Cesare Cantu / military cards 1559 for strategy ; th. -1377

#1
Cesare Cantu

... somewhere he must have been active with playing card history.

Worldcat
https://www.worldcat.org/search?qt=wc_o ... n2w=Search
... comes to c. 2100 entries

A German book critique in a newspaper 1855 (about 3 pages):
https://books.google.de/books?id=xXdEAA ... 69&f=false

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Most of this is known or known to be wrong, just old theories. I comment only a few points. A Venetian ship shall have brought playing cards to Europe (possibly a reference to Marco Polo). In Venice had been one of the first playing card fabrications (possibly indirectly suggested by the Venice document of 1441). The knight order of Calatrava shall have installed a prohibition of card playing in 1351 ... this is new to me, I even didn't know this order. The art of woodcut shall have been invented in Nuremberg between 1350 and 1369 ... I don't know, who had this theory before. I saw the same remark with the same strange years (1350/1369) in the writings of Schotel, who brought up the year 1362 in context of Jan van Blois. I assume, that Schotel took from the work of Cesare Cantu. The same info gives a dictionary article (Pierer 1845) ...
https://books.google.de/books?id=OeFkAA ... 69&f=false

Finally ... I needed a longer time ... I find the same article (95-98% a copy-paste) in ..
Allgemeine Weltgeschichte: Allgemeine Geschichte des Mittelalters ; Bd. 2, Band 6
Cesare Cantù, Johann August Moritz Brühl, Joseph Fehr, Johann Baptist Weiss, Cornelius Will
Hurter, 1852 - 1235 Seiten
https://books.google.de/books?id=gHBNAA ... 22&f=false

Well, the riddle still stays not solved. Who had these unknown ideas ...
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Cesare Cantu

#2
The dictionary article (Pierer 1845, later also in the Meyer dictionary 1852) is the earliest source, that I found. It gives references:

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https://books.google.de/books?id=OeFkAA ... tt&f=false

I don't suspect Breitkopf to have written this note with 1350 and 1369. The writer Thon is ...
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian ... tlieb_Thon
.. Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Thon, who had written a big group of technical books, which were evaluated as very good by specialists. An older book of him was from 1823 ..
"Neues geographisches Handelslexikon. Schmalkalden, 1823"
another "Vollständiges und ausführliches Waarenlexikon. 2 Bände. Weimar, 1832"
... one a dictionary about trade, and this was also topic to Hübsch, who mentioned early playing cards in Bohemia, the other another dictionary about the "Waaren" or Waren, which means the objects of trade.
Hübsch had the plan to write a dictionary about trade in the early 1440s himself, it's rather sure, that he knew this book and at least the name of the author.

Thon lived in Schwarza and in Erfurt, not very far from Bohemia and ...
"Nach einem Besuch in Karlsbad bereiste er einmal für einige Zeit Böhmen und reparierte in vielen Orten die Orgeln, wovon er gut leben konnte. 1838 verkaufte er sein Anwesen in Schwarza und zog nach Erfurt. Dort lebte er die letzten Jahre seines Lebens verarmt."
... he visited Karlsbad [Bohemia] and worked some time in Bohemia (before 1838) lived from repairing pipe organs.

I don't get the mentioned text from Thon, but the book is offered by a book-seller ..
http://www.zvab.com/Thon-Fabrikant-bunt ... 94985/buch
Title: Der Fabrikant bunter Papiere, oder: vollständige Anweisung alle bekannten Arten farbiger und bunter Papiere, namentlich: einfarbige ordinäre; einfarbige extraordinäre; einfarbige Postpapiere; Satinet- oder Atlaspapiere; Maroquin- und Saffianpapiere, einfarbige, und mehrfarbige Marmorpapiere; gesprenkelte oder porphyrartige Papiere; Gold- und Silberpapiere; sogenannte Kattunpapiere; Tapetenpapiere u. fabrikmäßig zu verfertigen vereinigt mit der Kunst, fabrizirte Papiertapeten geschmackvoll aufzuziehen, zu vergolden und zu lackiren.
Thon, Christian Friedrich Gottlieb.
Verlag: Druck und Verlag von Bernhard Friedrich Voigt,, Ilmenau,, 1826
Description:
Nachdruck der ersten Ausgabe in einer Auflage von 300 Exemplaren. Ilmenau, Druck und Verlag von Bernhard Friedrich Voigt, 1826 XXVI Bll., 292 Seiten. Gefalzte Bogen. Eines der seltensten und frühesten Werke zur Buntpapierherstellung. Während in alten Buchbinderfachbüchern den Buntpapieren nur kleine Kapitel zu gedacht waren, entfaltet Thon in diesem Buch die ganze Fülle der Buntpapierfabrikation des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts. Von der Ausstattung, den Gerätschaften und Werkzeugen einer Buntpapierwerkstatt über die verwendeten Materialien, Pigmente und Zusatzstoffe bis hin zu den genauen Anweisungen die verschiedensten Papiere herzustellen, versteht es Thon das gesamte Wissen der Buntpapierfabrikation der Zeit zusammenzufassen. Neben der Anleitung zum Herstellen der Buntpapiere ( Einfarbige Papiere, geglättete Papiere, gefärbte Postpapiere, Saffian- und Maroquinpapiere, lackirte Titelpapiere,guillochirte Papiere, gesprengte Papiere, Granitpapiere, glatte oder gemusterte Silber- oder Goldpapiere, Marmorpapiere, Kleisterpapiere, Herrenhuterpapiere, Kattunpapiere u.a.) beschreibt Thon allein 115 Materialien, Pigmente oder Zusatzstoffe nach Vorkommen, Herstellungsweise, Handelsform, Bezugsquellen und Anwendung in der Buntpapierfabrikation. Darüber hinaus werden in einem Zusatzkapitel eine Darstellung der Papiertapetenfabrikation geboten (Glatte -, kattunartige -, erhabene -, vergoldete -, versilberte - und velutierte Papiertapeten), das Aufziehen dieser Tapeten auf die Wände dargelegt und zahlreiche Firnissrezepte zum Schutz der Buntpapiere festgehalten.
The description doesn't address playing cards, but a lot of different papers. This was the first edition, the dictionary spoke of a book printed 1832 in Weimar (likely a second edition and possibly an expanded edition with something about playing cards). This latter added an "...und Karten" to the short "Der Fabrikant bunter Karten ..." in the title.

Studying Thon at worldcat:
Der Fabrikant bunter Papiere, oder: vollständige Anweisung, alle bekannten Arten farbiger und bunter Papiere ... : ein nützliches und nothwendiges Handbuch ...

Author: Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Thon
Publisher: Ilmenau : Voigt, 1832.
Series: Neuer Schauplatz der Künste und Handwerke, Bd. 25
Edition/Format: Print book : German : 2., verbesserte Aufl
This note speaks of a second edition, of a "verbesserte Aufl", which means an improved and changed edition. This was 1832, as in the dictionary, but not in Weimar, but in Ilmenau. This contradiction seems not relevant, as the publisher Voigt produced in Ilmenau and in Weimar.
Der Meister im Schachspiel : und zwar sowohl im gewöhnlichen Schach zu nur zwei als auch zu vier Personen auf zweierlei Art, so wie im großen Kriegs- und sogenannten Courierspiele nach alter und verbesserter Methode
by Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Thon
Publisher: Weimar Voigt 1840
He wrote also a chess book and had interest in variants and in the Courier game (!!!!). Hübsch also had shown a special interest in chess.

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Leischner, the other source, that the dictionary Pircher 1845 offered, ... it should be this:
Vollständige theoretisch-praktische Anleitung zur geschmackvollen und eleganten Verfertigung aller Arten Papparbeiten, als Toiletten, Etuis, Arbeitstaschen und Körbchen ... und einer Menge anderer Gegenstände. Nach den neuesten pariser Methoden und Modellen, ingleichen zur Pappen-und Spieklarten-Fabrikation ...
Author: Carl Ferdinand Leischner
Publisher: Ilmenau : Druck und Verlag von Bernh. Fr. Voigt, 1832.
... it's the same publisher as for Thon

I find an edition of 1841
http://digital.slub-dresden.de/werkansi ... 229/198/0/
The text for the playing cards with the info, that playing card production started in 1392 ... so it hardly will have told about 1350 and 1369. It's somehow inspired by a French text.

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The Meyer dictionary of 1852 also transports the years 1350 and 1369 in its Spielkarten articlel. It uses the same 3 sources as the Pircher dictionary 1845, so Thon, Leischner and Breitkopf, but Thon and Leischner are added to the technical production, and the historical part at the end of the article is finished by pointing to Breitkopf. I searched in the work of Breitkopf, it has occasionally a 1350 and a 1369, but not together and it is not recognizable, that Breitkopf wrote 1350 and 1369.
The Meyer article is far longer than the Pierer article and written much more careful.

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I find this

Handbuch der Erfindungen von Gabr. Christ. Benj. Busch, Bände 1-2
Gabriel Christoph Benjamin Busch
J.G.F. Wittekindt, 1802
https://books.google.de/books?id=CBIwAA ... en&f=false

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The book is about technological inventions, and the series has 12 volumes. It claims the year c. 1360 ["between 1350 and 1369" could have been an interpretation of "c. 1360"] for the printing technology of playing cards, but for more the article points to the article "Kartenspiel". I searched the volume, which contained the article Kartenspiel, which I found.

https://books.google.de/books?id=DRE0AQ ... el&f=false
pages 242-252

A part of the text:

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The article speaks of a period between 1350 and 1360, and it's clear, that it is an estimation, not more. Possibly from the 2 sources, that he quotes (I'm not sure, if I can solve that).

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At the end of my excerpt a military card deck is noted, which seems to be from 1559. I followed the reference and
detected this text:

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http://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de ... 00344.html

I'm still not sure, what this is.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Cesare Cantu / military cards 1559 for strategy

#3
For the military card game in 1559 I get the biography of Reinhard, count of Solms and Münzenberg, who died 1562.
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinhard_zu_Solms


One of these he shall have been. In 1559/1560 he published a book "Kriegsordnungen", somehow a chapter "Kartenspiel" is involved.

I found a complex pdf-file to this game with a biography to the author ...

Europe’s Earliest Kriegsspiel? Book Seven of Reinhard
Graf zu Solms’ Kriegsregierung and the ‘Prehistory’ of
Professional War Gaming
by JORIT WINTJES
Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg
http://bjmh.org.uk/index.php/bjmh/artic ... load/68/51

I don't attempt to explain it. The article has 33 pages, and it's English.

I found the book ... Chapter 7 Kartenspiel starts here ...
http://bildsuche.digitale-sammlungen.de ... &nav=&l=de

The cards are trivial, all sorts of possible objects, wagons, canons, troops ... if something is missing, one can produce cards with written names. The cards of the enemy have a red color. As it seems, the cards just serve the intention to imitate future battles in preparation discussions. And to explain the plans of war to the lower commanders.

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As I understand it, the cards were practically used before 1559. The year 1559 had established peace between the long-time opponents France and Habsburg and perhaps one had decided to speak open about this "secret weapon".

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The missing references for the 1350 - 1369 question:

... no chance. One is a book of Murr, but Murr doesn't tell something like this.
http://reader.digitale-sammlungen.de/de ... 00702.html
The other reference can't be identified.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: Cesare Cantu / Knight Order of Calatrava

#4
Cesare Cantu had declared, that the knight order of Calatrava prohibited cards in 1351.

Spanish wiki, article Barajas
Derecho eclesiástico y órdenes[editar]
Parece que no había prohibición expresa al hábito religioso, pero si taxativamente prohibido jugar por intención de pecunia y nunca recomendado como pasatiempo de religiosos. Las órdenes militares de caballería legislan el juego de los naipes a sus caballeros y en sus conventos. La de Santiago en 1567, la de Calatrava en 1568, Montesa también los legisla en 1573, Alcántara en 1576.
Knight Order of Clatrava
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Calatrava

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In the French edition of Cesare Cantu's history I find, that the order of the knights of Calatrava prohibited cards in 1331. So: either 1331 or 1351 was that, what Cesare Cantu wrote in Italian language.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

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