with his consent will work nor give work to others with advice or counsel of said expertise of cards or triumphs nor sell or arrange that others sell nor consign the craft to others, under penalty of five Lire bolognini, to whom it is obligated to be confirmed and lawful to this ser Roberto to retain it from them every time and as many times as he can prove that he or any of his made or consigned any of the of the aforesaid from the salaried [salarati] that this aforesaid ser Roberto obligated as work to be done by his son, as appears below.)

5. Item cbe [misprint for "che"?] el prefato ser Robert sia obligato durante el tempo di prefati sei misi mantenere el prefato figliolo de maestro Piero in continno lavoriero in forma che mai non li manchi de fare, maximamente per insino a la somma de le carte sopra scripte per zascmio mese e anco de cento vinticinque para de piu se tante ne potra o vora fare, con pacto che se do co di sei mesi el prefato ser Roberto volesse desitere de simile imprese che lui la possa lassare e che ognuno sia in sujo aritrio, ma quando lui volesse andare ‘drieto che allora il prefato Piero sia obligato perseverare e fare perseverare suo figliolo nel prefato mestiere altri dodexe misi con li pacti medesimi che in questa scripta se contengono, reservato sempre a Roberto che se de co de omne sei misi per insino al spatio de dexedotto misi volesse lassare stare tale impresa che lui la pessa lassare stare segondo la soa volonta e passati li diexedotto misi ognuno sia in suo arbitrio: e questo pacto sia obligato servare l’una e l’altra parte sotto pena de ducati diexe ne la quale de facto incorra chi contrafara a le predicte cose la quale pena sia de colui che stara perseverante a quanto di sopra.

(Item, that ser aforesaid Roberto is obligated during the time of the six months to keep the aforesaid son of master Piero in continuous working in form [already incised woodblocks?] that he never lack for making, for maximally so far [infino] to the sum of the cards as written above for any month likewise of 125 packs, more if he can or will make them, with pact to make that if with six months aforesaid ser Roberto wanted to discontinue similar business that he can grow weary [lassare, or lascare = loosen?] and everyone is at his will, but when he wanted go ahead [adietro] then the aforesaid Piero is obligated to persevere and make his son persevere in the aforesaid trade with another 12 months with the same pact that is contained in this writing, always reserved to Roberto that if with all six months so far in the space of 18 months he wanted to grow weary [lassare] of that endeavor he could become weary of [lassare] it according to his will and pass the 18 months each one to his will: and in this pact it is obligated to preserve the one and the other part on pain of ten ducats which he in fact incurs who contravenes the aforesaid things, which penalty is with the one perseverant to the above.
I am not sure what the provisions here are. The first line seems to imply that Roberto will provide the "forme", some sort of template, whether of wood or cardboard is unclear to me. The last part seems to give Roberto the option of releasing Piero and his son from the obligation after 6 months, but otherwise 18 months; the decision seems to be up to Roberto.
6. Item che el prefato maestro Piero sia obligato consgnare al dicto ser Roberto tutti li retagli che vi siranno de dicte carte.

(6. Item, that aforesaid maestro Piero is obligated to consign to the said ser Roberto the cuttings [or remainders: ritagli] all that there will be from said cards.)

7. Item chel prefato ser Roberto sia obligato dare al prefato maestro Piero o a suo figliolo predicto tutte le carte e cartuni che andaranno per fare dicte carte o vero triumphi secondo el consueto e segondo quello che se le fara overo dira qualunche altro maestro de simile misterio a tutte sue proprie spese.

(7. Item that the aforesaid ser Roberto is obligated to give the aforesaid master Piero or his aforesaid son all the paper and cartons [cartoni] that go to make said cards or triumphs according the usual and according to what some other master of similar craft will do or say, to all his own expense.)

8.Item che el prefato ser Roberto sia obligato dare e pagare al prefato maestro Piero o a suo filiolo in sao nome soldi diesedotto de quattrini per ogni centovincinque para de carte, o vero triumphi para tanto manco de centovinticinque para, quanto gette el numero de la carte che he piu li jochi de li triumphi da quilli de le carte. E quisti soldi diexedotto sonno per vergino, verderamo, agiurro, colla, ove, alum de roza inchiostro per colori e generalmente per ogne altre spese che podesse andare in fare dicte carte o triumphi, li quali decedotto soldi pagati a prefato maestro Piero sia obligato farle poi li fare a tutte sue spese de le carte e cartuni infuore le quale esso ser Roberto glie debia dare e pagare como di sopra.

(8. Item: that aforesaid ser Roberto is obligated to give and pay the aforesaid Piero master or his son in his name 18 soldi of money for each 125 packs of cards, or triumph packs of less than 125 packs, no matter if the number of cards is more for playing cards or triumphs. And this 18 soldi is for vergino, verderamo, agiurro, glue, eggs [uova], alum de roze for ink coloring and generally for all other expenses that could go into making said cards or Triumphs, 18 soldi paid to aforesaid master Piero is obligated to make then at his own expense the cards and exterior cartons [cartuni infuore] which this ser Roberto must give and pay him as above.)
7 and 8 are where the puzzling word "cartuni", the modern "cartoni", first appears. It could mean cartoons, cardstock, cardboard, or cartons, i.e. boxes. In 1507 Florence, according to Franco in another article, the word "cartoni" meant "cartons," he told me. But it seems clear that in the 18th century document that Andrea transcribed it meant "cardstock", that is, a sheet of uncut cards. However I cannot translate that document very well either. In this case it could be any of the various possibilities, even cartoons, in the sense of preliminary drawings or possibly even stencils.

SteveM has done a good job identifying verdino, alum de roza, verderamo, and aguirro to the extent possible (viewtopic.php?f=11&t=1128&start=10#p18257, viewtopic.php?f=11&t=1128&start=10#p18260). The latter two would indeed seem expensive. Perhaps he doesn't use much. He wrote"
verzino, vederamo, agiuro, colla, alume de roza, inchiostro per fare dicte carte o triumphi" = "brazilwood (to make reds), verdigris (to make greens), azure (to make blues), glue, potash (a mordant, colour fixative), ink to make said cards or triumphs".
And now for the last paragraph of the contract. I still have not made much sense of the last sentence. Any help would be appreciated:
9. Item chel prefato ser Roberto sia obligato dare e pagare el prefato maestro Piero overo a so figlilo, piacendo a lui, per ogni cento vinticinque para de carte che lui glie fara fare, o vero triumphi, a rata per rata del numero de le carte como di sopra Lire cinque de bolognini de moneta corente e quisti per la sua fatica e mistiero che durara dicto suo figliolo in farli fare dicte carte e triumphi; cum pacto che el prefato maestro Piero non possa ne debia mai domandare alcuno dinaro de la mercede del figliolo al prefato ser Roberto se non de co de omne mese. El quale finito alhora dicto ser Roberto sia obligato fare rasone con lui e debia infra termine de octo di seguenti in mediate depoi dicto mese finito pagarlo interamente de tutto quello che al prefato suo figliolo glie haveva francato a la rasone pacti e conventione soprascripti, o vero sia licito a esso ser Roberto sempre durante el tempo di questa conventione retenerse in mano Lire cinque de quattrini de quelle se havera francate a lavorare el dicto figliolo de maestro Piero e de le altre che lui se francara sia obligato pagarlo sempre de volta in volta, segondo che lui glie consignara el lavoriero e sia licito al dicto maestro Piero de quisti dui ultimi partioli pigliare quale glie piace.

Item that aforesaid ser Roberto is obligated to give and pay aforesaid master Piero or his son, if it pleases him, for every 125 packs of cards or Triumphs that he will make payment, according to the number of cards as above, five bolognini Lire of current money and this for his effort and expertise of his said son in making said cards and Triumphs; with the pact the aforesaid master Piero cannot ever ask any money of award of the son to the aforesaid ser Roberto if not of that every month. The which finshed then said ser Roberto is obligated to do right with him and must below finish of eight [otto?] following by intercession since said month finished pay him fully all that the aforesaid son had released by right of the pacts and agreement written above or is lawful to ser Roberto still during the time of this agreement to retain in hand five Lire of money of what has been released to work said son of master Piero and of the others if he will release be obligated to pay still from time to time, according to the work and it is lawful to said master Piero from these last two parts to take what pleases him.
My only guess, for the last sentence, is that even after the agreement is satisfied, if Roberto needs more packs, the price of 5 lire per 125 common packs' worth still holds. But this is just a wild guess.

Then there are the signatures:
Io Roberto soprascripto scripse de mia mano propria.
Io Piero de Iacomo Bonozo sopra scrito fo paio convencion e obligazion con el dito ser Ruberto e si me obligo prinzipalemente soto la pena che si contiene in lo instromento rogado per man de ser Alberto d’Argela nodaro.
Io Piero Bonozo de mia man propria scrise.

(I above written Roberto written of my own hand.
I Piero de Jacomo Bonozo above written the [?] pair agreement and obligazion with the said ser Ruberto and oblige myself principally under penalty that is contained in the instrument requested by hand of ser Alberto d'Argela notary.
I Piero de Bonozo of my own hand written.)

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#19
The cost of the cards would suggest that the agiuro (azure/blue) used in this case was probably azurite, rather than ultramarine (which was more expensive than gold); I imagine its (azurite) cost would be more expensive than malachite (verde azuro),* as malachite was more abundant*; which is quoted in Huck's post as:

Per onze una de verde azuro ………………………………………L. 0. 6.

Azurite was most commonly used in tempera painting, and the mention of eggs suggests the cards were painted in tempera.

SteveM

* As an oxidized form of copper Azurite is found close together with Malachite (verde azuro), with a far greater abundance of Malachite to Azurite.

It was also more expensive than verdigris, as verdigris could be made artificially whereas azurite up until the 17th century was usually from natural mineral resources, so in term of cost from cheapest to most expensive was brazilwood (red) - verdigris (green) - azurite (blue). Both verdigris and azurite, being copper based (and in the case of verdigris, the acetic acid), would cause charring to paper and parchment over time and so limit the life of cards (unless laid between glazes of protective varnish, or mixed with saffron which would be cost prohibitive - especially for something by nature ephemeral).

*The modern cost of some artisan pigments/dyes from one supplier today (for 10 grams), which may give some idea of their relative values:

Azure (Ultramarine/Lapiz Lazuli) - $100
Azure (Azurite) - $45
Malachite - $15
Verdigris - $6.95
Brazilwood - $0.99
Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.
T. S. Eliot

Re: Pratesi 2014 on Bologna 1477, cards & triumphs

#20
Great work, I understand, that it was rather difficult to attempt a translation.

I just make a wild guess about the numbers.

It is spoken about 10 ducats as a sum, which has to be paid, if somebody falls out of contract ("sotto pena de ducati diexe").

10 ducats may be 40 or 50 Lira (as there were - possibly also in Bologna, but in Florence - different ducats). I speculate, that the lower ducat is meant.

We have the number 125 as a key value in the document. 125 decks lead to the salary of 5 Lira.

8x125 = 1000 decks (that's a quality of the number 125)

1000 (decks) lead to 8x5= 40 (Lira)

40 Lira = 10 ducats

After 6 months 250 decks shall be ready (at least), delivered (roughly) in packs of 50 for each month. A decision is done then, if the contract shall proceed further 12 months. If only 250 decks were delivered before, then 750 decks are expected for this.

In practice neither the commissioner (Bianchelli) nor the cardmaker (Bozzone) did know, if the deck would sell well. So they needed the 1/2 year for a further decision. Under the condition, that the business was good enough to be proceeded, a further commission was promised.

So the numbers make sense, but I'm not sure if the text agrees with that.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

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